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The Budget Control Act: Frequently Asked Questions
This report addresses several frequently-asked questions related to the Budget Control Act of 2011 (BCA) and the annual budget.
Monetary Policy and the Federal Reserve: Current Policy and Conditions
This report provides an overview of monetary policy and recent developments. It discusses issues for Congress, including transparency and proposals to change the Federal Reserve's (Fed's) mandate, and ends with a brief overview of the Fed's regulatory responsibilities.
Out of Breath: Military Aircraft Oxygen Issues
This report discusses hypoxia, caused by lack of oxygen, which has affected pilots of F-22, F/A-18, and T-45 aircraft in recent years.
Navy Ford (CVN-78) Class Aircraft Carrier Program: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and potential oversight issues for Congress on the Gerald R. Ford (CVN-78) class aircraft carrier program. The Navy's proposed FY2017 budget requests a total of $2,662.6 million in procurement and advance procurement (AP) funding for CVN-79 and CVN-80, the second and third ships in the program.
Cyprus: Reunification Proving Elusive
This report provides a brief overview of the history of the negotiations between Greek and Turkish Cypriot leaders, a review of the negotiations since 2008, and a description of some of the issues involved in the talks.
Dakota Access Pipeline: Siting Controversy
This report discusses the Dakota Access Pipeline including background on the project and information about siting approval, as well as opposition and litigation against the pipeline.
Finding Quotes for Speeches: Fact Sheet
This report provides sources for finding quotes. The resources are divided into three categories: (1) General Quotations, (2) Americana, and (3) Religion.
Violence Against Members of Congress and Their Staff: A Brief Overview
This report discusses questions about the personal security and safety of Members of Congress and their staffs.
Comparing DHS Component Funding, FY2017: Fact Sheet
This report provides figures that show total net discretionary appropriations for Department of Homeland Security (DHS) broken down by component, and ordered from largest to smallest by FY2016 enacted funding level.
Defining Readiness: Background and Issues for Congress
This report discusses how differing uses of the term "readiness" affect congressional debate, but does not evaluate the current state of the U.S. military or provide a conclusive definition of readiness. It also considers how the different uses of the term readiness relate to certain issues: Is there a readiness crisis? What should the U.S. military be ready for? How should readiness be measured? How does the FY2018 budget request affect the U.S. military's readiness?
Effects of Buy America on Transportation Infrastructure and U.S. Manufacturing: Policy Options
This report begins by explaining Buy America restrictions in more detail. It describes how Buy America comports with international trade agreements that generally forbid procurement restrictions favoring domestic products; and how a relatively new provision enacted by Congress may require imports of materials on federally-funded transportation projects to be carried on U.S.-flag ships. The report identifies policy options Congress might consider in light of recent legislative proposals.
The Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States (CFIUS)
This report discusses the Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States (CFIUS) comprising nine members, two ex officio members, and other members as appointed by the President representing major departments and agencies within the federal executive branch. While the group generally has operated in relative obscurity, the proposed acquisition of commercial operations at six U.S. ports by Dubai Ports World in 2006 placed the group's operations under intense scrutiny by Members of Congress and the public.
Congress Faces Calls to Address Expiring Funds for Primary Care
This report discusses programs focused on expanding access to primary care services for populations that are typically underserved.
The New START Treaty: Central Limits and Key Provisions
This report provides an overview of the New Strategic Arms Reductions Treaty (START). The Obama Administration and outside analysts argue that New START strengthens strategic stability and enhances U.S. national security. Critics, however, question whether the treaty serves U.S. national security interests.
Energy and Water Development Appropriations for Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation: In Brief
This report discusses the Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation (DNN) programs, which was reorganized starting with the FY2016 request.
The Financial CHOICE Act (H.R. 10) and the Dodd- Frank Act
This report discusses the Financial CHOICE Act of 2017 (H.R. 10), a bill that was passed by the House on June 8, 2017.
The ACA Prevention and Public Health Fund: In Brief
This report provides background information on the Affordable Care Act (ACA) and discusses the authority and funding distributions.
FY2018 Defense Budget Request: The Basics
This report discusses the federal budget request for fiscal year (FY) 2018 released by the Trump Administration on May 23, 2017.
Juneteenth: Fact Sheet
This report describes Juneteenth (also known as Emancipation Day, Juneteenth Independence Day, and Black Independence Day), which celebrates the end of slavery in the United States.
What is the Proposed U.S.-EU Insurance Covered Agreement?
This report discusses the first insurance covered agreement between the United States and European Union (EU) that concluded on January 13, 2017.
Air Force B-21 Raider Long-Range Strike Bomber
This report discusses the development of a new long-range bomber aircraft, the B-21 Raider (previously known as LRS-B), and proposes to acquire at least 100 of them.
Special Counsels, Independent Counsels, and Special Prosecutors: Options for Independent Executive Investigations
This report analyzes the use of special prosecutors and independent counsels that were authorized under now-expired provisions of the Ethics in Government Act of 1978, as well as the use of special counsels that are currently authorized by Department of Justice (DOJ) regulations. It also addresses constitutional considerations in establishing independent inquiries to address perceived conflicts of interest between investigating officials and the officials being investigated.
President John F. Kennedy Assassination Records Collection: Toward Final Disclosure of Withheld Records in October 2017
This report discusses the President John F. Kennedy Assassination Records Collection Act of 1992 (JFK Records Act).
The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
This report provides an overview of North American trade liberalization before NAFTA, an overview of NAFTA provisions, the economic effects of NAFTA, and policy considerations.
President's FY2018 Budget Proposes Cuts in Public Health Service (PHS) Agency Funding
This report outlines the significant reductions in funding for the Public Health Service (PHS) proposed by the President's FY2018 budget.
Selected Federal Water Activities: Agencies, Authorities, and Congressional Committees
The report focuses on the complexity of federal activities related to water, based on four general topics: (1) "Water Resources Development, Management, and Use"; (2) "Water Quality, Protection, and Restoration"; (3) "Water Rights and Allocation"; and (4) "Research and Planning." It aims to serve as a guide to federal water-related activities, including the administering agency (or agencies), the primary or overarching authorities for such activities, and House and Senate committee jurisdictions.
Department of Veterans Affairs FY2017 Appropriations
This report provides an overview of Veterans Affairs (VA) appropriations. The VA provides a range of benefits and services to veterans and eligible dependents who meet certain criteria as authorized by law.
U.S.-South Korea Relations
This report contains two main parts: a section describing recent events and a longer background section on key elements of the U.S.-South Korea relationship. It also provides a list of CRS products on South Korea and North Korea. The report identifies South Korean individuals by using their last name first.
The United States Withdraws from the TPP
This report discusses discusses the withdrawal of the United States as a signatory from the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) agreement as directed by President Trump.
21st Century U.S. Energy Sources: A Primer
This report provides an overview of U.S. energy issues, and it serves as an initial resource document for related information, data, and CRS contacts. It is mainly organized around the major fuels and energy sources used in the United States and also highlights the role of the federal government, particularly the use of federal lands in energy production.
Additional Troops for Afghanistan? Considerations for Congress
This report discusses the possibility of a proposal by the Trump Administration to deploy additional ground forces to Afghanistan and somewhat broaden their mission.
Federal Health Centers: An Overview
This report provides an overview of the federal Health Center Program, including its statutory authority, program requirements, and appropriation levels. It also describes federal programs available to assist health center operations, including the federally-qualified health center (FQHC) designation for Medicare and Medicaid payments, and concludes with two appendices that describe FQHC payments for Medicare and Medicaid beneficiaries.
Maritime Territorial and Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) Disputes Involving China: Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on maritime territorial and exclusive economic zone (EEZ) disputes in the East China (ECS) and South China Sea (SCS) involving China, with a focus on how these disputes may affect U.S. strategic and policy interests.
NATO Funding and Burdensharing
This report discusses the the relative imbalance in defense spending and military capabilities within the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), which has long fueled concerns about burdensharing and European allies' reliance on U.S. defense guarantees.
North American Free Trade Agreement: Notification for Renegotiation
This report discusses the fate of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) after the Trump Administration sent a 90-day notification to Congress of its intent to begin talks with Canada and Mexico to renegotiate NAFTA.
A Shift in the International Security Environment: Potential Implications for Defense--Issues for Congress
This report briefly describes the shift in the international security environment that some observers believe has occurred, and identifies some defense-related issues for Congress that could arise from it. Congress's decisions on these issues could have significant implications for U.S. defense capabilities and funding requirements.
Buying American: Protecting U.S. Manufacturing Through the Berry and Kissell Amendments
This report discusses the Berry and Kissell amendments, two separate but closely-related laws requiring that certain goods purchased by national security agencies be produced in the United States.
Fact Sheet: FY2017 National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) DOD Reform Proposals
This report discusses information on extant Department of Defense (DOD) reform proposals being considered during the FY2017 National Defense Authorization Act debates. It includes key provisions incorporated in H.R. 4909, the FY2017 National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) reported by the House Armed Services Committee on May 4, 2016 (H.Rept. 114-537), and S. 2943, the FY2017 National Defense Authorization Act reported by the Senate Armed Services Committee on May 18, 2016 (S.Rept. 114-255).
The Protection of Classified Information: The Legal Framework
This report provides an overview of the relationship between executive and legislative authority over national security information, and summarizes the current laws that form the legal framework protecting classified information -- including current executive orders and some agency regulations pertaining to the handling of unauthorized disclosures of classified information by government officers and employees. The report also summarizes criminal laws that pertain specifically to the unauthorized disclosure of classified information, as well as civil and administrative penalties, and some recent developments.
The Radiation Exposure Compensation Act (RECA): Compensation Related to Exposure to Radiation from Atomic Weapons Testing and Uranium Mining
This report discusses the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act (RECA), which provides one-time benefit payments to persons who may have developed cancer or other specified diseases after being exposed to radiation from atomic weapons testing or uranium mining, milling, or transporting.
OPEC and Non-OPEC Crude Oil Production Agreement: Compliance Status
This report discusses the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries' (OPEC's) influence on global oil prices through coordinated production decisions that can impact the global oil market supply and demand balance.
Presidential Transitions: Issues Involving Outgoing and Incoming Administrations
This report discusses issues surrounding the transition of Presidential power, including the variety of events, decisions, and activities.
What is the Proposed U.S.-EU Insurance Covered Agreement?
This report discusses the United States and European Union (EU) negotiations on the first insurance covered agreement.
China Naval Modernization: Implications for U.S. Navy Capabilities--Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on China's naval modernization effort and its implications for U.S. Navy capabilities. The issue for Congress is how the U.S. Navy should respond to China's military modernization effort, particularly its naval modernization effort.
The Net Neutrality Debate: Access to Broadband Networks
This report discusses the current debate over "net neutrality." While there is no single accepted definition of "net neutrality," most agree that any such definition should include the general principles that owners of the networks that compose and provide access to the Internet should not control how consumers lawfully use that network, and they should not be able to discriminate against content provider access to that network.
Central Valley Project Operations: Background and Legislation
This report provides an abbreviated background on the Central Valley Project (CVP) and State Water Project (SWP). It also provides a summary of recent hydrologic conditions in California and their effect on water deliveries.
Navy Virginia (SSN-774) Class Attack Submarine Procurement: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on the Virginia-class nuclear-powered attack submarine (SSN) program.
Advanced Pilot Training (T-X) Program: Background and Issues for Congress
This report discusses the Advanced Pilot Training (T-X) aircraft, which may shift training from Field Training Units, where expensive fifth-generation aircraft are used, to less expensive trainer aircraft.
H.R. 1628: The American Health Care Act (AHCA)
This report provides an overview of the American Health Care Act (AHCA) provisions organized into three tables. Table 1 includes provisions that apply to the private health insurance market, Table 2 includes provisions that affect the Medicaid program, and Table 3 includes provisions related to public health and taxes. Each table contains a column identifying whether the AHCA provision is related to an ACA provision (e.g., whether it repeals an ACA-related provision).
Qatar: Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy
This report provides a brief history of the state of Qatar, discussing its governance and human rights. The report also includes U.S.-Qatari defense and security cooperation and economic issues.