Congressional Research Service Reports - 702 Matching Results

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Bahrain: Unrest, Security, and U.S. Policy
This report discusses the political structure and human rights issues in Bahrain, including the 2011 uprising and its aftermath. Additionally, the report discusses Bahrain's relations with the United States and with the other countries in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) alliance.
United States and Saudi Arabia Energy Relations
This report provides an overview of the U.S.-Saudi Arabia energy relationship that dates back to at least 1933. Since then, this relationship has witnessed the creation of the Arabian American Oil Company (Aramco), nationalization and ownership transfer of Aramco to Saudi Arabia (renamed Saudi Aramco), a Saudi-supported embargo of crude oil shipments to the United States, and various periods of energy cooperation. Today, the U.S.-Saudi energy relationship includes interests within three general categories: (1) energy trade, (2) business operations, and (3) global petroleum prices.
Oman: Reform, Security, and U.S. Policy
This report discusses Oman's political and governmental structure, economy, foreign policy, and human rights concerns as well as U.S. security assistance and cooperation.
Iran: Efforts to Preserve Economic Benefits of the Nuclear Deal
This report discusses efforts by the non-U.S. parties to the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA)--the United Kingdom, France, Germany, Russia, China, the European Union (EU), and Iran--to preserve the accord after the United States announced they would cease implementation.
Iran Sanctions
This report analyzes U.S. and international sanctions against Iran. The report tracks "implementation" of the various U.S. laws and Executive Orders as designations and imposition of sanctions. Some sanctions require the blocking of U.S.-based property of sanctioned entities.
The United Arab Emirates (UAE): Issues for U.S. Policy
This report discusses the current political and economic landscape of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and its relationship with the U.S. The UAE has been a significant U.S. partner in Gulf security for more than two decades, and the alliance has deepened further in recent years in order to address multiple regional threats.
Iran and Israel: Tension Over Syria
This report discusses the tensions between Iran and Israel, which have been exacerbated since 2011 by Iranian military operations in support of the Syrian government.
Congress Considers Possible Responses to the Killing of a Saudi Journalist
This report discusses the potential responses by Congress regarding the killing of prominent Saudi Arabian journalist and former diplomatic advisor Jamal Khashoggi.
Iran: Internal Politics and U.S. Policy and Options
This report discusses the political history, current politics, and human rights practices of Iran, as well as Iran's relations with the United States, U.S. policy toward Iran, and future policy options.
Jordan: Background and U.S. Relations
This report provides an overview of Jordanian politics and current issues in U.S.-Jordanian relations. It provides a brief discussion of Jordan's government and economy and of its cooperation with U.S. policies in the Middle East.
Iran's Nuclear Program: Tehran's Compliance with International Obligations
This report provides a brief overview of Iran's nuclear program and describes the legal basis for the actions taken by the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) board and the Security Council.
Bahrain: Unrest, Security, and U.S. Policy
This report discusses the political structure and human rights issues in Bahrain, including the 2011 uprising and its aftermath. Additionally, the report discusses Bahrain's relations with the United States and with the other countries in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) alliance.
Iran's Foreign and Defense Policies
This report discusses Iran's foreign and defense policy and the reasoning behind it, as well as U.S. concerns regarding their power and nuclear weapon capability.
Lebanon
This report provides an overview of Lebanon and current issues of U.S. interest. It provides background information, analyzes recent developments and key policy debates, and tracks legislation, U.S. assistance, and recent congressional action
Iraq: Issues in the 115th Congress
This report discusses issues in Iraq, including remaining Islamic State fighters, the May 2018 election, economic challenges, humanitarian issues and stabilization.
Qatar: Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy
This report discusses Qatar's governmental structure and politics, economy, foreign policy and regional disputes with other Gulf countries, U.S.-Qatar relations and security collaboration, and human rights issues.
Kuwait: Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy
This report discusses Kuwait's governmental structure and politics, defense policies and cooperation with the U.S., foreign policy towards its neighbors, economy, and human rights concerns.
Iran Sanctions
This report discusses U.S. sanctions against Iran and the 2016 Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) nuclear agreement which led to the lifting of sanctions based on nuclear proliferation in Iran. The bulk of the report outlines the various sanctions against Iran and their current implementation status, international efforts to bring about compliance, and their effects; it also addresses recent discussions regarding President's Trump announcement that the U.S. was decertifying the nuclear agreement and the possibility of reinstating certain sanctions.
Iran's Foreign and Defense Policies
This report discusses Iran's foreign and defense policy and the reasoning behind it, as well as U.S. concerns regarding their power and nuclear weapon capability.
The Islamic State and U.S. Policy
This report provides background on the Islamic State organization, discusses its goals, operations, and affiliates, reviews U.S. legislative and policy debates, and reviews relevant legislation from the 114th and 115th Congresses.
Armed Conflict in Syria: Overview and U.S. Response
This report discusses the ongoing conflict in Syria and U.S. policy regarding the conflict and potential resolutions. It includes information on the recent U.S., French, and British joint missile strike in response to the the use of chemical weapons in Douma, Syria by Syrian government forces.
Saudi Arabia: Background and U.S. Relations
This report discuses Saudi Arabia's governmental structure, human rights issues, relations with countries in the region, defense policies, and U.S. relations with the country. Special focus is given to military affairs and trade with Saudi Arabia.
Iran's Nuclear Program: Status
This report looks at the background of Iran's nuclear policy including the current status of Iran's nuclear facilities, and current controversy surrounding them, as well as the effects of international sanctions on Iran, recent sabotages on the Iran Enrichment Program, an estimated timeline of Iran's nuclear weapon capabilities, and whether or not Iran even has a nuclear weapons program.
The Palestinians: Overview and Key Issues for U.S. Policy
This report provides an overview of current issues in U.S.-Palestinian relations. It also contains descriptions of key Palestinian issues and groups--chiefly the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), the Palestinian Authority (PA), Fatah, Hamas, and the Palestinian refugee population.
Efforts to Preserve Economic Benefits of the Iran Nuclear Deal
This report discusses efforts by the non-U.S. parties to the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA)--the United Kingdom, France, Germany, Russia, China, the European Union (EU) and Iran--to preserve the accord after the United States announced they would cease implementation.
Georgia: Background and U.S. Policy
This report discusses the politics and economy of the nation of Georgia, as well as their relations with the European Union, NATO, Russia, separatist regions, and the United States.
Turkey: Background and U.S. Relations
This report provides information and analysis on Turkish relations with the United States, Russia, Syria, and Kurdish groups. Domestic issues in Turkey include economic issues and President Erdogan's increasing authoritarianism.
Turkey's Currency Crisis
This report discusses the currency crisis in Turkey, implications for the Turkish and U.S. economies, and questions for Congress to consider.
Yemen: Civil War and Regional Intervention
This report provides information on the ongoing crisis in Yemen. Now in its fourth year, the war in Yemen shows no signs of abating. On June 12, 2018, the Saudi-led coalition, a multinational grouping of armed forces led primarily by Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates (UAE), launched Operation Golden Victory, with the aim of retaking the Red Sea port city of Hudaydah. The coalition also has continued to conduct air strikes inside Yemen. The war has killed thousands of Yemenis, including combatants as well as civilians, and has significantly damaged the country's infrastructure. According to the United Nations (U.N.) High Commissioner for Human Rights, from the start of the conflict in March 2015 through August 9, 2018, the United Nations documented "a total of 17,062 civilian casualties -- 6,592 dead and 10,470 injured." This figure may vastly underestimate the war's death toll.
Iran: Internal Politics and U.S. Policy and Options
This report discusses the political history, current politics, and human rights practices of Iran, as well as Iran's relations with the United States, U.S. policy toward Iran, and future policy options.
Armed Conflict in Syria: Overview and U.S. Response
This report discusses the ongoing conflict in Syria and U.S. policy regarding the conflict and potential resolutions.
Qatar: Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy
This report discusses Qatar's governmental structure and politics, economy, foreign policy and regional disputes with other Gulf countries, U.S.-Qatar relations and security collaboration, and human rights issues.
The War in Yemen: A Compilation of Legislation in the 115th Congress
This report provides a summary of all legislative proposals that the 115th Congress has considered to date regarding the conflict in Yemen. Proposed stand-alone legislation, resolutions, and amendments to wider bills [National Defense Authorization Act (H.R. 2810; P.L. 115-91) and Defense appropriations (H.R. 3219/Division I, H.R. 3354)] reflect a range of congressional perspectives and priorities.
Iran's Nuclear Program: Status
This report looks at the background of Iran's nuclear policy. It covers the current status of Iran's nuclear facilities, and current controversy surrounding them, as well as the effects of international sanctions on Iran, recent sabotages on the Iran Enrichment Program, an estimated timeline of Iran's nuclear weapon capabilities, and whether or not Iran even has a nuclear weapons program.
Iran's Threats, the Strait of Hormuz, and Oil Markets: In Brief
This report discusses the how the exchange of threats between members of the governments of Iran and the United States, have again raised the specter of an interruption of shipping through the Strait of Hormuz. The Strait is a key waterway for the transit of oil and natural gas to world markets. The report also discusses the possibility of Congress to consider legislation regarding sanctions on Iran.
Iran's Ballistic Missile and Space Launch Programs
This report provides an overview of the sociopolitical and economic situation in Iran, and discusses Iran's ballistic missile and space launch programs.
Israel: Background and U.S. Relations
This report discusses Israel's relations with the U.S. and its neighbors, the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, and the domestic political scene amid allegations of corruption against the Prime Minister.
Iran Sanctions
This report discusses U.S. sanctions against Iran and the 2016 Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) nuclear agreement which led to the lifting of sanctions based on nuclear proliferation in Iran. The bulk of the report outlines the various sanctions against Iran and their current implementation status, international efforts to bring about compliance, and their effects. Recent discussions regarding President's Trump announcement that the U.S. was decertifying the nuclear agreement and the possibility of reinstating certain sanctions are also discussed.
Efforts to Preserve Economic Benefits of the Iran Nuclear Deal
This report discusses the response of the non-U.S. parties to the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) to the Trump Administration's decision to cease implementing U.S. commitments under the agreement. The other parties, which include the United Kingdom, France, Germany, Russia, China, the European Union (EU) and Iran, opposed the U.S. move and have undertaken intensive negotiations to try to preserve the accord.
The United Arab Emirates (UAE): Issues for U.S. Policy
This report discusses the current political and economic landscape of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and its relationship with the U.S. The UAE has been a significant U.S. partner in Gulf security for more than two decades, and the alliance has deepened further in recent years in order to address multiple regional threats.
Lebanon
This report provides an overview of Lebanon and current issues of U.S. interest. It provides background information, analyzes recent developments and key policy debates, and tracks legislation, U.S. assistance, and recent congressional action. The report includes information regarding Prime Minister Saad Hariri's resignation and subsequent reinstatement in November 2017.
Qatar: Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy
This report discusses Qatar's governmental structure and politics, economy, foreign policy and regional disputes with other Gulf countries, U.S.-Qatar relations and security collaboration, and human rights issues.
Turkey: Background and U.S. Relations In Brief
This report provides information and analysis on Turkish relations with the United States, Russia, Syria, and Kurdish groups. Domestic issues in Turkey include economic issues and President Erdogan's increasing authoritarianism.
Bahrain: Reform, Security, and U.S. Policy
This report discusses Bahrain's political and governmental structure, economy, regional policies, defense agreements with the U.S., and human rights concerns. It includes information about the 2011 uprising against the royal family and its aftermath.
Iran Nuclear Agreement
This report discusses the Iran nuclear agreement that was made on July 14, 2015 and the lifting of sanctions related to their nuclear weapons programs which occurred on January 16, 2016. It also outlines Iran's obligations under the agreement and Congressional discussion of adjustments to the agreement or withdrawal.
Iran: U.S. Economic Sanctions and the Authority to Lift Restrictions
This report identifies the legislative bases for sanctions imposed on Iran, and the nature of the authority to waive or lift those restrictions. It includes two tables that present legislation and executive orders that are specific to Iran and its objectionable activities in the areas of terrorism, human rights, and weapons proliferation.
U.S. Decision to Cease Implementing the Iran Nuclear Agreement
This report analyzes the Trump Administration's decision to pullout from the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) and its potential implications. The other powers that negotiated the accord with Iran--Russia, China, France, Britain, and Germany--have consistently asserted that the JCPOA is succeeding in its core objectives and that its implementation should not be jeopardized.
Kuwait: Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy
This report discusses Kuwait's governmental structure and politics, defense policies and cooperation with the U.S., foreign policy towards its neighbors, economy, and human rights concerns.
Armed Conflict in Syria: Overview and U.S. Response
This report discusses the ongoing conflict in Syria and U.S. policy regarding the conflict and potential resolutions. It includes information on the recent U.S., French, and British joint missile strike in response to the the use of chemical weapons in Douma, Syria by Syrian government forces.
U.S. Foreign Aid to Israel
This report provides an overview of U.S. foreign assistance to Israel. It includes a review of past aid programs, data on annual assistance, and analysis of current issues.