Congressional Research Service Reports - 417 Matching Results

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Asylum and Related Protections for Aliens Who Fear Gang and Domestic Violence
This report examines asylum claims with specific focus on gang and domestic violence. It provides background on the topic and also outlines the U.S. Attorney General's decision in "Matter of A-B-," as well as recent guidance from the U.S. Department of Homeland Security's (DHS's) U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) in light of that ruling.
Changes in the Arctic: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background on issues affecting the Arctic region on a large number of topics including research, policy, and governance of the region. It also outlines specific issues for Congressional consideration such as transportation, pollution, affects on people and animals, and geopolitical concerns.
The National Popular Vote (NPV) Initiative: Direct Election of the President by Interstate Compact
This report monitors the National Popular Vote's (NPV) progress in the states. It includes sections that provide brief background on the electoral college, history of the National Popular Vote concept, more detail on the NPV initiative, pros and cons for the NPV, legal issues, and concluding observations.
Protection of Executive Branch Officials
This report discusses the possibility of protective details for executive branch officials, in response to recent attempted bombing attacks on current and former government officials.
U.S. Secret Service Protection of Persons and Facilities
This report discusses the history of U.S. Secret Service (USSS), specific protection activities, and USSS protection issues.
The United Arab Emirates (UAE): Issues for U.S. Policy
This report discusses the current political and economic landscape of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and its relationship with the U.S. The UAE has been a significant U.S. partner in Gulf security for more than two decades, and the alliance has deepened further in recent years in order to address multiple regional threats.
What Legal Obligations do Internet Companies Have to Prevent and Respond to a Data Breach?
This report discusses obligations of Internet companies under both federal and state law. It also discusses several factors Congress might consider when weighing future legislation.
Army Corps of Engineers: Water Resource Authorization and Project Delivery Processes
This report summarizes congressional authorization legislation for U.S. Army Corps of Engineer (USACE) water resource development projects, the standard project delivery process, authorities for alternative water resource project delivery, and other USACE authorities.
Congressional Gold Medals: Background, Legislative Process, and Issues for Congress
This report discusses Congressional gold medals which are awarded by Congress for distinguished contributions to the United States. It describes the history, selection process, award designs and production process, and issues for Congress.
EPA Proposes New Permitting Test for Power Plant Modifications
This report discusses the EPA's proposed Affordable Clean Energy (ACE) Rule to address greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from existing coal-fired power plants. As part of the ACE Rule, EPA proposed a new test for determining whether New Source Review (NSR) would apply to a modification of an existing power plant.
Federal Reserve: Legislation in the 115th Congress
The Federal Reserve (Fed) is the subject of legislation being considered in the 115th Congress. This report analyzes Fed bills that have seen committee or floor action and the policy debate surrounding them. The bills contain wide-ranging changes that can be grouped into five broad categories: Fed governance, oversight and disclosure, monetary policy rules (the Taylor Rule), the Fed's emergency lending powers, and the Fed's balance sheet.
Iran's Foreign and Defense Policies
This report discusses Iran's foreign and defense policy and the reasoning behind it, as well as U.S. concerns regarding their power and nuclear weapon capability.
The Islamic State and U.S. Policy
This report provides background on the Islamic State organization, discusses its goals, operations, and affiliates, reviews U.S. legislative and policy debates, and reviews relevant legislation from the 114th and 115th Congresses.
This report briefly describes the political situation, economic conditions, energy policy of Cyprus.
Ebola: Democratic Republic of Congo
This report discusses an Ebola outbreak in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), first reported to the World Health Organization (WHO) on May 8, 2018. As of June 10, 2018, WHO reported a total of 55 cases, including 28 deaths.
The Essential Judge Brett M. Kavanaugh Reader: What Cases Should You Read?
This report highlights many of Judge Brett M. Kavanaugh's judicial opinions that have received the greatest degree of attention from legal observers. Judge Kavanaugh, whom President Trump has nominated to fill the impending Supreme Court vacancy caused by Justice Anthony M. Kennedy's retirement from the Court, has amassed a voluminous record of judicial writings during his legal career. These writings are certain to be a key topic of interest as the Senate prepares to hold hearings and a possible vote on Judge Kavanaugh's nomination to the High Court.
Federal Prize Competitions
This report discusses federal prize competitions, which are a tool for incentivizing the achievement of scientific and technological innovation by offering monetary and non-monetary benefits (e.g., recognition) to competition participants. Prize competitions have a long history of use in both the public and private sectors, but have gained popularity in recent years. This report describes the background and current trends of federal prize competitions, potential policy considerations, and legislation in the 115th Congress.
Moldova: An Overview
This report discusses Moldova, one of three post-Soviet states, together with Ukraine and Georgia, seeking greater integration with the West as it copes with separatist territories occupied by Russian forces.
Enforcing U.S. Trade Laws: Section 301 and China
This report discusses the Trump Administration's decision to proceed with a Section 301 case against China's intellectual property rights (IPR) policies and their intent to impose 25% ad valorem tariffs on $50 billion worth of Chinese products. It also looks at past use of Section 301 against China.
The G-7 Summit in Charlevoix, Canada: Changing U.S. Leadership in Global Forums
This report covers the 44th annual Group of 7 (G-7) summit on June 8-9. Seven of the world's largest advanced economies meet annually to discuss and coordinate economic and foreign policies, with the 2018 agenda focusing on economic growth, gender equality, jobs, and the environment.
An Overview of U.S. Immigration Laws Regulating the Admission and Exclusion of Aliens at the Border
This report discusses U.S. immigration law as it relates to the Trump Administration's zero tolerance policy to criminally prosecute migrants who unlawfully enter the United States at the southern border; a policy which has led to the separation of children from parents awaiting prosecution for unlawful entry.
Iran Nuclear Agreement
This report discusses the Iran nuclear agreement that was made on July 14, 2015 and the lifting of sanctions related to their nuclear weapons programs which occurred on January 16, 2016. It also outlines Iran's obligations under the agreement and Congressional discussion of adjustments to the agreement or withdrawal.
China Naval Modernization: Implications for U.S. Navy Capabilities: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on China's naval modernization effort and its implications for U.S. Navy capabilities. For an overview of the strategic and budgetary context in which China's naval modernization effort and its implications for U.S. Navy capabilities may be considered, see Appendix A.
Covert Action and Clandestine Activities of the Intelligence Community: Selected Definitions in Brief
This report provides definitions of clandestine versus covert intelligence activities and discusses what agencies are authorized to undertake which types of intelligence. It also covers military intelligence terms that are different than ones used by civilian government activities.
Foreign Aid: An Introduction to U.S. Programs and Policy
This report provides an overview of the U.S. foreign assistance program by answering frequently asked questions on the subject. It is intended to provide a broad view of foreign assistance over time, and will be updated periodically.
Medicaid's Federal Medical Assistance Percentage (FMAP)
This report describes the Federal Medical Assistance Percentage (FMAP) calculation used to reimburse states for most Medicaid expenditures, and it lists the statutory exceptions to the regular FMAP rate.
Russian Compliance with the Intermediate Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty: Background and Issues for Congress
This report describes the current status of the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty between Russia and the United States and highlights issues that Congress may address as the United States pursues its compliance concerns with Russia. It begins with a historical overview that describes the role of intermediate-range nuclear weapons in NATO's security construct in the late 1970s and the political and security considerations that affected the negotiation of the INF Treaty. In addition, the report summarizes the provisions of the INF Treaty, highlighting those central to the discussion about Russia's current activities. It then reviews the publicly available information about the potential Russian violation and Russia's possible motivations for pursuing the development of a noncompliant missile. Next, the report summarizes Russia's concerns with U.S. compliance with the treaty. The report concludes with a discussion of options that the United States might pursue to address its concerns with Russia's activities and options that it might pursue if Russia deploys new INF-range missiles.
2017 Disaster Supplemental Appropriations: Overview
This report discusses supplemental appropriations for 2017 disaster relief and recovery and provides a detailed breakdown of the requested, enacted, and proposed supplemental funding in each of these measures, and provides a contact listing for CRS experts on the funded relief and recovery programs.
Community Development Financial Institutions (CDFI) Fund: Programs and Policy Issues
This report discusses the Community Development Financial Institutions (CDFI) Fund which assists CDFI's which are business that provide financial products and services.
Federal Research and Development Funding: Fiscal Year 2018
This report discusses government research and development funding (R&D) for FY2018. It begins with a discussion of the overall level of President Trump's FY2018 R&D request, followed by analyses of the R&D funding request from a variety of perspectives and for selected multiagency R&D initiatives. The report concludes with discussion and analysis of the R&D budget requests of selected federal departments and agencies that, collectively, account for nearly 99% of total federal R&D funding.
Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies: Overview of Fiscal Year 2018 Appropriations
This report discusses the the Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies's fiscal year 2018 appropriations bill. It firsts presents a brief overview of the major agencies in the annual Interior appropriations bill. It then describes the appropriations requested by President Trump for FY2018. It next compares the FY2018 funding levels requested by the President, passed by the House, and contained in the Senate chairmen's draft with each other and with FY2017 appropriations. Finally, it summarizes the current status, including the government shutdown due to a lapse in continuing appropriations (provided through January 19, 2018).
The United Arab Emirates (UAE): Issues for U.S. Policy
This report discusses the government and political structure of the United Arab Emirates (UAE), their economy, defense policies and cooperation with the U.S., and regional foreign policy.
Doing Business with Iran: EU-Iran Trade and Investment Relations
This report discusses the European Union's (EU's) resumption of business with Iran after the signing of the 2015 nuclear disarmament agreement which led to the lifting of nuclear related sanctions. It outlines rates of business and major investments in Iran by European companies and the effect possible U.S. re-imposition of sanctions against Iran may have on the market and U.S.-EU relations.
EPA Proposes to Repeal the Clean Power Act
This report discusses the EPA's proposal to repeal the Obama Administration's 2015 rule "Carbon Pollution Emission Guidelines for Existing Stationary Sources: Electric Utility Generating Units (EGUs)" commonly known as the Clean Power Plan (CPP). It includes information about the legal basis for the repeal, process, possible challenges and impacts, as well as actions that Congress might take.
GAO Issues Opinions on Applicability of Congressional Review Act to Two Guidance Documents
This report discusses the Government Accountability Office's (GAO) issued opinions regarding whether a 2013 interagency guidance document and a 2016 amendment to the Tongass Land and Resource Management Plan by the Department of Agriculture were considered "rules" and as such be subject to the Congressional Review Act (CRA). The GAO determined neither document was a rule and thus they were not subject to CRA.
Payments for Affordable Care Act (ACA) Cost-Sharing Reductions
This report discusses President Trump's announcement that the federal government would stop issuing cost-sharing reductions(CSRs) to insurers under the Affordable Care Act (ACA) and potential implications for the insurance market and consumers.
Poverty in the United States in 2016: In Brief
This report discuses the poverty rate in the United States for 2016 as reported by the U.S. Census Bureau. The Census Bureau releases poverty estimates every September for the prior calendar year. Hence, most of the comparisons discussed in this report are year-to-year comparisons. However, in addition to the most recent year's data, this brief will present a historical perspective as well as information on poverty for demographic groups (by family structure, age, race and Hispanic origin, and work status) and by state. Over the past several decades, criticisms of the official poverty measure have led to the development of an alternative research measure called the Supplemental Poverty Measure (SPM), which the Census Bureau has also computed and released. Statistics comparing the official measure with the SPM are provided at the conclusion of this brief.
Reconsidering the Clean Power Plan
This report provides background on the Clean Power Plan (CPP) and its proposed repeal, describes the administrative steps that are required to repeal or amend a rule, and discusses how the CPP and its proposed repeal fit into the context of recent and projected power sector evolution.
Navy Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) Program: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on the Aegis ballistic missile defense (BMD) program, which is carried out by the Missile Defense Agency (MDA) and the Navy, and gives Navy Aegis cruisers and destroyers a capability for conducting BMD operations.
Potential Impacts of Uncertainty Regarding Affordable Care Act (ACA) Cost-Sharing Reduction Payments
This report discusses cost-sharing reduction (CSR) payments and their effects and funding along with current uncertainty about their continuation by health insurers.
Privatization and the Constitution: Selected Legal Issues
This report focuses on the constitutional principles and judicial decisions that may constrain certain types of privatization that involve private and government-created entities.
Arab League Boycott of Israel
This report provides background information on the Arab League boycott of Israel and past and current U.S. efforts to end its enforcement.
The Higher Education Act (HEA): A Primer
This report provides a brief overview of the major provisions of the Higher Education Act (HEA) organized by title and part. Appendix A of this report provides detailed appropriations figures for HEA-authorized programs, from FY2013 through FY2017. Appendix B gives a brief overview of the General Education Provisions Act, which applies to the majority of federal education programs administered by ED, including those programs authorized by the HEA. Finally, Appendix C provides information related to the eight comprehensive reauthorizations that the HEA has undergone. Other CRS reports provide more detailed discussions and analyses of the major HEA provisions.
Introduction to the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP)
This report provides introductory information on key components of the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP), ranging from floodplain mapping to the standard flood insurance forms.
This report provides an overview of Lebanon and current issues of U.S. interest. It offers background information, analyzes recent developments and key legislative debates, and tracks legislation, U.S. assistance, and recent congressional action.
Oman: Reform, Security, and U.S. Policy
This report describes the relationship between the United States and the Sultanate of Oman, especially with respect to Oman's support of U.S. efforts toward peace in the Middle East, the U.S. free trade agreement with Oman, and Oman's relatively close relations with Iran.
China's February 2017 Suspension of North Korean Coal Imports
This report discusses China's suspension of coal trade with North Korea for the remainder of 2017 which keeps China in compliance with an UN agreement to limit coal buying from North Korea that was implemented in November 2016 in response to continued nuclear tests by North Korea. Coal's value as an export to North Korea, China's trade with North Korea, quantities of coal and its value that was imported into China in 2016 and 2017, and possible reasons and implications for China's decision are discussed.
Deferred Maintenance of Federal Land Management Agencies: Fiscal Year 2007-Fiscal Year 2016 Estimates and Issues
This report discusses the maintenance backlogs/deferred maintenance at the four federal land management agencies (the National Park Service, the Fish and Wildlife Service, the Bureau of Land Management, and the Forest Service). It first provides agency deferred maintenance estimates for FY2016, the most recent fiscal year for which this information is available. It also discusses changes in deferred maintenance over the past decade (FY2007-FY2016) and then identifies some of the factors that likely contributed to these changes.
Jordan: Background and U.S. Relations
This report provides an overview of Jordanian politics and current issues in U.S.-Jordanian relations. It provides a brief discussion of Jordan's government and economy, and of its cooperation with U.S. policy objectives in the Middle East.
National Special Security Events: Fact Sheet
This report discusses the significance of major federal government or public events and the lead federal agency responsible for coordinating, planning, exercising, and implementing security for National Special Security events.