Congressional Research Service Reports - 451 Matching Results

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The U.S. Export Control System and the Export Control Reform Initiative
This report discusses the U.S. export control system for defense-related exports. It examines the current split administration of the various parts of the system and outlines the proposals to unify and streamline the system.
India: Religious Freedom Issues
This report provides an overview of religious freedom issues in India including a broad discussion of the religious demographics and freedoms, and human rights. It also discusses specific areas of religiously-motivated repression and violence and perceived assaults on freedoms of expression and operations by nongovernmental organizations that are seen as harmful to India's secular traditions and the U.S-promoted goal of interfaith tolerance.
Questioning Judicial Nominees: Legal Limitations and Practice
This report examines the relevant considerations for questioning judicial nominees. It describes applicable canons of judicial ethics that may discourage judicial nominees from answering certain questions posed by Members of Congress; which types of questions prior federal judicial nominees have answered or declined to answer, focusing on nominees for the U.S. Supreme Court; and some takeaways for Members.
Turkey's Currency Crisis
This report discusses the currency crisis in Turkey, implications for the Turkish and U.S. economies, and questions for Congress to consider.
China-U.S. Trade Issues
This report provides an overview of U.S.-China commercial ties, identifies major issues of contention, describes the Trump Administration's trade policies toward China, and reviews possible outcomes.
Hostage-Taking Statute Covers Kidnapping for Ransom Abroad
This report discusses the U.S. Court of Appeals case United States v. Noel, in which Noel challenged his conviction for seizing an American citizen in Haiti to hold for ransom.
Intelligence Planning, Programming, Budgeting and Evaluation Process (IPPBE)
This report describes the phases of the Intelligence Planning, Programming, Budgeting and Evaluation Process (IPPBE). The Intelligence Community (IC) uses IPPBE to identify requirements and allocate resources that produce IC capabilities (e.g., human intelligence, signals intelligence, and geospatial intelligence) throughout development and execution of the National Intelligence Program (NIP) and budget. The NIP addresses priorities described in national security-related strategy documents such as the National Intelligence Strategy (NIS) and Consolidated Intelligence Guidance (CIG).
Army Corps of Engineers: Water Resource Authorization and Project Delivery Processes
This report summarizes congressional authorization legislation for U.S. Army Corps of Engineer (USACE) water resource development projects, the standard project delivery process, authorities for alternative water resource project delivery, and other USACE authorities.
Establishment of Task Force on the U.S. Postal Service
This report discusses the task force on the U.S. Postal Service established by President Trump's Executive Order on April 12, 2018, (EO 13829) and the topics the task force is directed to address. It concludes with potential issues for congressional consideration.
Federal Public Transportation Program: In Brief
This report provides a brief description of the Federal Public Transportation Program and its functions and funding.
Introduction to the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP)
This report provides introductory information on key components of the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP), ranging from floodplain mapping to the standard flood insurance forms. This report will be updated as significant revisions are made to the NFIP through legislation or administrative action. However, this report does not provide detail on current or future legislative issues for Congress, which are covered in a separate report
Military Suicide Prevention and Response
This report discusses suicide among military service members, including the scope of the issue, efforts previously taken to address it, and considerations for confronting the issue in the future.
Options to Cease Implementing the Iran Nuclear Agreement
This report analyzes some of the options the Administration and Congress might use to end or alter U.S. implementation of the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) AKA the Iran Nuclear deal. Potential implications of these options are analyzed as well. This report bases its analysis primarily on the text of key documents involved in the issue--the JCPOA itself;3 U.N. Security Council Resolution 2231 of July 20, 2015,4 which endorsed the JCPOA; and the Iran Nuclear Agreement Review Act (INARA, P.L. 114-17, of May 22, 2015).
Teen Birth Trends: In Brief
This report provides context for Congress about the U.S. teen birth rate--or the number of births per 1,000 females aged 15 to 19 each year--and its changes since the 1950s. Over this period, the teen birth rate has generally been in decline. This decline has been most significant in recent years, with the rate reaching a record low in 2016. Multiple factors have likely contributed to the decrease, though the influence of any single factor is not fully known. Reduced teen sexual activity, particularly among younger adolescents, could be one explanation. Increases in use of contraceptives, including highly effective and multiple methods, among sexually active teens could be another. Other factors, such as broader social and economic trends, may also be at play.
Teen Pregnancy: Federal Prevention Programs
This report discusses federal programs that assist in reducing teen pregnancy rates. This report begins with a brief discussion of recent developments in funding for the four teen pregnancy prevention programs. It then provides background on the role of Congress and the executive branch in preventing teen pregnancy. The remainder of the report focuses on the four programs, examining the types of grants they provide as well as related funding, requirements, and research activities.
Third Circuit Invalidates "De Facto" Life Sentences for "Non-Incorrigible" Juvenile Offenders
This report discusses a recent ruling by the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit in the case of "United States v. Grant" that prohibits the use of "de facto" life sentences without possibility of parole (created by sentencing juveniles to prison terms longer than the average lifespan or that would end after they reached the typical retirement age) for juvenile offenders who have a reasonable potential for rehabilitation. The report also discusses previous decisions related to this issue and the split among appeals court over the proper application of the Eighth Amendment to juvenile sentencing restrictions.
Unemployment and Employment Programs Available to Workers Affected by Disasters
This report discusses two income support programs and two workforce service programs that are available to those who lose their jobs due to a disaster. In each benefit category, there is a broader permanent program and a more-targeted program for disaster-affected workers. All of these programs are administered through state agencies and some programmatic details may be state-specific.
Error and Fraud in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)
This report seeks to define terms related to errors and fraud; identify problems and describe what is known of their extent; summarize current policy and practice; and share recommendations, proposals, and pilots that have come up in recent years. The report answers several questions around four main types of inaccuracy and misconduct: trafficking SNAP benefits (by retailers and by recipients); retailer application fraud; errors and fraud in SNAP household applications; and errors and fraud committed by state agencies (including a discussion of states' recent Quality Control (QC) misconduct). The report then discusses challenges to combating errors and fraud--across the four areas--and potential strategies for addressing those challenges.
Navy Ford (CVN-78) Class Aircraft Carrier Program: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and potential oversight issues for Congress on the Gerald R. Ford (CVN-78) class aircraft carrier program. The Navy's proposed FY2019 budget requests a total of $1,598.2 million in procurement funding for the program. Congress's decisions on the CVN-78 program could substantially affect Navy capabilities and funding requirements and the shipbuilding industrial base.
Recently Expired Individual Tax Provisions (Tax Extenders"): In Brief
This report provides background information on three individual income tax provisions (Tax Exclusion for Canceled Mortgage Debt, Mortgage Insurance Premium Deductibility, and Above-the-Line Deduction for Qualified Tuition and Related Expenses) that expired in 2017.
Small Business Administration Microloan Program
This report provides an overview of the Small Business Administration's microloan program and its funding sources.
Venture Capital Funds: Proposals to Expand Investor Thresholds Required for Registration (Section 504 of S. 2155, Section 471 of H.R. 10, H.R. 1219, S. 444, and Section 914 of H.R. 3280)
This report discusses venture capital funds and the rules regarding information they must release to investors along with recent legislation related to the issue.
Gun Control: Concealed Carry Legislation in the 115th Congress
This report discusses handgun concealed carry laws and provides statistics for the type of permits issued by states and territories and a historical comparison to laws in 1987.
Real Wage Trends, 1979 to 2016
This report provides data and analysis of real wage rates from 1979 to 2016 with a focus on wage rates and changes at selected wage percentiles, with some attention given to the potential influence of educational attainment and the occupational distribution of worker groups on wage patterns.
Vulnerable Youth: Background and Policies
This report first provides an overview of the youth population and the increasing complexity of transitioning to adulthood for all adolescents. It also provides a separate discussion of the concept of "disconnectedness," as well as the protective factors youth can develop during childhood and adolescence that can mitigate poor outcomes. Further, the report describes the evolution of federal youth policy, focusing on three time periods, and provides a brief overview of current federal programs targeted at vulnerable youth. (Table A-1 at the end of the report, enumerates the objectives and funding levels of such programs. Note that the table does not enumerate all programs that target, even in small part, vulnerable or disconnected youth.) The report then discusses the challenges of coordinating federal programs for youth, as well as federal legislation and initiatives that promote coordination among federal agencies and support programs with a positive youth development focus.
Wildfire Management Funding: Background, Issues, and Fiscal Year 2018 Appropriations
This report provides an overview of the accounts that fund wildfire management activities and historical wildfire management appropriations data, as well as information on FY2018 appropriations.
Concurrent Receipt: Background and Issues for Congress
This report addresses the issue of concurrent receipt, which is when a person receives both military retirement pay and Veterans Administration (VA) disability pay in the full amounts due to them. It discusses the two primary components of the concurrent receipt program: Combat Related Special Compensation (CRSC) and Concurrent Retirement and Disability Payments (CRDP), and also reviews the possible legislative expansion of the program to additional populations with several potential options for Congress to consider.
Contested Elections in Honduras
This report discuses the November 26, 2017 Honduran presidential elections including allegations of irregularity in the voting count and uncertainty over who the election winner is with only 89% of the vote counted as a of November 30th. It provides an overview of implications of the results of the election for the United States and their relations with Honduras.
Military Benefits for Former Spouses: Legislation and Policy Issues
This report provides a general discussion of legislative provisions and proposals relating to the military benefits for former spouses. Questions that this report seeks to answer include: What benefits can former spouses of members or retirees of the uniformed services receive under law? What role do the services play in facilitating delivery of those benefits? What practical problems arise in the implementation of and service involvement in claims on those benefits? How does the current system for a divorce-related division of military retired pay work?
Missing Adults: Background, Federal Programs, and Issues for Congress
This report discusses federal efforts to assist local law enforcement in adult missing persons cases. It discusses demographics and record keeping of missing adults and unidentified remains; federally-funded databases that are used to track data on missing adults and unidentified individuals; federal programs and initiatives to assist in locating missing adults, including funding data; and issues regarding the federal role in missing adult cases.
Money Laundering: An Overview of 18 U.S.C. §1956 and Related Federal Criminal Law
This report provides an overview of the elements of federal criminal money laundering statutes and the sanctions imposed for their violation. It includes an extensive overview and analysis of elements as well as legal attributes and consequences of violating various federal criminal statues related to money laundering, most specifically 18 U.S.C. § 1956, 1957, and 1952. The end of the report provides text of the statutes discussed, citations of state money laundering and money transmission statutes, and a list federal predicate offenses with their accompanying maximum terms of imprisonment.
Navy DDG-51 and DDG-1000 Destroyer Programs: Background and Issues for Congress
This report presents background information and potential oversight issues for Congress on the Navy's Arleigh Burke (DDG-51) and Zumwalt (DDG-1000) class destroyer programs. The Navy's proposed FY2018 budget requests funding for the procurement of two DDG-51s, and authority for a new multiyear procurement (MYP) contract covering DDG-51s to be procured in FY2018-FY2022.
Navy John Lewis (TAO-205) Class Oiler Shipbuilding Program: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on the John Lewis (TAO205) class oiler shipbuilding program, previously known as the TAO(X) program, a program to build a new class of 20 fleet oilers for the Navy. The report also discusses budget requests for FY2018 and FY2019.
Navy Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) Program: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on the Navy's Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) program. A total of 29 LCSs have been procured through FY2017. For FY2018, the Navy is requesting the procurement of 30th and 31st LCSs.
Navy LX (R) Amphibious Ship Program: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on the LX(R) program, a program to build a new class of amphibious ships for the Navy. The report discusses the requested research and development funds in Navy's proposed FY2018 budget, with the intent of procuring the first LX(R) in FY2020.
Reauthorization of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in the 115th Congress
This report considers prominent topics in the 115th Congress's Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) reauthorization debate. Major issues discussed are financing, air traffic control privatization, unmanned aerial vehicles (drones), the Essential Airline Service (EAS), foreign airlines, and certification reform.
Shutdown of the Federal Government: Causes, Processes, and Effects
This report is intended to address questions that arise frequently related to the topic of government shutdowns. It discusses the causes of funding gaps and shutdowns of the federal government, processes that are associated with shutdowns, and how agency operations may be affected by shutdowns. The report concludes with a discussion of potential issues for Congress.
Social Security Primer
This report provides an overview of Social Security financing and benefits under current law. The report covers a brief history of the program; Social Security financing and the status of the trust funds; how Social Security benefits are computed; the types of Social Security benefits available to workers and their family members; the basic eligibility requirements for each type of benefit; the scheduled increase in the Social Security retirement age; and the federal income taxation of Social Security benefits.
Third Treasury Report on Regulatory Relief: Asset Management and Insurance
This report provides an overview of the third U.S. Treasury publiscation in a series of reports describing regulations of the financial system and ways that it could be improved. This report specifically addresses asset management and insurance with background information and recommendations for improvements.
U.S. Senate Vacancies: Contemporary Developments and Perspectives
This report discusses senate vacancies created by a member resigning, dying, or transferring to another position as well as the the procedures to fill them.
Renegotiating NAFTA and U.S. Textile Manufacturing
This report discuses the renegotiation of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and its effects on the textile and apparel industry. Various provisions of NAFTA regarding textiles and apparel are discussed along with a general discussion of the U.S textile industry.
Taiwan: Issues for Congress
This report describes Taiwan's governmental structure, politics, economy, relations with its neighbors, and ongoing sovereignty disputes with China which have intensified recently. U.S. relations with Taiwan and legislation related to Taiwan in the 115th Congress is also discussed.
Treasury Proposes Rule that Could Deliver a 'Death Sentence" to Chinese Bank
This report discusses the Treasury Department's Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN) proposal to invoke the "Fifth Special Measure" on the Chinese Bank of Dandong for its alleged role in funding and and processing transactions for North Korea's weapons programs.
The Vacancies Act: A Legal Overview
This report first describes how the Vacancies Act operates and outlines its scope, identifying when the Vacancies Act applies to a given office, how it is enforced, and which offices are exempt from its provisions. The report then explains who may serve as an acting officer and for how long, focusing on the limitations the Vacancies Act places on acting service. Finally, the report turns to issues of particular relevance to Congress, primarily highlighting the Vacancies Act's enforcement mechanisms.
China's Economic Rise: History, Trends, Challenges, and Implications for the United States
This report provides background on China's economic rise; describes its current economic structure; identifies the challenges China faces to maintain economic growth; and discusses the challenges, opportunities, and implications of China's economic rise for the United States.
The HUD Homeless Assistance Grants: Programs Authorized by the HEARTH Act
This report discusses the problem of homelessness and prevention programs funded by grants through the Department of Housing and Urban Development's (HUD) HEARTH Act. It has multiple sections describing the implementation of the HEARTH Act provisions which are; changes to the definition of homelessness in the section "The Definition of Homelessness"; the way in which ESG operated prior to HEARTH Act implementation as well as the changes made beginning in FY2011 in the section "The Emergency Solutions Grants Program (ESG)"; components of the competitive Homeless Assistance Grants prior to enactment of the HEARTH Act, and how they have been absorbed in the CoC program in the section "Transition to the Continuum of Care Program"; how funds are distributed pursuant to the CoC program in the section "Distribution of Continuum of Care Program Funds"; and the housing and services that are authorized to be provided through the RHS program and how communities are to receive funds in the section "Rural Housing Stability Assistance Program."
Judiciary Appropriations, Fiscal Year 2018
This report provides an overview of the consideration of FY2018 judiciary appropriations, with subsections covering each major action, including the initial submission of the request on May 23, 2017; a hearing held by the House Appropriations Subcommittee on Financial Services and General Government; the House Appropriations subcommittee markup on June 29, 2017; and the House Appropriations Committee markup on July 13, 2017. The status of FY2018 judiciary appropriations is summarized in Table 1. This overview is followed by a section on prior-year actions and funding. The report then provides an overview of judiciary accounts.
Trade Adjustment Assistance for Firms
This report discusses the Trade Adjustment Assistance for Firms (TAAF) program, which is administered by the Economic Development Administration (EDA) of the Department of Commerce. The TAAF program assists eligible American companies that have been harmed by increasing imports; this harm is defined by lower domestic sales and employment because of increased imports of similar goods and services. Through the TAAF program, EDA provides technical assistance, on a cost-sharing basis, to help eligible businesses create and implement business recovery plans that may allow them to remain competitive in a dynamic international economy.4 The TAAF program provides technical assistance through a partnership with a national network of 11 EDA-funded Trade Adjustment Assistance Centers (TAACs).
The Federal Budget: Overview and Issues for FY2018 and Beyond
This report summarizes issues surrounding the federal budget, examines policy changes relevant to the budget framework for FY2018, and discusses recent major policy proposals included in the President's FY2018 budget. It concludes by addressing major short- and long-term fiscal challenges facing the federal government.
The Legal and Practical Effects of Private Immigration Legislation and Recent Policy Changes
This report discusses the use of private immigration bills in Congress which allow Congress to grant permanent residency status to an immigrant who is not eligible under normal immigration procedures but that they deem to have extraordinary equities in the United States. It also addresses the announcement of new rules by the Immigration and Citizenship Enforcement Department (ICE) that limit stays of removal granted to immigrants who are proposed beneficiaries of a private immigration bill in Congress.