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Error and Fraud in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)
This report seeks to define terms related to errors and fraud; identify problems and describe what is known of their extent; summarize current policy and practice; and share recommendations, proposals, and pilots that have come up in recent years. The report answers several questions around four main types of inaccuracy and misconduct: trafficking SNAP benefits (by retailers and by recipients); retailer application fraud; errors and fraud in SNAP household applications; and errors and fraud committed by state agencies (including a discussion of states' recent Quality Control (QC) misconduct). The report then discusses challenges to combating errors and fraud--across the four areas--and potential strategies for addressing those challenges.
Navy Ford (CVN-78) Class Aircraft Carrier Program: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and potential oversight issues for Congress on the Gerald R. Ford (CVN-78) class aircraft carrier program. The Navy's proposed FY2019 budget requests a total of $1,598.2 million in procurement funding for the program. Congress's decisions on the CVN-78 program could substantially affect Navy capabilities and funding requirements and the shipbuilding industrial base.
Recently Expired Individual Tax Provisions (Tax Extenders"): In Brief
This report provides background information on three individual income tax provisions (Tax Exclusion for Canceled Mortgage Debt, Mortgage Insurance Premium Deductibility, and Above-the-Line Deduction for Qualified Tuition and Related Expenses) that expired in 2017.
Small Business Administration Microloan Program
This report provides an overview of the Small Business Administration's microloan program and its funding sources.
Venture Capital Funds: Proposals to Expand Investor Thresholds Required for Registration (Section 504 of S. 2155, Section 471 of H.R. 10, H.R. 1219, S. 444, and Section 914 of H.R. 3280)
This report discusses venture capital funds and the rules regarding information they must release to investors along with recent legislation related to the issue.
S. 2155 and Enhanced Regulation for Large Banks
This report discusses regulations for large banks under the Dodd-Frank Act and recently proposed changes to the regulations proposed in S. 2155.
Business Tax Provisions that Expired in 2017 (Tax Extenders")
This report discusses twelve temporary business tax extenders which expired at the end of 2017.
Clarifying "Gibberish": Supreme Court Holds That State Courts Can Hear Securities Act Lawsuits
This report discusses the background of the case of "Cyan Inc. v. Beaver County Employees Retirement Fund", the Supreme Court's decision, and the decision's implications for securities litigation.
The Debt Limit Since 2011
This report discusses the federal debt limit and its suspensions and resets since 2011.
Federal Requirements on Private Health Insurance Plans
This report provides background information about health plans sold in the private health insurance (PHI) market and briefly describes state and federal regulation of private plans. The second part summarizes selected federal requirements and indicates each requirement's applicability to one or more of the following types of private health plans: individual, small group, large group, and self-insured. Many of the federal requirements described in this report were established under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA; P.L. 111-148, as amended); however, some were established under federal laws enacted prior to the ACA.
Health Insurance Premium Tax Credits and Cost-Sharing Subsidies
This report discusses health insurance premium tax credits and cost-sharing subsidies which assist low-income individuals and families in buying health insurance.
Multiemployer Defined Benefit (DB) Pension Plans: A Primer and Analysis of Policy Options
This report discusses multi-employer defined benefit (DB) pension plans which are pensions sponsored by more than one employer and maintained as part of a collective bargaining agreement and recent legislation related to them.
Overview of the Federal Tax System in 2018
This report describes the federal tax structure and system in effect for 2018, incorporating the recent changes made by P.L. 115-97. The report also provides selected statistics on the tax system as a whole.
Tricks of the Trade: Section 301 Investigation of Chinese Intellectual Property Practices Concludes (Part 1)
This report discusses the Office of the U.S. Trade Representative's (USTR) recent investigation under Section 301 of the Trade Act of 1974 to determine whether acts, policies, and practices of the Government of China related to technology transfer, intellectual property, and innovation were unreasonable or discriminatory and burdening or restricting U.S. commerce and President Trumps's memorandum in response.
Tricks of the Trade: Section 301 Investigation of Chinese Intellectual Property Practices Concludes (Part 2)
This report is the part two of two of a report on the Office of the U.S. Trade Representative's (USTR) recently concluded its investigation under Section 301 of the Trade Act of 1974 (the "Section 301 Investigation") "to determine whether acts, policies, and practices of the Government of China related to technology transfer, intellectual property, and innovation are unreasonable or discriminatory and burden or restrict U.S. commerce." This part of the report applies the general legal framework to this specific Section 301 Investigation, providing background on the investigation, describing the USTR's findings and the President's directives, and concluding by addressing what legal issues lie ahead.
FHA-Insured Home Loans: An Overview
This report provides an overview of the Federal Housing Administration's (FHA) loan programs.
An Introduction to the Low-Income Housing Tax Credit
This report provides an overview of the low-income tax credit.
Assistance to Firefighters Program: Distribution of Fire Grant Funding
This report discusses The Assistance to Firefighters Grant (AFG) program and the distribution of grant funding as well as issues for Congress to consider regarding the program.
Defense Primer: Military Retirement
This report provides a brief overview and guide to military retirement plans and funding methods.
Guatemala: Political and Socioeconomic Conditions and U.S. Relations
This report discusses Guatemala's current political situation, anti-corruption efforts and large-scale investigations of the past and current president for corruption, relations with the U.S., and economic and social conditions.
House Committee Markups: Manual of Procedures and Procedural Strategies
This report discusses the procedures for House Committee markups and provides a manual of House rules and procedure on the matter.
The Manufacturing Extension Partnership Program
This report discusses the Hollings Manufacturing Extension Partnership (MEP) program which is a national network of centers established by the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act (P.L. 100-418).
Sponsorship and Cosponsorship of Senate Bills
This report describes the process and rules governing sponsorship of bills in the Senate.
U.S.-Mexico Economic Relations: Trends, Issues, and Implications
This report discusses economic relations between the U.S. and Mexico and recent issues and trends in the relationship including the renegotiation of NAFTA.
United States Fire Administration: An Overview
This report discusses the U.S. Fire Administration's structure, funding, and functions.
Whose Line is it Anyway: Could Congress Give the President a Line-Item Veto?
This report discusses whether Congress could grant the President a line-item veto. The report provides an overview of the Supreme Court's decision in "Clinton v. City of New York" in 1998 and examines what (if any) possibility exists for a constitutional, line-item veto authority for the President.
Agricultural Credit: Institutions and Issues
This report discusses federal credit assistance for farmers and recent issues in Congress related to the programs.
Economic Growth, Regulatory Relief, and Consumer Protection Act (S. 2155) and House Legislation: Common Issue Areas
This report discusses the Economic Growth, Regulatory Relief, and Consumer Protection Act (S. 2155) and compares its provisions with sections of bills passed in the House that proposed similar or identical changes to the law.
Trends in Public Transportation Ridership: Implications for Federal Policy
This report discusses the implications of recent trends in public transit ridership in the U.S. for future federal policy.
Defense Primer: Defense Working Capital Funds
This report describes how Defense Working Capital Funds (DWCF) work and lists the major DWCF's that are currently in operation.
Fiscal Year 2018 Appropriations Overview: Census Bureau and Bureau of Economic Analysis
This report discusses FY2018 appropriations (discretionary budget authority) for the Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA) and Bureau of the Census (Census Bureau), historic components of the Economics and Statistics Administration (ESA) in the U.S. Department of Commerce. This report will be updated as legislative developments warran
The Holman Rule (House Rule XXI, Clause 2(b))
This report provides a history of the Holman Rule provision in House rules and an analysis of precedents that are illustrative of its possible application.
Turkey: Background and U.S. Relations In Brief
This report provides a brief overview of relations between Turkey and the U.S., Turkish foreign and military policies, and domestic issues in Turkey.
ATF's Ability to Regulate "Bump Stocks"
This report discusses whether ATF has the right to regulate "bump stocks" for rifles which allow rifles to mimic the actions of an automatic weapon and recent proposed regulatory action by ATF.
Bankruptcy Basics: A Primer
This report serves as a primer for Members and their staffs on the basics of U.S. bankruptcy law. The report provides a brief overview of the most essential concepts necessary for an informed understanding of the U.S. bankruptcy system
Department of Health and Human Services: Fiscal Year 2019 Budget Request
This report discusses the FY2019 appropriations request for the Department of Health and Human Services. The report begins by reviewing the department's mission and structure. Next, the report offers a brief explanation of the conventions used for the FY2018 estimates and FY2019 request levels in the budget documents released by the HHS and the Office of Management and Budget (OMB). The report also discusses the concept of the HHS budget as a whole, in comparison to how funding is provided to HHS through the annual appropriations process. The report concludes with a breakdown of the HHS request by agency, along with additional HHS resources that provide further information on the request. A table of CRS key policy staff is included at the end of the report.
Domestic Food Assistance: Summary of Programs
This report discusses food assistance programs which are administered by the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Food and Nutrition Service (USDA-FNS) programs as well as nutrition programs administered by the Administration on Aging (AOA), within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' Administration for Community Living (HHS-ACL).
Federal Reserve: Legislation in the 115th Congress
This report provides an overview of the Federal Reserve and legislation related to it proposed or passed during the 115th Congress.
It Belongs in a Museum: Sovereign Immunity Shields Iranian Antiquities Even When It Does Not Protect Iran
This report discusses the Supreme Court's decision in the case of "Rubin v. Islamic Republic of Iran" where the court ruled that the Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act (FSIA) did not permit U.S. victims of Iran-sponsored terrorist attacks to seize a collection of Persian antiquities on loan from Iran to a museum at the University of Chicago. The background of the case and case law about the FSIA is also discussed.
Unauthorized Childhood Arrivals: Legislative Activity in the 115th Congress
This report provides a summary of proposed legislation in the Senate regarding unauthorized childhood arrivals and DACA recipients in the United States and discusses some of the major issues surrounding the topic.
2017 Disaster Supplemental Appropriations: Overview
This report provides a detailed breakdown of the requested and enacted supplemental funding in each of the disaster relief supplemental appropriation measures for 2017 natural disasters, and provides a contact listing for CRS experts on the funded relief and recovery programs.
Bipartisan Budget Act of 2018 (P.L. 115-123): CHIP, Public Health, Home Visiting, and Medicaid Provisions in Division E
This report provides information about the provisions from Division E of the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2018 (BBA 2018) related to CHIP, certain public health programs, the MIECHV program, and the Medicaid program.
The Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC): A Brief Legislative History
This report provides a general overview of the current earned income tax credit (EITC). The report summarizes the key legislative changes to the credit and provides analysis of some of the congressional intentions behind these changes. An overview of the current structure of the EITC can be found in Appendix A at the end of this report.
Eight Mechanisms to Enact Procedural Change in the U.S. Senate
This report highlights eight parliamentary mechanisms that might be used to implement procedural change in the Senate and links to additional reading material on the subject.
Federal Support for Drug Courts: In Brief
This report explains the concept of a "drug court,", how the term and programs have expanded to include wider meanings and serve additional subgroups, how the federal government supports drug courts, and research on the impact of drug courts on offenders and court systems. In addition, it briefly discusses how drug courts might provide an avenue for addressing the opioid epidemic and other emerging drug issues that Congress may consider.
Germaneness of Debate in the Senate: The Pastore Rule
This report discusses the Pastore rule in the Senate which governs germaneness in debate.
Iran's Foreign and Defense Policies
This report discusses Iran's foreign and defense policy and various factors influencing its development and goals.
Net Neutrality: Will the FTC Have Authority Over Broadband Service Providers
This report discusses the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit decision in "FTC v. AT&T Mobility". The implications of this decision on net neutrality are also discussed.
Paid Family Leave in the United States
This report discusses paid family leave's availability in the United States and recent legislation and proposals related to it.
Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation (PBGC): A Primer
This report discusses The Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation's (PBGC) structure, funding, and functions.