Congressional Research Service Reports - 98 Matching Results

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The North Korean Nuclear Challenge: Military Options and Issues for Congress
This report discusses the North Korean nuclear threat and possible military options the U.S. could use to reduce or eliminate the threat. The report begins with a brief overview of the situation, nuclear capabilities of North Korea, and effects military action would have on the region and its stability. Seven military related options are discussed along with possible issues of interest to Congress.
Redeploying U.S. Nuclear Weapons to South Korea: Background and Implications in Brief
This report provides background information on the deployment of nuclear weapon systems in South Korea in the past, explores the options that might be available for the redeployment of nuclear weapons to South Korea now to deter the North Korean threat, and discusses the potential implications of doing so for South Korea, North Korea, Japan, and the U.S.
North Korean Cyber Capabilities: In Brief
This report discusses how as North Korea has accelerated its missile and nuclear programs in spite of international sanctions, Congress and the Trump Administration have elevated North Korea to a top U.S. foreign policy priority. Legislation such as the North Korea Sanctions and Policy Enhancement Act of 2016 (P.L. 114-122) and international sanctions imposed by the United Nations Security Council have focused on North Korea's WMD and ballistic missile programs and human rights abuses. North Korea's cyberattacks have the potential not only to disrupt international commerce, but to direct resources to its clandestine weapons and delivery system programs, potentially enhancing its ability to evade international sanctions. This report will provide a brief summary of what unclassified open-source reporting has revealed about the secretive program, introduce four case studies in which North Korean operators are suspected of having perpetrated malicious operations, and provide an overview of the international finance messaging service that these hackers may be exploiting.
China's February 2017 Suspension of North Korean Coal Imports
This report discusses China's suspension of coal trade with North Korea for the remainder of 2017 which keeps China in compliance with an UN agreement to limit coal buying from North Korea that was implemented in November 2016 in response to continued nuclear tests by North Korea. Coal's value as an export to North Korea, China's trade with North Korea, quantities of coal and its value that was imported into China in 2016 and 2017, and possible reasons and implications for China's decision are discussed.
Why Did March 2016 U.N. Sanctions Not Curb China's Imports of Coal from North Korea?
This report discusses the Resolution 2270 adopted by United Nations Security Council (UNSCR 2270), imposing new sanctions on North Korea in response to the country's fourth nuclear test.
Why Did March 2016 U.N. Sanctions Not Curb China's Imports of Coal from North Korea?
This report discusses sanctions on North Korea in response to the country's fourth nuclear test and China's imports of coal from North Korea.
Iran-North Korea-Syria Ballistic Missile and Nuclear Cooperation
This report describes the key elements of a nuclear weapons program; explains the available information regarding cooperation among Iran, North Korea, and Syria on ballistic missiles and nuclear technology; and discusses some specific issues for Congress.
Iran-North Korea-Syria Ballistic Missile and Nuclear Cooperation
This report describes the key elements of a nuclear weapons program; explains the available information regarding cooperation among Iran, North Korea, and Syria on ballistic missiles and nuclear technology; and discusses some specific issues for Congress.
The Shutdown of the Joint North/South Korean Kaesong Industrial Complex
This report briefly discusses the South Korean government's decision to shut down the Kaesong Industrial Complex (KIC), which is an 11-year-old industrial park located in North Korea just across the demilitarized zone where more than 120 South Korean manufacturers employed over 50,000 North Korean workers.
Legislative Actions to Repeal, Defund, or Delay the Affordable Care Act
This report covers the overall relationship between the U.S. and North Korea, with an emphasis on nuclear diplomacy.
North Korea's January 6, 2016, Nuclear Test
This report provides a brief background about North Korea's announcement that it successfully tested a "hydrogen bomb" (its fourth nuclear test) on January 6, 2016. The official statement also called the device an experimental or "pilot H-bomb."
North Korea: U.S. Relations, Nuclear Diplomacy, and Internal Situation
This report covers the overall U.S.-North Korea relationship, with an emphasis on nuclear diplomacy. Negotiations over North Korea's nuclear weapons program have occupied the past three U.S. administrations, even as some analysts anticipated a collapse of the isolated authoritarian regime. North Korea has been the recipient of over $1 billion in U.S. aid (though none since 2009) and the target of dozens of U.S. sanctions.
Ballistic Missile Defense in the Asia-Pacific Region: Cooperation and Opposition
This report presents background information and discusses potential issues for Congress relating to U.S. ballistic missile defense (BMD) efforts in the Asia-Pacific region. These efforts pose several potential policy, funding, and oversight issues for Congress. Decisions that Congress makes on these issues could affect U.S. defense funding requirements and military capabilities, and U.S. relations with countries in the Asia Pacific region, including China, Japan, South Korea, North Korea, and Australia.
North Korea: Back on the State Sponsors of Terrorism Lists?
This report discusses questions about North Korea's relationship with terrorists, state sponsors of terrorism, and terrorist attacks as well as the possible implications on re-designating North Korea in the list of sponsors of terrorism.
North Korea: Legislative Basis for U.S. Economic Sanctions
This report discusses the economic sanctions the United States imposes on North Korea for activities related to weapons proliferation, destabilizing the region, anti-terrorism, and undemocratic governance.
North Korea: U.S. Relations, Nuclear Diplomacy, and Internal Situation
North Korea has presented one of the most vexing and persistent problems in U.S. foreign policy in the post-Cold War period. The United States has never had formal diplomatic relations with the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (the official name for North Korea), although contact at a lower level has ebbed and flowed over the years. Negotiations over North Korea's nuclear weapons program have occupied the past three U.S. administrations, even as some analysts anticipated a collapse of the isolated authoritarian regime. North Korea has been the recipient of over $1 billion in U.S. aid (though none since 2009) and the target of dozens of U.S. sanctions. This report covers the overall U.S.-North Korea relationship, with an emphasis on nuclear diplomacy.
Iran-North Korea-Syria Ballistic Missile and Nuclear Cooperation
This report describes the key elements of a nuclear weapons program; explains the available information regarding cooperation among Iran, North Korea, and Syria on ballistic missiles and nuclear technology; and discusses some specific issues for Congress.
Foreign Assistance to North Korea
This report provides background and discusssion regarding United States aid in food, energy, and denuclearization to North Korea. Currently plans for new aid are on hold due to the North Korean rocket launch on April 13, 2012.
North Korea: U.S. Relations, Nuclear Diplomacy, and Internal Situation
This report provides background information on the negotiations over North Korea's nuclear weapons program that began in the early 1990s under the Clinton Administration. As U.S. policy toward Pyongyang evolved through the George W. Bush and Obama presidencies, the negotiations moved from mostly bilateral to the multilateral Six-Party Talks (made up of China, Japan, Russia, North Korea, South Korea, and the United States).
North Korea: U.S. Relations, Nuclear Diplomacy, and Internal Situation
This report provides background information on the negotiations over North Korea's nuclear weapons program that began in the early 1990s under the Clinton Administration. As U.S. policy toward Pyongyang evolved through the George W. Bush and Obama presidencies, the negotiations moved from mostly bilateral to the multilateral Six-Party Talks (made up of China, Japan, Russia, North Korea, South Korea, and the United States).
North Korea: U.S. Relations, Nuclear Diplomacy, and Internal Situation
This report provides background information on the negotiations over North Korea's nuclear weapons program that began in the early 1990s under the Clinton Administration. As U.S. policy toward Pyongyang evolved through the George W. Bush presidency and into the Obama Administration, the negotiations moved from mostly bilateral to the multilateral Six-Party Talks (made up of China, Japan, Russia, North Korea, South Korea, and the United States).
North Korea's Nuclear Weapons: Technical Issues
This report summarizes what is known from open sources about the North Korean nuclear weapons program — including weapons-usable fissile material and warhead estimates — and assesses current developments in achieving denuclearization.
Nuclear Weapons R&D Organizations in Nine Nations
This report describes the organizations controlling research and development (R&D) on nuclear weapons (i.e., nuclear explosive devices, as distinct from the bombers and missiles that carry them) in these nations, and presents a brief history of the organizations controlling nuclear weapons R&D in the United States. It discusses whether these organizations are civilian or military, though in many nations the lines between civilian and military are blurred.
North Korea's Nuclear Weapons: Technical Issues
This report summarizes what is known from open sources about the North Korean nuclear weapons program — including weapons-usable fissile material and warhead estimates — and assesses current developments in achieving denuclearization.
North Korea: U.S. Relations, Nuclear Diplomacy, and Internal Situation
This report provides background information on the negotiations over North Korea's nuclear weapons program that began in the early 1990s under the Clinton Administration. As U.S. policy toward Pyongyang evolved through the George W. Bush presidency and into the Obama Administration, the negotiations moved from mostly bilateral to the multilateral Six-Party Talks (made up of China, Japan, Russia, North Korea, South Korea, and the United States).
Foreign Assistance to North Korea
Should the United States resume food, energy, and/or denuclearization assistance to North Korea? This is the major issue facing Congress in considering the provision of aid to Pyongyang. The U.S. has provided food aid and energy assistance in the past. Currently plans for new aid is on hold due to the North Korean rocket launch on April 13, 2012.
Foreign Assistance to North Korea
Report discussing whether or not the United States should resume food, energy, and/or denuclearization assistance to North Korea. This is the major issue facing Congress in considering the provision of aid to Pyongyang. The U.S. has provided food aid and energy assistance in the past. Currently plans for new aid is on hold due to the North Korean rocket launch on April 13, 2012.
North Korea's Nuclear Weapons: Technical Issues
This report summarizes what is known from open sources about the North Korean nuclear weapons program - including weapons-usable fissile material and warhead estimates - and assesses current developments in achieving denuclearization.
Kim Jong-Il's Death: Implications for North Korea's Stability and U.S. Policy
This report discusses U.S. policy in relation to North Korea following the death of Kim Jong-Il. North Korea represents one of the United States' biggest foreign policy challenges due to its production and proliferation of nuclear weapons and missiles, the threat of attacks against South Korea, its record of human rights abuses, and the possibility that its internal problems could destabilize Northeast Asia.
Kim Jong-il's Death: Implications for North Korea's Stability and U.S. Policy
This report discusses the status of North Korea following the death of Kim Jong-il with an analysis of the stability of North Korea as well as a discussion of the implications and options for the United States.
North Korea: U.S. Relations, Nuclear Diplomacy, and Internal Situation
This report provides background information on the negotiations over North Korea's nuclear weapons program that began in the early 1990s under the Clinton Administration. As U.S. policy toward Pyongyang evolved through the George W. Bush presidency and into the Obama Administration, the negotiations moved from mostly bilateral to the multilateral Six-Party Talks (made up of China, Japan, Russia, North Korea, South Korea, and the United States).
Imports from North Korea: Existing Rules, Implications of the KORUS FTA, and the Kaesong Industrial Complex
This report examines the issue of U.S. imports from North Korea in three parts: U.S. rules and practices governing imports from North Korea. North Korea's exports to South Korea (via the KIC) and China, its dominant export markets. The KORUS FTA's potential effect on U.S. imports of North Korean content.
North Korea: Legislative Basis for U.S. Economic Sanctions
This report discusses the economic sanctions the United States imposes on North Korea for activities related to weapons proliferation, destabilizing the region, anti-terrorism, and undemocratic governance.
The Kaesong North-South Korean Industrial Complex
This purpose of this report is to provide an overview of the role, purposes, and results of the Kaesong Industrial Complex (KIC) in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK or North Korea) and examine U.S. interests, policy issues, options, and legislation.
Non-Governmental Organizations’ Activities in North Korea
This report looks at the activities and effectiveness of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) - non-profit, charitable institutions - in the lives of ordinary North Koreans. The role of NGOs in North Korea may re-emerge as a congressional interest, as the Obama Administration has expressed interest in restarting humanitarian assistance to North Korea.
The Kaesong North-South Korean Industrial Complex
This purpose of this report is to provide an overview of the role, purposes, and results of the Kaesong Industrial Complex (KIC) in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK or North Korea) and examine U.S. interests, policy issues, options, and legislation.
Nuclear Weapons R&D Organizations in Nine Nations
This report describes the organizations controlling research and development (R&D) on nuclear weapons in several nations, and presents a brief history of the organizations controlling nuclear weapons R&D in the United States. It discusses whether these organizations are civilian or military, though in many nations the lines between civilian and military are blurred.
North Korea's Nuclear Weapons: Technical Issues
This report summarizes what is known from open sources about the North Korean nuclear weapons program - including weapons-usable fissile material and warhead estimates - and assesses current developments in achieving denuclearization.
China-North Korea Relations
This report provides a brief survey of China-North Korea relations, assesses China's objectives and actions, and raises policy issues for the United States.
North Korea's 2009 Nuclear Test: Containment, Monitoring, Implications
This report discusses the implications of North Korea's May 25, 2009, underground nuclear test, related issues such as the the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), containment of radioactive materials, and other concerns for Congress, such as improving nuclear monitoring capability.
North Korea: U.S. Relations, Nuclear Diplomacy, and Internal Situation
Although the primary focus of U.S. policy toward North Korea is the nuclear weapons program, there are a host of other issues, which this report explores through an overview of the U.S.-North Korea relationship, including an emphasis on the diplomacy of the Six-Party Talks. Please refer to the list at the end of this report for the full list of CRS reports focusing on other North Korean issues.
North Korea: Legislative Basis for U.S. Economic Sanctions
This report discusses the economic sanctions the United States imposes on North Korea for activities related to weapons proliferation, destabilizing the region, anti-terrorism, and undemocratic governance.
Iran: U.S. Concerns and Policy Responses
Much of the debate over U.S. policy toward Iran has centered on the nature of the current regime; some believe that Iran, a country of about 70 million people, is a threat to U.S. interests because hardliners in Iran's regime dominate and set a policy direction intended to challenge U.S. influence and allies in the region. President George W. Bush, in his January 29, 2002, State of the Union message, labeled Iran part of an "axis of evil" along with Iraq and North Korea.
The Kaesong North-South Korean Industrial Complex
This purpose of this report is to provide an overview of the role, purposes, and results of the Kaesong Industrial Complex (KIC) in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK or North Korea) and examine U.S. interests, policy issues, options, and legislation.
North Korea: U.S. Relations, Nuclear Diplomacy, and Internal Situation
This report provides background information on the nuclear negotiations over North Korea's nuclear weapons program that began in the early 1990s under the Clinton Administration. It also provides information on other concerns that the U.S. has with North Korea, and discusses U.S. engagement activities with North Korea.
North Korea: Back on the Terrorism List?
This report describes the rationales for including North Korea on the terrorism list from 1987- 2008, for North Korea's delisting in 2008, and the debate in 2010 over whether to re-list North Korea.
North Korea's Second Nuclear Test: Implications of U.N. Security Council Resolution 1874
This report discusses North Korea's second nuclear test and the implications of U.N. Security Council Resolution 1874. The resolution puts in place a series of sanctions on North Korea's arms sales, luxury goods, and financial transactions related to its weapons programs, and calls upon states to inspect North Korean vessels suspected of carrying such shipments.
North Korea's 2009 Nuclear Test: Containment, Monitoring, Implications
This report discusses the implications of North Korea's May 25, 2009, underground nuclear test, related issues such as the the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), containment of radioactive materials, and other concerns for Congress, such as improving nuclear monitoring capability.
Foreign Assistance to North Korea
This report summarizes U.S. assistance to the Democratic People's Republic of North Korea (DPRK, also known as North Korea). It will be updated periodically to track changes in U.S. provision of aid to North Korea.
Foreign Assistance to North Korea
This report summarizes U.S. energy, food and medical assistance to the Democratic People's Republic of North Korea (DPRK, also known as North Korea).