Congressional Research Service Reports - 1,084 Matching Results

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Military Aviation: Issues and Options for Combating Terrorism and Counterinsurgency
No Description Available.
The Department of Defense Rules for Military Commissions: Analysis of Procedural Rules and Comparison with Proposed Legislation and the Uniform Code of Military Justice
This report provides a background and analysis comparing military commissions as envisioned under M.C.O. No. 1 to general military courts-martial conducted under the UCMJ. The report notes some of the criticism directed at the President’s M.O., and explains how those concerns are addressed by the military commission orders and instructions. The report provides two charts to compare the regulations issued by the Department of Defense and standard procedures for general courts-martial under the Manual for Courts-Martial. The second chart, which compares procedural safeguards incorporated in the regulations with established procedures in courts martial, follows the same order and format used in CRS Report RL31262, Selected Procedural Safeguards in Federal, Military, and International Courts, in order to facilitate comparison with safeguards provided in federal court and the International Criminal Court.
Latin America: Terrorism Issues
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U.S. Treatment of Prisoners in Iraq: Selected Legal Issues
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Treatment of "Battlefield Detainees" in the War on Terrorism
No Description Available.
Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act: Selected Legislation from the 108th Congress
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War On Drugs: Legislation in the 108th Congress and Related Developments
This report covers significant legislative and oversight activities of the 108th Congress that concern domestic law enforcement aspects of federal anti-drug policy. It also includes an overview of significant executive branch actions and other current developments of likely interest to the congressional audience that follows this issue.
Capital Punishment: An Overview of Federal Death Penalty Statutes
With the passage of P.L. 103-322, the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994, the federal death penalty became available as a possible punishment for a substantial number of new and existing civilian offenses. On April 24, 1996, the Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996 made further modifications and additions to the list of federal capital crimes. On June 25, 2002, P.L. 107-197, the Terrorist Bombings Convention Implementation Act of 2002, added another capital crime to the United States Code. The Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004, P.L. 108-458, enacted December 17, 2004, included provisions which impacted or expanded some of the existing death penalty provisions. This report lists the current federal capital offenses and summarizes the procedures for federal civilian death penalty cases.
Clean Water Act and Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) of Pollutants
Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act requires states to identify waters that are impaired by pollution, even after application of pollution controls. For those waters, states must establish a total maximum daily load (TMDL) of pollutants to ensure that water quality standards can be attained. Implementation of this provision has been dormant until recently, when states and EPA were prodded by numerous lawsuits. The TMDL issue has become controversial, in part because of requirements and costs now facing states to implement a 25-year-old provision of the law. Congressional activity to reauthorize the Act, a possibility in the 2nd Session of the 105th Congress, could include TMDL issues, but the direction for any such action is unclear at this time.
Terrorism and National Security: Issues and Trends
No Description Available.
Defense Cleanup and Environmental Programs: Authorization and Appropriations for FY2005
This report provides background information on each defense-related environmental program, discusses key funding issues, and examines relevant provisions in authorization legislation and appropriations for FY2005.
Terrorism in South Asia
No Description Available.
Homeland Security: 9/11 Victim Relief Funds
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Andean Counterdrug Initiative (ACI) and Related Funding Programs: FY2005 Assistance
This report discusses the funds and material support the U.S. has contributed to help Colombia and the Andean region fight drug trafficking since the development of Plan Colombia in 1999.
Port and Maritime Security: Potential for Terrorist Nuclear Attack Using Oil Tankers
No Description Available.
Immigration Consequences of Criminal Activity
No Description Available.
Guarding America: Security Guards and U.S. Critical Infrastructure Protection
No Description Available.
Mexico's Counter-Narcotics Efforts under Fox, December 2000 to October 2004
No Description Available.
RICO: An Abridged Sketch
This report discusses the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organization (RICO) provisions enacted by Congress as part of the Organized Crime Control Act of 1970.
Juvenile Delinquents and Federal Criminal Law: The Federal Juvenile Delinquency Act and Related Matters
No Description Available.
Homeland Security: Protecting Airliners from Terrorist Missiles
No Description Available.
Sudan: The Darfur Crisis and the Status of the North-South Negotiations
No Description Available.
Botswana: The San (Bushmen) Rights Case
This report discusses the case of San people of Botswana against the government of Botswana.
Drug Control: International Policy and Approaches
Over the past decade, worldwide production of illicit drugs has risen dramatically: opium and marijuana production has roughly doubled and coca production tripled. Street prices of cocaine and heroin have fallen significantly in the past 20 years, reflecting increased availability. Despite apparent national political resolve to deal with the drug problem, inherent contradictions regularly appear between U.S. anti-drug policy and other national policy goals and concerns. The mix of competing domestic and international pressures and priorities has produced an ongoing series of disputes within and between the legislative and executive branches concerning U.S. international drug policy. One contentious issue has been the Congressionally-mandated certification process, an instrument designed to induce specified drug-exporting countries to prioritize or pay more attention to the fight against narcotics businesses.
DNA Testing for Law Enforcement: Legislative Issues for Congress
DNA evidence is a powerful forensic tool in criminal cases. Its use and capabilities have increased substantially since it was first introduced in the late 1980s. That growth has led to the emergence of the following issues that were considered by the 106th Congress in legislative initiatives: eliminating the nationwide backlog of unanalyzed DNA samples, expanding the kinds of offenders who are profiled, providing opportunities for post-conviction testing of DNA evidence, and continuing development of forensic science capabilities. This report discusses those and related issues and the legislation proposed and enacted to address them. It begins by describing provisions in prior federal law and then discusses issues and the legislation proposed, including the enacted DNA Analysis Backlog Elimination Act of 2000 (H.R. 4640, which became P.L. 106-546).
War on Drugs: Legislation in the 108th Congress and Related Developments
No Description Available.
Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act: Selected Legislation from the 108th Congress
No Description Available.
Gun Control Legislation in the 108th Congress
No Description Available.
Standards For Retroactive Application Based Upon Groundbreaking Supreme Court Decisions in Criminal Law
This report discusses the Supreme Court decision to announce the “new rule”, supreme courts decision that addresses an issue of law in a new way or for the first time. In criminal law new rules apply prospectively, but they also apply retroactively sometimes.
The Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act: An Overview of the Statutory Framework and Recent Judicial Decisions
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Nuclear Terrorism: A Brief Review of Threats and Responses
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Lawfulness of Interrogation Techniques under the Geneva Conventions
No Description Available.
Privacy: Key Recommendations of the 9/11 Commission
No Description Available.
Terrorism in Southeast Asia
No Description Available.
Terrorism: Key Recommendations of the 9/11 Commission and Recent Major Commissions and Inquiries
No Description Available.
Removing Terrorist Sanctuaries: The 9/11 Commission Recommendations and U.S. Policy
No Description Available.
Proposed Change to the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) under S. 113
This report discusses S. 113, a bill to extend the coverage of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act ("FISA") to non-U.S. persons who engage in international terrorism or activities in preparation for terrorist acts, without a showing of membership in or affiliation with an international terrorist group.
Terrorism in South Asia
No Description Available.
Violence Against Women Act: History, Federal Funding, and Reauthorizing Legislation
This report discusses the Violence Against Women Act (VAWA) of 2000 which reauthorized most of the original act’s programs and created new grant programs to prevent sexual assaults on campuses, assist victims of violence with civil legal concerns, create transitional housing for victims of domestic abuse (administered by HHS), and enhance protections for elderly and disabled victims of domestic violence. VAWA 2000, also, created a pilot program for safe custody exchange for families of domestic violence.
Military Tribunals: Historical Patterns and Lessons
No Description Available.
Internet: Status Report on Legislative Attempts to Protect Children from Unsuitable Material on the Web
No Description Available.
Terrorism and National Security: Issues and Trends
No Description Available.
Obscenity and Indecency: Constitutional Principles and Federal Statutes
No Description Available.
Obscenity, Child Pornography, and Indecency: Recent Developments and Pending Issues
No Description Available.
Small-Scale Terrorist Attacks Using Chemical and Biological Agents: An Assessment Framework and Preliminary Comparisons
No Description Available.
U.N. Convention Against Torture (CAT): Overview and Application to Interrogation Techniques
No Description Available.
USA PATRIOT Act Sunset: Provisions That Expire on December 31, 2005
No Description Available.
The Department of State's Patterns of Global Terrorism Report: Trends, State Sponsors, and Related Issues
This report highlights trends and data found in the State Department’s annual Patterns of Global Terrorism report, (Patterns 2003) and addresses selected issues relating to its content.
Administrative Separations for Misconduct: An Alternative or Companion to Military Courts-Martial
The recent reports of abuse of prisoners held by U.S. military personnel have raised questions about how the armed forces control servicemembers. Congress, under the authorities vested in it by the U.S. Constitution, has enacted procedures for addressing misconduct by servicemembers. One such procedure is an administrative separation under which a member’s continued suitability for service is determined. Administrative separations are non-punitive and can be initiated for a number of reasons, including misconduct or criminal offenses. They may be used in place of or after the servicemember has been subject to a court-martial or nonjudicial punishment. This report provides an overview of administrative separations as an alternative or companion to courts-martial.
Federal Crime Control Assistance to State and Local Governments
No Description Available.