Congressional Research Service Reports - 179 Matching Results

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U.S. Tariff Policy: Overview
This report provides a brief overview of United States tariff policy. A tariff is a customs duty levied on imported and exported goods and services, typically used to protect domestic industries or as leverage in trade negotiations and disputes.
The Venezuela Regional Migration Crisis
This report discusses the deteriorating humanitarian situation in Venezuela, which has elevated congressional concerns about the country. Venezuela remains in a deep political and economic crisis under the authoritarian rule of President Nicolás Maduro.
Global Human Rights: Multilateral Bodies & U.S. Participation
This report provides an overview of multilateral bodies regarding human rights, including the United Nations, International Criminal Court, and regional bodies.
Infrastructure Investment and the Federal Government
This report discusses federal infrastructure investment. The condition and performance of infrastructure are generally thought to be important for the nation's health, welfare, and economy.
United States and Saudi Arabia Energy Relations
This report provides an overview of the U.S.-Saudi Arabia energy relationship that dates back to at least 1933. Since then, this relationship has witnessed the creation of the Arabian American Oil Company (Aramco), nationalization and ownership transfer of Aramco to Saudi Arabia (renamed Saudi Aramco), a Saudi-supported embargo of crude oil shipments to the United States, and various periods of energy cooperation. Today, the U.S.-Saudi energy relationship includes interests within three general categories: (1) energy trade, (2) business operations, and (3) global petroleum prices.
Defense Primer: Defense Appropriations Process
This report provides an overview of the defense appropriations process. The congressional appropriations process includes various rules and practices that Congress has adopted to distinguish appropriations measures and facilitate their consideration.
Defense Primer: Department of the Army and Army Command Structure
This report discusses the senior leadership and operational and institutional missions of the Department of the Army (DA).
Defense Primer: Navigating the NDAA
This report provides an overview of the structure and organization of the annual National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA).
Defense Primer: Organization of U.S. Ground Forces
This report outlines the organization of the Army, the U.S. military's primary ground force, and the Marine Corps, the Navy's land-based fighting force.
Defense Primer: Special Operations Forces
This report provides an overview of U.S. military Special Operations Forces (SOF), including personnel selection, command structure, Joint Special Operations Command (JSOC), and Theater Special Operations Commands (TSOCs).
What Role Might the Federal Government Play in Law Enforcement Reform?
This report discuses policy options for Congress to consider in regard to law enforcement reform. Over the past few years, several high-profile police-involved shootings and alleged instances of excessive force have generated congressional interest in state and local policing.
Immigration: "Recalcitrant" Countries and the Use of Visa Sanctions to Encourage Cooperation with Alien Removals
This report discusses the use of visa sanctions by the Trump Administration, past uses of visa sanctions, and alternatives to visa sanctions to encourage countries to comply with repatriation of their citizens.
Defense Primer: Under Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering
This report discusses the role of the Under Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering and how the position fits into the organizational structure of the Defense Department.
Defense Primer: Congress's Constitutional Authority with Regard to the Armed Forces
This report provides an overview of Congress's war powers under the U.S. Constitution.
Defense Primer: Legal Authorities for the Use of Military Forces
This report provides an overview of United States war powers.
Defense Primer: RDT&E
This report describes the appropriations structure and funding levels for the U.S. Department of Defense's (DOD's) research, development, test, and evaluation (RDT&E). The DOD relies on scientific and technical research funded by the department and performed by industry, universities, federal laboratories, and others; the DOD also relies on technology developed by the private sector for commercial markets.
Defense Primer: Department of the Navy
This report provides basic information on the Department of the Navy, which includes both the Navy and the Marine Corps. It also describes the Coast Guard's relationship to the Department.
Defense Primer: Geography, Strategy, and U.S. Force Design
This report describes how world geography influences U.S. military strategy. Of particular importance to U.S. policymakers is preventing the emergence of a regional hegemony in one part of Eurasia.
Defense Primer: Naval Forces
This report provides an overview of the United States Naval Forces, which includes the Navy and Marine Corps.
Iran: Efforts to Preserve Economic Benefits of the Nuclear Deal
This report discusses efforts by the non-U.S. parties to the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA)--the United Kingdom, France, Germany, Russia, China, the European Union (EU), and Iran--to preserve the accord after the United States announced they would cease implementation.
Defense Primer: The United States Air Force
This report provides an overview of U.S. Air Force operations.
Defense Primer: United States Airpower
This report provides an overview of the airpower of the United States military. This includes the U.S. Air Force, and Army, Naval, and Marine Corps aviation.
Global Trends in HIV/AIDS
This report discusses positive developments, challenges, and outlook of HIV/AIDS around the globe.
Protection of Executive Branch Officials
This report discusses the possibility of protective details for executive branch officials, in response to recent attempted bombing attacks on current and former government officials.
U.S. Secret Service Protection of Persons and Facilities
This report discusses the history of U.S. Secret Service (USSS), specific protection activities, and USSS protection issues.
Iran and Israel: Tension Over Syria
This report discusses the tensions between Iran and Israel, which have been exacerbated since 2011 by Iranian military operations in support of the Syrian government.
U.S.-India Trade Relations
This report discusses trade relations between the United States and India. Many observers believe bilateral commercial ties could be more extensive if trade and investment barriers were addressed.
Defense Primer: Personnel Tempo (PERSTEMPO)
This report explains the Department of Defense's (DOD's) personnel tempo (PERSTEMPO) management, policies and programs. PERSTEMPO refers to the pace of operations for servicemembers and can affect quality of life, work satisfaction, and overall morale for members and their families.
U.S.-Japan Relations
This report discusses issues regarding U.S.-Japan economic relations. Japan is a significant partner of the United States in a number of foreign policy areas, particularly in U.S. security priorities, which range from hedging against Chinese military modernization to countering threats from North Korea.
China's Currency Policy
This report provides an overview of the economic issues surrounding the current debate over China's currency policy. It identifies the economic costs and benefits of China's currency policy for both China and the United States, and possible implications if China were to allow its currency to significantly appreciate or to float freely.
China's Status as a Nonmarket Economy (NME)
This report discusses China's classification by the World Trade Organization (WTO). China contends that language in its WTO accession protocol required all WTO members to terminate their use of the alternative methodology; the United States and other WTO members argue that that the WTO language did not automatically obligate them to extend market economy status (MES) to China.
The National Counterintelligence and Security Center (NCSC): An Overview
This report summarizes the background and functions of the U.S. National Counterintelligence and Security Center (NCSC).
The Global Compact on Migration (GCM) and U.S. Policy
This report discusses the United Nations' Global Compact on Safe, Orderly and Regular Migration (GCM) and the Trump Administration's withdrawal of the United States from the GCM negotiations.
Vehicle Fuel Economy and Greenhouse Gas Standards
This report discusses the amendments to the federal standards that regulate fuel economy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from new passenger cars and light trucks. The amendments were proposed by the Trump Administration on August 24, 2018.
Religious [Intolerance] in Indonesia
This report discusses the increasing religious intolerance in Indonesia. Indonesia is the world's most populous Muslim-majority country, and it has long been known for its moderate interpretations of Islam. The text outlines background, information about Muslim groups, foreign influence, religious schools, government actions, and responses by Indonesia and the U.S.
Defense's 30-Year Aircraft Plan Reveals New Details
This report discusses the U.S. Department of Defense 30-year aviation plan released in April 2018. The yearly plan is intended to chart the direction of the aviation enterprise and is typically relatively short on specifics. By contrast, the most recent 30-year aviation plan is full of details on specific programs, including cancellations, life extensions, and new starts.
Effects of U.S. Tariff Action on U.S. Aluminum Manufacturing
This report discusses the aluminum tariffs put in effect by the U.S. in March 2018. The United States has assessed duties of 10% or more on certain imports of aluminum on national security grounds. The duties are controversial, with some Members of Congress questioning whether the duties will encourage domestic aluminum production and whether they could adversely affect U.S. industries that use aluminum.
Venezuela: Political and Economic Crisis and U.S. Policy
This report discusses the ongoing political, economic, and humanitarian crisis in Venezuela under President Nicolás Maduro and U.S. responses.
Agricultural Provisions of the U.S.-Mexico-Canada Agreement
This report discusses the agricultural provisions of the United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement (USMCA), which replaces the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).
Proposed U.S.-Mexico-Canada (USMCA) Trade Agreement
This report discusses the U.S.-Mexico-Canada Agreement (USMCA), which is to replace the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). Topics include market access, dispute settlement, intellectual property rights (IPR), energy, and labor and environment.
Venezuela: Overview of U.S. Sanctions
This report discusses the sanctions the U.S. employs against Venezuela related to terrorism, drug trafficking, trafficking in persons, antidemocratic actions, human rights violations, and corruption.
Conflict in Mali
This report outlines the security and governance challenges that Mali has faced since the 2011-2013 crisis that devastated the military, central government institutions, and northern populations and the peace accord that followed in 2015.
Intellectual Property Law: A Brief Introduction
This report provides a brief overview of each form of federal intellectual property (IP) protection, including patent law, copyright law, and trademarks.
WTO Disciplines on U.S. Domestic Support for Agriculture
This report outlines the rules and disciplines the United States has committed to abide by as a member of the World Trade Organization (WTO).
China's Engagement with Latin America and the Caribbean
This report discusses the bilateral partnership agreements the People's Republic of China (PRC) has signed with multiple countries in the Latin American and Caribbean region, including "strategic partnerships" with Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, and Venezuela. The report also discusses concerns and considerations U.S. policymakers may want to address in response to these partnerships.
The Palestinians: Overview and Key Issues for U.S. Policy
This report provides an overview of current issues in U.S.-Palestinian relations. It also contains descriptions of key Palestinian issues and groups--chiefly the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), the Palestinian Authority (PA), Fatah, Hamas, and the Palestinian refugee population.
The Palestinians: Overview and Key Issues for U.S. Policy
This report discusses key issues for the U.S. to consider in regard to policy toward the Palestinians, including Jerusalem, foreign aid, Hamas, Gaza, and the West Bank.
U.S.-China Relations
This report discusses the relations between the United States and the People's Republic of China (PRC or China). Selected issues include strategic competition, trade, North Korea, synthetic drugs, the "one-China" policy, and human rights.
Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks in U.S. Agriculture
This report discusses agricultural greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the United States, agricultural carbon sequestration, and practices that offset GHG emissions.
Locomotive Idling, Air Quality, and Blocked Crossings
This report discusses the risks and disruptions that occur when trains idle on the tracks and block crossings as well as possible responses to address the problem.