Congressional Research Service Reports - 456 Matching Results

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Honduras: Background and U.S. Relations
This report analyzes political, economic, and security conditions in Honduras. It also examines issues in U.S.-Honduran relations that have been of particular interest to Congress, including foreign assistance, migration, security cooperation, human rights, and trade and investment.
Iran and Israel: Tension Over Syria
This report discusses the tensions between Iran and Israel, which have been exacerbated since 2011 by Iranian military operations in support of the Syrian government.
A Shift in the International Security Environment: Potential Implications for Defense--Issues for Congress
This report focuses on defense-related issues in the international security environment. It provides extensive background on previous environment, observations of the shift in the environment, how Congress responded in the past, and emerging implications for defense. The report also summarizes relevant issues for Congress.
U.S.-India Trade Relations
This report discusses trade relations between the United States and India. Many observers believe bilateral commercial ties could be more extensive if trade and investment barriers were addressed.
Burma's Political Prisoners and U.S. Policy: In Brief
This report discusses the current issues in Burma (Myanmar) in regards to political prisoners and the resulting U.S. sanctions against the nation.
The Congressional Review Act: Determining Which "Rules" Must Be Submitted to Congress
This report describes what types of agency actions can be overturned using the Congressional Review Act (CRA) by providing a close examination and discussion of the statutory definition of a "rule." It also explains how Members can use the CRA to overturn agency rules that have not been submitted to Congress.
Escalating Tariffs: Potential Impacts
This report examines the potential impacts of U.S. trade actions on steel and aluminium tariffs and tariffs against China.
Exchange-Traded Funds (ETFs): Issues for Congress
This report discusses policy issues for Congress to address regarding exchange-traded funds (ETFs), which are common ways for Americans to invest. An ETF is an investment vehicle that, similar to a mutual fund, offers public investors shares of a pool of assets; unlike a mutual fund, however, an ETF can be traded on exchanges like a stock.
The Supreme Court's Overruling of Constitutional Precedent
This report examines how the Supreme Court determines whether to overrule its prior decisions on questions of constitutional law. It provides an overview of the doctrine of stare decisis, under which a court generally follows rules adopted in prior decisions; discusses how Justices who have adopted textualism and originalism handle conflicts between precedent and their judicial philosophies; and examines various factors that the Court weighs when interpreting the Constitution, providing examples from the Court's recent jurisprudence.
Systemically Important or "Too Big to Fail" Financial Institutions
This report discusses the economic issues raised by "too big to fail" (TBTF) financial firms, broad policy options, and policy changes made by the relevant Dodd-Frank provisions, as amended.
Judicial Fact-Finding and Criminal Sentencing: Current Practice and Potential Change
This report provides an overview of criminal sentencing law by briefly describing the use of relevant conduct under the Guidelines and tracing the Supreme Court case law that has informed the practice, before addressing judicial commentary and recently proposed legislation regarding the use of acquitted or uncharged conduct at sentencing.
Supreme Court Nomination: CRS Products
This document provides a list of all the Congressional Research Service reports describing the judicial decisions of Justice Kennedy and Judge Kavanaugh, as well as Supreme Court vacancies and nominations.
Yemen: Civil War and Regional Intervention
This report provides information on the ongoing crisis in Yemen. Now in its fourth year, the war in Yemen shows no signs of abating. On June 12, 2018, the Saudi-led coalition, a multinational grouping of armed forces led primarily by Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates (UAE), launched Operation Golden Victory, with the aim of retaking the Red Sea port city of Hudaydah. The coalition also has continued to conduct air strikes inside Yemen. The war has killed thousands of Yemenis, including combatants as well as civilians, and has significantly damaged the country's infrastructure. According to the United Nations (U.N.) High Commissioner for Human Rights, from the start of the conflict in March 2015 through August 9, 2018, the United Nations documented "a total of 17,062 civilian casualties -- 6,592 dead and 10,470 injured." This figure may vastly underestimate the war's death toll.
Cyprus: Reunification Proving Elusive
This report provides a brief overview of the history of the negotiations regarding reunification of the island of Cyprus and a description of some of the issues involved in those talks.
Momentum Toward Peace Talks in Afghanistan?
This report discusses a potential negotiated end to the conflict in Afghanistan, prompted by Afghan government negotiations with the Taliban, the June 2018 ceasefire, and possible U.S.-Taliban talks.
Mutual Legal Assistance Treaty with the Russian Federation: A Sketch
This report provides an overview of mutual legal assistance treaties (MLATs) in general and a sketch of the terms of the U.S.-Russia MLAT in particular.
Resurgence of Chemical Weapons Use: Issues for Congress
This report discusses the use of chemical weapons (CW). Despite being banned under the 1997 Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), has become a growing international concern in the past several years.
Army Futures Command
This report discusses the Army Futures Command, a proposed central command focused on Army modernization efforts.
Can Corporations be Held Liable Under the Alien Tort Statute?
This report is an update of an earlier report discussing the Supreme Court case of "Jesner v. Arab Bank" which reports the final decision that foreign corporations such as Arab Bank may not be brought as defendants in lawsuits under the Alien Tort Statute.
Changes in the Arctic: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides an overview of Arctic-related issues for Congress such as: Arctic sovereignty claims; commercial shipping through the Arctic; Arctic oil, gas, and mineral exploration; endangered Arctic species; and increased military operations in the Arctic that could cause the region in coming years to become an arena of international cooperation or competition. The FY2019 budget request for arctic research is included.
Children's Hospital Graduate Medical Education (CHGME)
This report describes the Children's Hospital Graduate Medical Education (CHGME) program's purpose and structure, history, and authorizations and appropriations. It also provides select program data, including the number of hospitals supported under the program, their location, the amount of funding they receive, and the number of residents trained. Finally, the report discusses alternative sources of GME funding available and some issues that Congress may consider as part of the program's reauthorization.
Closing the Flood Insurance Gap
This report discusses the flood insurance coverage gaps in the United States, provides statistics on the level of coverage and amount of flooding in coastal areas recently hit by hurricanes, and provides possible solutions to the flood insurance gap.
The Consumer Product Safety Act: A Legal Analysis
This report provides a legal overview of the Consumer Product Safety Act's (CPSC) structure, jurisdiction, and statutory powers under the CPSA.
Frequently Asked Questions about Prescription Drug Pricing and Policy
This report answers frequently asked questions about prescription drug pricing regulations and policy.
Monuments and Memorials Authorized Under the Commemorative Works Act in the District of Columbia: Current Development of In-Progress and Lapsed Works
This report provides a status update on 13 in-progress memorials and 4 memorials with lapsed authorizations. For each monument or memorial, the report provides a rationale for the work as expressed in the Congressional Record or a House or Senate committee report; its statutory authority; the group or groups sponsoring the commemoration; and the memorial's location (or proposed location), if known. A picture or rendering of each work is also included, when available.
Transatlantic Perspectives on Defense Innovation: Issues for Congress
This report discusses defense innovation and technology research and development in the American, British, French, and German military and ways to use implement such innovations into NATO forces.
Work Authorization for H-4 Spouses of H-1B Temporary Workers: Frequently Asked Questions
This report provides answers to frequently asked questions about work authorization for H-4 visa holders (visas for spouses and unmarried children under 21 of H-1B visa holders).
Amateur Strip-Club Arrests: Probable Cause and Qualified Immunity
This report discusses the Supreme Court case "District of Columbia v. Wesby" which addressed the question of what constituted probable cause for arrest and police officers qualified immunity from personal lawsuits against them for actions during the course of their duties.
Economic Impact of Infrastructure Investment
This report provides an overview of the trends surrounding infrastructure investment in the United States and examines the potential impact of additional infrastructure investments on economic output and employment.
EPA's Methane Regulations: Legal Overview
This report examines the EPA's statutory authority for issuing the methane regulations, legal challenges to the standards, and legal issues related to the reconsideration and stay of the regulations.
The Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS): An Overview
This report provides a basic description of the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS), including some of the widely discussed policy issues related to it and the 2018 RFS standard.
Security of Air Cargo Shipments, Operations, and Facilities
This report discusses security measures for air cargo shipments to protect against explosive devices being shipped or hijackings.
Coast Guard Polar Icebreaker Modernization: Background and Issues for Congress
This report discusses the Coast Guard's plan build a new polar icebreaker to replace a nonoperational one. Costs, past and proposed appropriations, and the general icebreaker program are discussed.
Diversity, Inclusion, and Equal Opportunity in the Armed Services: Background and Issues for Congress
This report starts by giving an overview of recent research on diversity and organizational management to demonstrate why organizations value diversity and what the findings on diversity mean in a military context. The next sections outline DOD's military personnel policies, processes and organizational structure for managing diversity, inclusion, and equal opportunity. Following that, the report examines how the concept of diversity and inclusion has evolved over the history of the Armed Forces and provides a snapshot of the current demographic composition of the military relative to the U.S. civilian population. Finally, the report addresses some of the current legislative and policy issues related to diversity in the Armed Forces.
Tracking Federal Awards: USAspending.gov and Other Data Sources
This report discusses the U.S, government site which tracks and publishes information on federal awards issued by all government agencies which is called USAspending.gov. Challenges of the site regarding data quality and completeness and other potential resources for acquiring various types of records are discussed.
Who Earns Pass-Through Business Income? An Analysis of Individual Tax Return Data
This report analyzes individual tax return data to determine who earns pass-through business income which is from sole proprietorships, partnerships, and S corporations. The analysis finds that in 2011 over 82% of net pass-through income was earned by individuals with an adjusted gross income (AGI) over $100,000, although these taxpayers accounted for just 23% of individual returns with pass-through income. Who earns pass-through income may have important implications for tax reform.
Congressional Health Coverage: Is the Government Contribution in Limbo?
This report first provides an overview of the statutory framework governing congressional health coverage and the current Office of Personnel Management (OPM) rule, and then addresses certain legal considerations that may come into play should the Trump Administration take action to modify this existing rule.
DHS Appropriations FY2017: Departmental Management and Operations
This report outlines the fiscal year 2017 appropriations for the Department of Homeland Security, Departmental Management and Operations made by Congress.
Disaster Unemployment Assistance (DUA)
This report describes the Disaster Unemployment Assistance (DUA) benefits are available only to those individuals who have become unemployed as a direct result of a declared major disaster and information on how to ascertain if an individual is eligible for DUA benefits.
Latin America and the Caribbean: Fact Sheet on Leaders and Elections
This report provides the results of recent elections in Latin America and the Caribbean. It includes three tables, organized by region, containing the date of each country's independence, the name of the newly elected president or prime minister, and the projected date of the next election.
Afghanistan: Post-Taliban Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy
This report examines the current political state of Afghanistan at length, discussing the political background, security policy, and regional relations.
Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS): OECD Tax Proposals
This report first reviews the basics of international tax rules. It then discusses the various action items organized into Action Item 1, which relates to the digital economy and proposes standards only with respect to VATS; Action Items 2-5, 7, and 8-10, items related primarily to profit shifting; Action Item 5, which relates to harmful tax practices; Action Item 6, regarding tax treaties; and Action Items 11-15, which are primarily administrative in nature.
Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) in the United States
This report provides a summary and analysis of the current state of carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) in the United States and current legislation and funding related to the CCS process and the regulation of air pollution and greenhouse gases.
Gulf Coast Restoration: RESTORE Act and Related Efforts
This report provides information on environmental damage and restoration activities related to the Deepwater Horizon spill. An overview of how the RESTORE Act is being implemented and a discussion of multiple funding sources and plans to recover and restore the Gulf Coast environment are discussed. Further, potential issues for Congress related to this restoration initiative are presented.
Iran Sanctions
This report analyzes U.S. and international sanctions against Iran and provides some examples, based on open sources, of companies and countries that conduct business with Iran.
Provisions of Obamacare Repeal Reconciliation Act of 2017 (ORRA)
This report provides summaries of each provision of the Obamacare Repeal Reconciliation Act of 2017 (ORRA).
Senate Committee Rules in the 115th Congress: Key Provisions
This report first provides a brief overview of Senate rules as they pertain to committee actions. The report then provides tables that summarize selected, key features of each committee's rules in regard to meeting day, hearing and meeting notice requirements, scheduling of witnesses, hearing quorum, business quorum, amendment filing requirements, proxy voting, polling, nominations, investigations, and subpoenas. In addition, the report looks at selected unique provisions some committees have included in their rules in the miscellaneous category. The tables represent only a portion of each committee's rules, and provisions of the rules that are substantially similar to or essentially restatements of the Senate's Standing Rules are not included. This report will be not be updated further during the 115th Congress.
The U.S. Export Control System and the Export Control Reform Initiative
This report discusses the U.S. export control system and initiatives to reform the export control system. Topics covered include the dual-use system, military export controls, nuclear controls, and President Obama's export control initiative.
The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
This report provides an overview of North American trade liberalization before NAFTA, an overview of NAFTA provisions, the economic effects of NAFTA, and policy considerations.
Paid Family Leave in the United States
This report provides an overview of paid family leave in the United States, summarizes state level family leave insurance programs, notes paid family leave policies in other advanced economy countries, and notes recent federal proposals to increase access to paid family leave.