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Global Human Rights: Multilateral Bodies & U.S. Participation
This report provides an overview of multilateral bodies regarding human rights, including the United Nations, International Criminal Court, and regional bodies.
Defense Primer: Personnel Tempo (PERSTEMPO)
This report explains the Department of Defense's (DOD's) personnel tempo (PERSTEMPO) management, policies and programs. PERSTEMPO refers to the pace of operations for servicemembers and can affect quality of life, work satisfaction, and overall morale for members and their families.
Navy Columbia (SSBN-826) Class Ballistic Missile Submarine Program: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and potential oversight issues for Congress on the Columbia-class program, a program to design and build a new class of 12 ballistic missile submarines (SSBNs) to replace the Navy's current force of 14 Ohio-class SSBNs. The program was previously known as the Ohio replacement program (ORP) or SSBN(X) program. The Navy has identified the Columbia-class program as the Navy's top priority program, and wants to procure the first Columbia-class boat in FY2021.
Navy Lasers, Railgun, and Gun-Launched Guided Projectile: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on three new ship-based weapons the Navy is developing that could improve the ability of Navy surface ships to defend themselves against missiles, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), and surface craft: the Surface Navy Laser Weapon System (SNLWS), the electromagnetic railgun (EMRG), and the gunlaunched guided projectile (GLGP), previously known as the hypervelocity projectile (HVP).
Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA): Resources for Frequently Asked Questions
This report provides resources to help answer frequently-asked questions regarding the Affordable Care Act (ACA). It includes information and links for topics such as the individual mandate, private health insurance, exchanges and subsidies, employee-sponsored coverage, Medicaid and Medicare, specific populations, behavioral health, state innovation waivers, taxes, costs and statistics, and regulatory issues.
U.S.-Japan Relations
This report discusses issues regarding U.S.-Japan economic relations. Japan is a significant partner of the United States in a number of foreign policy areas, particularly in U.S. security priorities, which range from hedging against Chinese military modernization to countering threats from North Korea.
Air Force OA-X Light Attack Aircraft Program
This report discusses the U.S. Air Force's intention to acquire a new type of aircraft. The OA-X light attack aircraft is a small, two-seat turboprop airplane designed for operation in relatively permissive environments.
Hong Kong: Recent Developments and U.S. Relations
This report discusses the government of Hong Kong and their relationship with the United States.
Iran: Internal Politics and U.S. Policy and Options
This report discusses the political history, current politics, and human rights practices of Iran, as well as Iran's relations with the United States, U.S. policy toward Iran, and future policy options.
Al Qaeda and Islamic State Affiliates in Afghanistan
This report outlines major terrorist groups affiliated and allied with Al Qaeda (AQ) and the Islamic State (IS, also known as ISIS, ISIL, or by the Arabic acronym Da'esh) and the complex, often shifting relations between them and various other state and non-state actors.
Argentina
This report discusses Argentina's political and economic situation, U.S. foreign aid to Argentina, trade and investment issues, and U.S. Congressional interest.
Enforcing U.S. Trade Laws: Section 301 and China
This report discusses the Trump Administration's decision to proceed with a Section 301 case against China's intellectual property rights (IPR) policies and their intent to impose 25% ad valorem tariffs on $50 billion worth of Chinese products. It also looks at past use of Section 301 against China.
Flying Cars and Drones Pose Policy Challenges for Managing and Regulating Low-Altitude Airspace
This report discusses the possibility that flying cars may soon become a reality. Development and marketing efforts are bringing to the fore new policy and regulatory challenges regarding the control of low-altitude airspace, safety, noise, privacy, and landowner rights. They also are raising new questions about the appropriate roles of federal, state, and local authorities in regulating and managing these operations.
Judicial Opinions of Judge Brett M. Kavanaugh
This report provides tabular listings of 306 cases in which Judge Kavanaugh authored a majority, concurring, or dissenting opinion. Arguably, these written opinions provide the greatest insight into Judge Kavanaugh's judicial approach, as a judge's vote or decision to join an opinion authored by a colleague may not necessarily represent full agreement with a colleague's views.
Mexico: Evolution of the Mérida Initiative, 2007-2019
This report begins with a brief discussion of security challenges in Mexico and Mexico's security strategy. It then provides information on congressional funding and oversight of the Mérida Initiative, with details about each of the program's four pillars. The report concludes by raising policy issues that Congress may wish to consider.
Australia, China, and the Indo-Pacific
This report discusses Australia's relations with China and the changing power dynamics in the Pacific region.
Cross-Border Data Sharing Under the CLOUD Act
This report reviews the development of cross-border data sharing laws in criminal matters in the United States. It begins with an overview of the Electronic Communications Privacy Act (ECPA) and the Stored Communications Act (SCA). Next, the report discusses the questions raised in the Microsoft litigation and the impact of the CLOUD Act on those issues. Finally, the report examines the new form of international agreements authorized by the CLOUD Act and the commentary on the benefits and drawbacks of the potential new international data sharing agreements.
Overview of "Travel Ban" Litigation and Recent Developments
This report is an update of an earlier report regarding the "travel ban" litigation going through the courts and includes President Trump's April 10th,2018, executive order lifting travel restrictions on nationals of Chad.
U.S. Trade with Free Trade Agreement (FTA) Partners
This report presents data on U.S. merchandise (goods) trade with its Free Trade Agreement (FTA) partner countries. The data are presented to show bilateral trade balances for individual FTA partners and groups of countries representing such major agreements as the North America Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the Central American Free Trade Agreement and Dominican Republic (CAFTA-DR) relative to total U.S. trade balances. This report also discusses the issues involved in using bilateral merchandise trade balances as a standard for measuring the economic effects of a particular FTA.
What's the Difference?: Comparing U.S. and Chinese Trade Data
This report examines the differences in the trade data from the two nations in two ways. First, it compares the trade figures using the Harmonized Commodity Description and Coding System (Harmonized System) to discern any patterns in the discrepancies between the U.S. and Chinese data. The second approach to examining the differing trade data involves a review of the existing literature on the technical and non-technical sources of the trade data discrepancies. This report is updated annually, after the release of official trade data by China and the United States.
Defense Primer: Defense Working Capital Funds
This report describes how Defense Working Capital Funds (DWCF) work and lists the major DWCF's that are currently in operation.
Fiscal Year 2018 Appropriations Overview: Census Bureau and Bureau of Economic Analysis
This report discusses FY2018 appropriations (discretionary budget authority) for the Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA) and Bureau of the Census (Census Bureau), historic components of the Economics and Statistics Administration (ESA) in the U.S. Department of Commerce. This report will be updated as legislative developments warran
The Holman Rule (House Rule XXI, Clause 2(b))
This report provides a history of the Holman Rule provision in House rules and an analysis of precedents that are illustrative of its possible application.
Turkey: Background and U.S. Relations In Brief
This report provides a brief overview of relations between Turkey and the U.S., Turkish foreign and military policies, and domestic issues in Turkey.
Analysis of the Tax Exclusion for Canceled Mortgage Debt Income
This report provides an analysis of the tax exclusion for canceled mortgage debt income.
The Budget Control Act: Frequently Asked Questions
This report addresses several frequently asked questions related to the Budget Control Act (BCA) and the federal annual budget.
Defense Spending Under an Interim Continuing Resolution: In Brief
This report provides a basic overview of interim continuing resolutions (CRs) and highlights some specific issues pertaining to operations of the Department of Defense (DOD) under a CR.
The European Union: Questions and Answers
This report serves as a primer on the EU. Despite the UK's vote to leave the EU, the UK remains a full member of the bloc until it completes withdrawal negotiations and officially exits the EU (expected to occur in March 2019). As such, this report largely addresses the EU and its institutions as they currently exist. It also briefly describes U.S.-EU political and economic relations that may be of interest in the 115th Congress.
Section 232 of the Trade Expansion Act of 1962
This report outlines the contents of Section 232 of the Trade Expansion Act of 1962 which is the bill that mandates that the Department of Commerce conduct studies of industries to determine whether foreign competition is harming national security and allows the President to impose tariffs or other restrictions on imports found to be threats to national security.
Supreme Court to Hear Digital Privacy Case: Can the Government Obtain Emails Stored Abroad?
This report discusses the upcoming Supreme Court case of "United States vs. Microsoft" which concerns whether the government can compel Microsoft to provide them emails stored abroad. This report provides background on the case, including an overview of the Stored Communications Act (SCA), discusses the specific issues presented by the Microsoft case, and explores the case's implications for Congress.
Vulnerable Youth: Federal Mentoring Programs and Issues
This report discusses federal mentoring programs for at-risk youths and various issues related to the issue of mentoring programs.
Banking Law: An Overview of Federal Preemption in the Dual Banking System
This report provides an overview of the respective roles of the federal government and the states in regulating banking.
Civilian Nuclear Waste Disposal
This report discusses disposal of nuclear waste, primarily highly radioactive spent fuel from nuclear power plants. Presidential and Congressional actions regarding nuclear waste disposal sites and the Yucca Mountain Project, other alternatives previously proposed by the Obama Administration, and temporary solutions are discussed.
Comparison of the Bills to Extend State Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) Funding
This report discuses recently proposed bills in the Senate (KIDS Act) and the House (HEALTHY KIDS Act) to extend funding for the State Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) which is currently unfunded for the 2018 fiscal year and running off of unused funds in each state from previous years. On October 4, 2017, both the Senate Finance Committee and the House Energy and Commerce Committee had markups on different bills that would extend CHIP federal funding through FY2022, among other provisions.
Memorandum on States Obligations Under Additional Protocols to IAEA Comprehensive Safeguards Agreements
This report discusses requirements for states with Additional Protocol Agreements under a Comprehensive Safeguard Agreement (CSA) administered by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) as a part of the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty. It provides background and information about additional protocol including information required under the Additional Protocol (AP) and locations and access.
Overview of "Travel Ban" Litigation and Recent Developments
This report provides an overview of the series of three executive actions -- (the first two taking the form of executive orders, and the third issued as a presidential proclamation) commonly referred to as the "Travel Ban," which restrict the entry of specified categories of non-U.S. nationals (aliens) into the United States -- as well as the litigation related to those executive actions.
Justice Department''s Role in Cyber Incident Response
This report outlines the federal framework for cyber incident response, highlighting the Department of Justice's (DOJ's) role in this response. It also discusses challenges for federal law enforcement and potential policy issues for Congress.
Labor Day Speech Resources: Fact Sheet
This report provides Members of Congress with resources for information and speech samples for use at Labor Day celebrations.
The National Park Service's Maintenance Backlog: Frequently Asked Questions
This report addresses frequently asked questions about NPS deferred maintenance also known as the maintenance backlog. The discussion is organized under the headings of general questions, funding-related questions, management-related questions, and questions on Congress's role in addressing the backlog.
The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act's (ACA's) Transitional Reinsurance Program
This report provides an overview of one of the three risk-mitigation programs of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, the transitional reinsurance program. The first section of the report provides background information on reinsurance and the ACA risk-mitigation programs. The second section describes the components of the transitional reinsurance program, as well as implementation of and experience with the program. The third section discusses questions regarding the scope of HHS's authority to administer the transitional reinsurance program, including those raised by a 2016 Government Accountability Office report. Finally, the report includes a table in the Appendix that summarizes key aspects of the transitional reinsurance program.
Recently Expired Individual Tax Provisions (Tax Extenders"): In Brief
This report provides background information on individual income tax provisions that expired in 2016. Information on costs associated with extending individual income tax expired provisions is provided in Table 1. The provisions that were extended in the PATH Act were extended for two years, retroactive for 2015 and through 2016. The estimated cost to make expired provisions permanent is as reported by the Congressional Budget Office (CBO). The CBO reports estimated deficit effects of extending expired and expiring tax provisions through the 10-year budget window (2018 – 2027).
Comparison of the American Health Care Act (AHCA) and the Better Care Reconciliation Act (BCRA)
This report discusses the comparison between the American Health Care Act (AHCA) and the "discussion draft" titled, "The Better Care Reconciliation Act of 2017" (BCRA) intended to repeal or modify provisions of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.
Cybersecurity: Legislation, Hearings, and Executive Branch Documents
This report discusses cybersecurity legislation and provides links to cybersecurity legislation in the 112th, 113th, 114th, and 115th Congresses. Congress has held cybersecurity hearings every year since 2001. This report also provides links to cybersecurity-related committee hearings in the 113th, 114th, and 115th Congresses.
Department of Veterans Affairs FY2017 Appropriations
This report provides an overview of Veterans Affairs (VA) appropriations. The VA provides a range of benefits and services to veterans and eligible dependents who meet certain criteria as authorized by law.
Science and Technology Issues in the 115th Congress
This report briefly outlines an array of science and technology (S&T) policy issues that may come before the 115th Congress. Given the rapid pace of S&T advancement and its importance in many diverse public policy issues, S&T-related issues not discussed in this report may come before the 115th Congress. The selected issues are grouped into 9 categories: Overarching S&T Policy Issues, Agriculture, Biomedical Research and Development, Defense, Energy, Environment and Natural Resources, Homeland Security, Information Technology, Physical and Material Sciences, and Space. Each of these categories includes concise analysis of multiple policy issues. The material presented in this report should be viewed as illustrative rather than comprehensive. Each section identifies CRS reports, when available, and the appropriate CRS experts to contact for further information and analysis.
U.S.-South Korea Relations
This report contains two main parts: a section describing recent events and a longer background section on key elements of the U.S.-South Korea relationship. It also provides a list of CRS products on South Korea and North Korea. The report identifies South Korean individuals by using their last name first.
The United States Withdraws from the TPP
This report discusses discusses the withdrawal of the United States as a signatory from the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) agreement as directed by President Trump.
Iran's Nuclear Program: Tehran's Compliance with International Obligations
This report provides a brief overview of Iran's nuclear program and describes the legal basis for the actions taken by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) board and the Security Council.
Provisions Affecting the Congressional Budget Process Included in H.Res. 5 (115th Congress)
This report provides information on the standing rules and separate orders that might affect the congressional budget process.
Blue-Slipping: Enforcing the Origination Clause in the House of Representatives
This report discusses the House enforcement of its prerogative by blue-slipping a measure upon its initial receipt from the Senate or during its consideration on the House floor.