Congressional Research Service Reports - 466 Matching Results

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Coast Guard Cutter Procurement: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and potential oversight issues for Congress on the Coast Guard's programs for procuring 8 National Security Cutters (NSCs), 25 Offshore Patrol Cutters (OPCs), and 58 Fast Response Cutters (FRCs). The Coast Guard's proposed FY2019 budget requests a total of $705 million in acquisition funding for the NSC, OPC, and FRC programs.
Coast Guard Polar Security Cutter (Polar Icebreaker) Program: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on the Coast Guard's program for acquiring new polar icebreakers -- previously known as the polar icebreaker (PIB) program and now called the Polar Security Cutter (PSC) program. The proposed FY2019 budget requests $750 million in acquisition funding for the program. The issue for Congress is whether to approve, reject, or modify the Administration's FY2019 acquisition funding request for the PSC program, and, more generally, whether to approve, reject, or modify the Coast Guard's overall plan for procuring new polar icebreakers.
Financial Services and General Government (FSGG) FY2019 Appropriations: Independent Agencies and General Provisions
This report provides an overview of funding under the Financial Services and General Government (FSGG) appropriations bill including a breakdown of more than two dozen individual independent agencies, general government-wide provisions, and sanctions on Cuba.
Morocco: Background and U.S. Relations
This report outlines the politics, economy, terrorism issues, and foreign relations of Morocco.
Navy Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) Program: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on the Aegis ballistic missile defense (BMD) program, which is carried out by the Missile Defense Agency (MDA) and the Navy, and gives Navy Aegis cruisers and destroyers a capability for conducting BMD operations. The issue for Congress is whether to approve, reject, or modify Department of Defense (DOD) acquisition strategies and proposed funding levels for the Aegis BMD program.
Social Security: Raising or Eliminating the Taxable Earnings Base
This report discusses the Social Security taxes that are levied on covered earnings up to a maximum level (base) set each year. It includes information about how the base has been determined demographically and how it has changed over time, as well as possible future implications and impacts of either raising or eliminating the base, with arguments for and against.
U.S. Role in the World: Background and Issues for Congress
This report presents background information and issues for Congress on the overarching U.S. foreign policy issue of the U.S. role in the world. Certain statements and actions from the Trump Administration have led to uncertainty about the Administration's intentions regarding the future U.S. role, and have intensified an ongoing debate among foreign policy specialists, strategists, policymakers, and the public about what that role should be.
EPA Proposes the Affordable Clean Energy Rule to Replace the Clean Power Plan
This report explores the legal basis for the proposed Affordable Clean Energy (ACE) Rule and discusses the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) authority to consider various emission reduction options for existing power plants under the Clean Air Act (CAA).
Government Contract Bid Protests: Analysis of Legal Processes and Recent Developments
This report briefly analyzes the varying legal procedures applicable to bid protests under each forum. First, it provides an overview of bid protests generally and then analyzes the legal distinctions among these forums. Finally, the report discusses recent legislative developments affecting bid protest procedures and potential considerations for Congress.
Iran Sanctions
This report discusses U.S. sanctions against Iran and the 2016 Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) nuclear agreement which led to the lifting of sanctions based on nuclear proliferation in Iran. The bulk of the report outlines the various sanctions against Iran and their current implementation status, international efforts to bring about compliance, and their effects; it also addresses recent discussions regarding President's Trump announcement that the U.S. was decertifying the nuclear agreement and the possibility of reinstating certain sanctions.
Marine Corps Amphibious Combat Vehicle (ACV): Background and Issues for Congress
This report discusses the development and procurement of the Marine Corps Amphibious Combat Vehicle (ACV) and the FY2019 budget request for the ACV program.
Selected Legal Tools for Maintaining Government Contractor Accountability
This report analyzes a selection of the legal tools a procuring agency may use to hold contractors accountable. It assesses contractual remedies that procuring agencies could utilize, discusses performance-related contract source selection criteria, and describes other legal tools--outside of contract law and the contract selection processes--that the government may employ to hold a contractor accountable.
Water Infrastructure Financing: The Water Infrastructure Finance and Innovation Act (WIFIA) Program
This report discusses the Water Infrastructure Finance and Innovation Act which is planning to provide subsidized loans and credit assistance to water infrastructure projects through the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency).
Agricultural Disaster Assistance
This report describes federal agricultural disaster assistance available to farmers for crop losses, livestock deaths, and tree damage due to natural disasters or adverse weather conditions such as drought.
Australia and New Zealand React to China's Growing Influence in the South Pacific
This report discusses rising concern over China's influence in the South Pacific and the response from Australia and New Zealand.
Cambodian Elections
This report briefly summarizes the political history of Cambodia, recent political developments in the country, and U.S. policy responses.
Capital Markets, Securities Offerings, and Related Policy Issues
This report analyzes legislative proposals that would generally affect the terms and amounts of capital provided to companies by investors. It analyzes a number of current legislative proposals and agency actions to expand both public and private securities offerings through amendments to program design, investor access, and disclosure requirements, among other provisions.
The European Union and China
This report discusses the political and economic relationship between the European Union (EU) and China. The EU and China have over 70 high-level and senior-level dialogues, working groups, and steering committees reflecting the wide-ranging scope of the relationship, including in areas such as cyber, transnational crime, economics, high-tech innovation, tourism, energy, and the environment.
History of Use of U.S. Military Bases to House Immigrants and Refugees
This report discusses the use of Goodfellow Air Force Base and Fort Bliss, both in Texas, to house migrant families trying to cross the border, as well as the historical use of military bases to house immigrants and refugees.
NAFTA Renegotiation and Modernization
This report provides a brief overview of NAFTA and the role of Congress in the renegotiation process; it discusses key issues related to the negotiations. It also provides a discussion of policy implications for Congress going forward.
Only Minimal Impact on Commerce Needed for Attempted Bombing
This report discusses the decision of the United States Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit in the United States v. Suarez case, that a minimal impact on commerce is sufficient to satisfy the jurisdictional requirement of the federal weapons of mass destruction statute. This decision seems to reflect a growing willingness of federal appellate courts to read broadly Congress's Commerce Clause powers.
U.S. Sanctions on Russia: An Overview
This report provides an overview of U.S. sanctions imposed against Russia for aggression against Ukraine, election interference, malicious cyber activity, human rights violations, weapons proliferation, and other activities.
Zimbabwe: Forthcoming Elections
This report discusses the election players, electoral challenges, and U.S. role in the July 2018 Zimbabwe elections -- the first since the November 2017 resignation of President Robert Mugabe after 37 years in office. The election has raised hopes for the resolution of a persistent economic crisis and for a democratic transition ending a long pattern of human rights violations and undemocratic governance--and an end to the years of international condemnation, sanctions, and isolation generated by such trends.
Defense Primer: Understanding the Process for Auditing the Department of Defense
This report explains why the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) receives annual audits, how the audits are conducted, limitations of audits, and considerations for Congress.
Opioid Treatment Programs and Related Federal Regulations
This report provides information on federal regulations regarding treatment for opioid addiction, including medication-assisted treatment (MAT), opioid treatment programs (OTPs), and DATA-waived providers (DWPs).
Supreme Court Drives Home Its Concern for Privacy in Collins v. Virginia
This report discusses the Collins decision and its potential implications for Fourth Amendment law. Facing a clash between two well-established Fourth Amendment doctrines--the primacy of the home in Fourth Amendment case law versus the "automobile exception" to the Amendment's warrant requirement--the Supreme Court in Collins v. Virginia ultimately came down on the side of protecting privacy within the home and its adjoining property.
The Trump Administration's Reform Plan and Reorganization Recommendations
This report discusses the Trump Administration's "Delivering Government Solutions in the 21st Century: Reform Plan and Reorganization Recommendations" (the Reform Plan). The stated goal of the Reform Plan is to "improve the efficiency, effectiveness, and accountability of agencies."
UPDATE: Supreme Court Takes Fourth Amendment Case about Cell Phone Location Data
This report provides an update to a June 2017 report on the Carpenter v. United States case on government collection of cell phone location information. On June 22, 2018, the Supreme Court held in a 5-to-4 decision in Carpenter v. United States that government acquisition of historical cell site location information (CSLI) constitutes a Fourth Amendment search. The Court further held that the government needs a warrant supported by probable cause.
African American Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2018
This report provides statistics on the current numbers and roles of African American Members of Congress as well as historical data on African American Members of Congress.
Artificial Intelligence and National Security
This report discuses research and development of artificial intelligence (AI) applications for the military, their potential uses, and the programs of competing nations such as China and Russia.
Federally Supported Water Supply and Wastewater Treatment Programs
This report provides background information on the types of water supply and wastewater treatment projects traditionally funded by the federal government and the several existing programs to assist communities with water supply and wastewater treatment.
Kuwait: Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy
This report discusses Kuwait's governmental structure and politics, defense policies and cooperation with the U.S., foreign policy towards its neighbors, economy, and human rights concerns.
Maritime Territorial and Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) Disputes Involving China: Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on maritime territorial and exclusive economic zone (EEZ) disputes in the East China (ECS) and South China Sea (SCS) involving China, with a focus on how these disputes may affect U.S. strategic and policy interests.
The National Health Service Corps
This report provides an overview of the National Health Service Corps (NHSC), including the program's funding, the number and types of providers the program supports, and the locations where they serve.
OPEC and Non-OPEC Crude Oil Production Agreement: Compliance Status
This report discusses OPEC countries and 11 non-OPEC countries agreement starting in late 2016 to reduce oil production and the purposes and impact of the agreement.
The Peace Corps: Current Issues
This report discuses the Peace Corps functions and funding as well as current issues such as the available funding for Peace Corps expansion, whether volunteers are able to function in a safe and secure environment, and volunteer access to abortion.
Runaway and Homeless Youth: Demographics and Programs
This report discusses runaway and homeless youth, and the federal response to support this population. The report begins with an overview of the runaway and homeless youth population. It then describes the challenges in defining and counting the runaway and homeless youth population, as well as the factors that influence homelessness and leaving home. The report also provides background on the evolution of the Runaway and Homeless Youth Act from the 1970s until it was last amended in 2008. It then describes the administration and funding of the Basic Center, Transitional Living, and Street Outreach programs that were created from authorizations in the act. Finally, the report discusses other federal programs that may be used to assist runaway and homeless youth.
A Shift in the International Security Environment: Potential Implications for Defense-Issues for Congress
This report discusses the changing international security environment and how the new realities should effect U.S. defense spending and strategy.
What is the Farm Bill?
This report provides an overview of the different sections of the Farm Bill and the purposes of the bill.
White House Directs EPA to Review Air Quality Standards and Permitting Process
This report discusses a recent Presidential memorandum that directs the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to review and streamline the implementation of the Clean Air Act .
Agricultural Credit: Institutions and Issues
This report discusses federal credit assistance for farmers and recent issues in Congress related to the programs.
Economic Growth, Regulatory Relief, and Consumer Protection Act (S. 2155) and House Legislation: Common Issue Areas
This report discusses the Economic Growth, Regulatory Relief, and Consumer Protection Act (S. 2155) and compares its provisions with sections of bills passed in the House that proposed similar or identical changes to the law.
Trends in Public Transportation Ridership: Implications for Federal Policy
This report discusses the implications of recent trends in public transit ridership in the U.S. for future federal policy.
Health Care for Dependents and Survivors of Veterans
This report discusses health care plans and benefits for dependents and survivors of veterans and eligibility requirements.
Public Sector Union Dues: Grappling with Fixed Stars and Stare Decisis (Part 1)
This report is part 1 of two of a report discussing the upcoming Supreme Court case of "Janus v. American Federation of State, County, and Municipal Employees, Council 31.
Public Sector Union Dues: Grappling with Fixed Stars and Stare Decisis (Part 2)
This report is part 1 of two of a report discussing the upcoming Supreme Court case of "Janus v. American Federation of State, County, and Municipal Employees, Council 31."
U.S. Foreign Aid to Israel
This report provides an overview of U.S. foreign assistance to Israel. It includes a review of past aid programs, data on annual assistance, and analysis of current issues.
The Unemployment Trust Fund (UTF): State Insolvency and Federal Loans to States
This report discusses the Unemployment Trust Fund (UTF) and summarizes how insolvent states may borrow funds from the UTF loan account to meet their UC benefit obligations. It includes the manner in which states must repay federal UTF loans. It also provides details on how the UTF loans may trigger potential interest accrual and explains the timetable for increased net Federal Unemployment Taxes Act (FUTA) taxes if the funds are not repaid promptly.
Abortion: Judicial History and Legislative Response
This report discusses the history of abortion related judicial decisions and legislation and current legislation related to abortion.
Administration's Syria Policy Envisions Continued U.S. Presence
This report discusses the President's plan for U.S. involvement in Syria in the future and the five main goals the U.S. hopes to accomplish there.