Congressional Research Service Reports - 66 Matching Results

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Campaign Contribution Limits: Selected Questions About McCutcheon and Policy Issues for Congress
This report offers a preliminary analysis of major policy issues and potential implications that appear to be most relevant as the House and Senate prepare for the ruling and decide whether or how to respond.
EPA Regulations: Too Much, Too Little, or On Track?
This report provides background information on Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulatory activity during the Obama Administration to help address these issues. It examines major or controversial regulatory actions taken by or under development at EPA since January 2009, providing details on the regulatory action itself, presenting an estimated timeline for completion of the rule (including identification of related court or statutory deadlines), and, in general, providing EPA's estimates of costs and benefits, where available. The report includes tables that show which rules remain under development, and an appendix that describes major or controversial rules that are now final.
Federal Crop Insurance: Background
No Description Available.
Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act: Annual Fee on Health Insurers
This report discusses the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA, P.L. 111-148) and the Reconciliation Act of 2010 (P.L. 111-152) that impose a fee on certain for-profit health insurers, starting in 2014.
Status of the WTO Brazil-U.S. Cotton Case
No Description Available.
Turkmenistan: Recent Developments and U.S. Interests
No Description Available.
The U.S.-Japan Alliance
No Description Available.
Unfunded Mandates Reform Act: History, Impact, and Issues
This report examines debates regarding what constitutes an "unfunded federal mandate" and the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act of 1995's (UMRA) implementation. It focuses on UMRA's requirement that the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) issue written cost estimate statements for federal mandates in legislation, its procedures for raising points of order in the House and Senate concerning unfunded federal mandates in legislation, and its requirement that federal agencies prepare written cost estimate statements for federal mandates in rules. It also assesses UMRA's impact on federal mandates and arguments concerning UMRA's future, focusing on UMRA's definitions, exclusions, and exceptions which currently exempt many federal actions with potentially significant financial impacts on nonfederal entities.
China's Political Institutions and Leaders in Charts
This report provides a snapshot of China's leading political institutions and current leaders in the form of nine organization charts and three tables. This chart-based report is intended to assist Members and their staffs seeking to understand where political institutions and individuals fit within the broader Chinese political system and to identify which Chinese officials are responsible for specific portfolios.
Current Debates over Exchange Rates: Overview and Issues for Congress
This report provides information on current debates over exchange rates in the global economy. It offers an overview of how exchange rates work; analyzes specific disagreements and debates; and examines existing frameworks for potentially addressing currency disputes. It also lays out some policy options available to Congress, should Members want to take action on exchange rate issues.
International Food Aid: U.S. and Other Donor Contributions
No Description Available.
Public Health Service Agencies: Overview and Funding
Within the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), eight agencies are designated components of the U.S. Public Health Service (PHS): (1) the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), (2) the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), (3) the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), (4) the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), (5) the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), (6) the Indian Health Service (IHS), (7) the National Institutes of Health (NIH), and (8) the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). This report gives a brief overview of each agency and summarizes its funding for FY2010 through FY2013, as well as its FY2014 budget request.
U.S. Foreign-Trade Zones: Background and Issues for Congress
No Description Available.
Child Support Enforcement: Program Basics
This report discusses the Child Support Enforcement (CSE) program that was enacted in 1975 as a federal-state program (Title IV-D of the Social Security Act) to help strengthen families by securing financial support for children from their noncustodial parent on a consistent and continuing basis and by helping some families to remain self-sufficient and off public assistance by providing the requisite CSE services.
Egypt in Crisis: Issues for Congress
This report provides a brief overview of the key issues for the 113th Congress related to Egypt.
Federal Research and Development Funding: FY2014
This report provides government-wide, multi-agency, and individual agency analyses of the President's FY2014 request as it relates to R&D and related activities. The President's budget seeks $142.773 billion for R&D in FY2014, a 1.3% increase (0.7% CAGR) over the actual FY2012 R&D funding level of $140.912 billion. Adjusted for inflation, the President's FY2014 R&D request represents a decrease of 2.6% from the FY2012 level (1.3% CAGR).
The Global Climate Change Initiative (GCCI): Budget Authority and Request, FY2010-FY2014
This report discusses the financial assistance for global climate change initiatives in developing countries. The Global Climate Change Initiative (GCCI) -- one of the three main pillars to the 2010 directive -- aims to integrate climate change considerations into relevant foreign assistance, from FY2008 enacted funding request for FY2010 through the FY2014.
Guam: U.S. Defense Deployments
This report discusses the strategic significance of Guam for defense buildup and the force relocation and deployments from the U.S. mainland. It also discusses the concerns and issues for Congress, such as allies and partner, China, and legislation.
Inflation and the Real Minimum Wage: A Fact Sheet
This report provides data on the minimum wage that was changed, and it presents its nominal and real value.
Insurance Agent Licensing: Overview and Background on Federal "NARAB" Legislation
This report discusses the federal proposal addressing multiple state insurance producer licensing requirements through the creation of a National Association of Registered Agents and Brokers (NARAB).
Loss of Federal Pensions for Members of Congress Convicted of Certain Offenses
This report discusses the current law with respect to the loss of the federal pension of a Member of Congress for the conviction of certain crimes and the recent law to limit a former Member's receiving service credit toward a federal pension for any time served as a Member of Congress if that person is convicted of any one of a number of criminal offenses involving abuse of the public trust.
Possible U.S. Intervention in Syria: Issues for Congress
This report discusses reports of a mass casualty chemical weapons attack in the suburbs of Damascus and the possible punitive U.S. military action against the Asad regime.
Securing U.S. Diplomatic Facilities and Personnel Abroad: Background and Policy Issues
This report provides background information on the organization, practice, and funding of U.S. diplomatic security efforts. It also provides summary information on the September 11, 2012, attack on U.S. facilities in Benghazi, Libya, as well as on the subsequent Accountability Review Board.
Securing U.S. Diplomatic Facilities and Personnel Abroad: Legislative and Executive Branch Initiatives
This report briefly summarizes and tracks congressional and State Department actions in response to the attack on U. S. facilities in Benghazi, Libya, and will be updated as necessary to reflect further developments and actions on ongoing policy proposals.
Syria's Chemical Weapons: Issues for Congress
This report provides a brief history of the chemical weapons program in Syria. It discusses policy issues, latest development regarding the current chemical weapons program.
Changing the Federal Reserve's Mandate: An Economic Analysis
This report discusses a number of implementation issues surrounding an inflation target. These include what rate of inflation to target, what inflation measure to use, whether to set a point target or range, and what penalties to impose if a target is missed.
Military Justice: Courts-Martial, an Overview
This report gives a detailed overview of the military court-martial system, including a discussion of the three types of court-martials: summary, special, and general. It includes a chart showing procedural safeguards in federal and military courts.
Selected Laws Governing the Broadcast of Professional Sporting Events
No Description Available.
Broadband Loan and Grant Programs in the USDA’s Rural Utilities Service
No Description Available.
ESEA Reauthorization Proposals in the 113th Congress: Comparison of Major Features
No Description Available.
The New START Treaty: Central Limits and Key Provisions
No Description Available.
Oman: Reform, Security, and U.S. Policy
No Description Available.
The Animal Welfare Act: Background and Selected Animal Welfare Legislation
No Description Available.
Asian Pacific Americans in the United States Congress
This report presents information on Senators, Representatives, and Delegates, including previous occupations and leadership positions (such as committee and subcommittee chairmanships), and the bipartisan and bicameral Congressional Asian Pacific American Caucus. It also provides a list of Members' and Delegates' party affiliations, length and dates of service, and committee assignments. Also included in the report is a map showing the total number of Asian Pacific Americans and the states or territories they represent in the 113th Congress.
A Brief Overview of Business Types and Their Tax Treatment
Report that provides a general overview of the tax treatment of the major business types, including sole proprietorships, partnerships, C corporations, subchapter S corporations, and limited liability companies.
The Chained Consumer Price Index: What Is It and Would It Be Appropriate for Cost-of-Living Adjustments?
Report that provides technical and logistical information on how the Chained Consumer Price Index for all Urban Consumers (C-CPI-U) is constructed and reported by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). It explains methodological and statistical differences between the standard Consumer Price Index (CPI) and the C-CPI-U. It then addresses a key impediment to moving to the C-CPI-U.
The Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States (CFIUS)
This report gives a brief overview of P.L. 110-49, the Foreign Investment and National Security Act of 2007. Although both the President and Congress are directly involved in formulating the scope and direction of U.S. foreign investment policy, this law broadens Congress' oversight role; it also explicitly includes the areas of homeland security and critical infrastructure as separately-identifiable components of national security that the President must consider when evaluating the national security implications of a foreign investment transaction.
Cuba: U.S. Policy and Issues for the 113th Congress
No Description Available.
The "Deeming Resolution": A Budget Enforcement Tool
Report that gives an overview of the "deeming resolution" (referring to legislation deemed to serve as an annual budget resolution for purposes of establishing enforceable budget levels for a budget cycle). It includes background information and a breakdown of House and Senate action on deeming resolutions, broken down by fiscal year for the cycles when there was no agreement on a budget resolution.
Israel: Background and U.S. Relations
This report describes issues related to U.S. aid provided to Palestine to support prevention/combating against terrorism, creating coexistence with Israel and self-governance, and meeting humanitarian needs. In includes introductory and historical background as well as in-depth analysis of the types of U.S. bilateral aid to Palestine, U.S. contributions to the U.N. Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the near East (UNRWA), and the issues involved in determining future aid.
Legislative Branch Agency Appointments: History, Processes, and Recent Proposals
Report that contains information on the legislative branch agency heads' appointment processes, length of tenures (if terms are set), reappointment or removal provisions (if any), salaries and benefits, and most recent appointments.
Navy Ship Names: Background for Congress
Report that discusses the process of naming Navy ships, which have traditionally been chosen and announced by the Secretary of the Navy.
U.S.-Mexican Security Cooperation: The Mérida Initiative and Beyond
This report provides a framework for examining the current status and future prospects for U.S.- Mexican security cooperation. It begins with a brief discussion of the threat that drug trafficking and related crime and violence pose to both nations, followed by an analysis of the evolution of the Mérida Initiative. The report then provides an overview of the Peña Nieto government's security strategy and how it is affecting the Mérida Initiative. The report then examines key aspects of the current U.S.-Mexican security strategy and concludes by raising policy issues that may affect bilateral efforts.
The United States and Europe: Responding to Change in the Middle East and North Africa
This report assesses some of the policy implications of recent and ongoing events in the Middle East region, provides an overview of U.S. responses to date, and explores select case studies to illustrate some key questions and dilemmas that Congress and the executive branch may face with regard to these issues and others in the future.
Federal Authority to Regulate the Compounding of Human Drugs
This report will examine the FDA's regulation of drug compounding and will discuss relevant legal authorities. The report will conclude by discussing potential limits to the FDA's authority to regulate human drug compounding.
The President's Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP): Issues for Congress
This report provides an overview of the history of science and technology (S&T) advice to the President. It also discusses selected issues and options for Congress regarding the Office of Science and Technology Policy OSTP's Director, (OSTP) management and operations, the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST), and the National Science and Technology Council (NSTC).
The STOCK Act, Insider Trading, and Public Financial Reporting by Federal Officials
This report gives an overview of the Stop Trading on Congressional Knowledge Act of 2012 (STOCK), which affirms and makes explicit the fact that there is no exemption from the "insider trading" laws and regulations for Members of Congress, congressional employees, or any federal officials.
Environmental Regulation and Agriculture
This report discusses the impact of environmental regulation on agriculture. Most environmental regulations, in terms of permitting, inspection, and enforcement, are implemented by state and local governments, often based on federal EPA regulatory guidance. In some cases, agriculture is the direct or primary focus of the regulatory actions. In other cases, agriculture is one of many affected sectors. Traditionally, farm and ranch operations have been exempt or excluded from many environmental regulations.
Guns, Excise Taxes, and Wildlife Restoration
As a result of the recent debate over guns, gun rights, and gun-related violence, there has been a marked increase in sales of many weapons as well as ammunition. Through an excise tax on firearms and ammunition, such sales have a marked beneficial effect on funding for state wildlife programs through the Wildlife Restoration Program (also known as Pittman-Robertson or P-R). This report examines these taxes, their allocation, and their use. It also examines the effects of sequestration of this account, pursuant to the Budget Control Act of 2011 (BCA, P.L. 112-25).
Higher Education Tax Benefits: Brief Overview and Budgetary Effects
No Description Available.