Congressional Research Service Reports - 516 Matching Results

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Arms Sales: Congressional Review Process
This report reviews the process and procedures that currently apply to congressional consideration of foreign arms sales proposed by the President. This includes consideration of proposals to sell major defense equipment, defense articles and services, or the re-transfer to third party states of such military items.
China's Currency Policy
This report provides an overview of the economic issues surrounding the current debate over China's currency policy. It identifies the economic costs and benefits of China's currency policy for both China and the United States, and possible implications if China were to allow its currency to significantly appreciate or to float freely.
China's Status as a Nonmarket Economy (NME)
This report discusses China's classification by the World Trade Organization (WTO). China contends that language in its WTO accession protocol required all WTO members to terminate their use of the alternative methodology; the United States and other WTO members argue that that the WTO language did not automatically obligate them to extend market economy status (MES) to China.
Congress Considers Possible Responses to the Killing of a Saudi Journalist
This report discusses the potential responses by Congress regarding the killing of prominent Saudi Arabian journalist and former diplomatic advisor Jamal Khashoggi.
The Geospatial Data Act of 2018
This report provides a summary and analysis of each section of the Geospatial Data Act of 2018 (GDA). It also discusses possible implications of the new law and issues for Congress.
Navy DDG-51 and DDG-1000 Destroyer Programs: Background and Issues for Congress
This report presents background information and potential oversight issues for Congress on the Navy's Arleigh Burke (DDG-51) and Zumwalt (DDG-1000) class destroyer programs. The Navy's proposed FY2019 budget requests funding for the procurement of three DDG-51s.
Navy Ford (CVN-78) Class Aircraft Carrier Program: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and potential oversight issues for Congress on the Gerald R. Ford (CVN-78) class aircraft carrier program. The Navy's proposed FY2019 budget requests a total of $1,598.2 million in procurement funding for the program.
Navy Frigate (FFG[X]) Program: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and discusses potential issues for Congress regarding the Navy's FFG(X) program to procure a new class of 20 guided-missile frigates (FFGs). The Navy wants to procure the first FFG(X) in FY2020 and the proposed FY2019 budget requests $134.8 million in research and development funding for the program.
Navy John Lewis (TAO-205) Class Oiler Shipbuilding Program: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on the John Lewis (TAO205) class oiler shipbuilding program, a program to build a new class of 20 fleet oilers for the Navy. The TAO-205 program was previously known as the TAO(X) program. The Navy's proposed FY2019 budget requests the procurement of the third and fourth ships in the program.
Navy Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) Program: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on the Navy's Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) program. A total of 32 LCSs have been procured through FY2018. For FY2019, the Navy is requesting the procurement of the 33rd LCS. The LCS program presents several oversight issues for Congress.
Navy LPD-17 Flight II (LX[R]) Amphibious Ship Program: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on the LPD-17 Flight II amphibious ship program, previously known as the LX(R) program. The Navy had planned to procure the first LPD-17 Flight II ship in FY2020. Congress, as part of its action on the Navy's proposed FY2018 budget, accelerated the procurement of the first LPD17 Flight II ship to FY2018. The Navy's FY2019 budget submission programs the procurement of the second LPD17 Flight II ship for FY2020.
Navy Virginia (SSN-774) Class Attack Submarine Procurement: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on the Virginia-class nuclear-powered attack submarine (SSN) program. The Navy's proposed FY2019 budget requests nearly $7.2 billion in procurement and advance procurement (AP) funding for the program.
CFIUS Reform: Foreign Investment National Security Reviews
This report discusses recent legislation, known as the Foreign Investment Risk Review Modernization Act (FIRRMA) of 2018. The legislation amends the current process for the Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States (CFIUS) to review -- on behalf of the President -- the national security implications of foreign direct investment (FDI) in the United States.
Debates over Exchange Rates: Overview and Issues for Congress
This report provides information on current debates over exchange rates in the global economy. It offers an overview of how exchange rates work; analyzes specific disagreements and debates; and examines existing frameworks for potentially addressing currency disputes. It also lays out some policy options available to Congress.
FEMA and SBA Disaster Assistance for Individuals and Households: Application Process, Determinations, and Appeals
This report provides an overview of the Federal Emergency Management Agency's (FEMA's) Individual Assistance (IA) program and the Small Business Administration's (SBA's) Disaster Loan Program. It includes discussions about how declarations put the programs into effect, the application process for both programs, the criteria used by FEMA and the SBA to determine assistance, and the FEMA and SBA appeal processes. The report concludes with policy observations and considerations for Congress.
Hemp as an Agricultural Commodity
This report discusses the various industrial uses for hemp, a variety of Cannabis sativa of the same plant species as marijuana. It compares hemp with marijuana and discusses global production, legal status, and recent legislative activity.
A Primer on U.S. Immigration Policy
This report provides a broad overview of U.S. immigration policy. The first section addresses policies governing how foreign nationals enter the United States either to reside permanently or to stay temporarily. The second section discusses enforcement policies for excluding foreign nationals from admission into the United States, as well as for detaining and removing those who enter the country unlawfully or who enter lawfully but subsequently commit crimes that make them deportable. The third section addresses policies for unauthorized aliens residing in the United States.
U.S. Global Health Assistance: FY2001-FY2019 Request
This report outlines U.S. funding for global health by agency and program. Congress may debate several pressing global health issues, including strengthening health systems, bolstering pandemic preparedness, considering the FY2019 budget request, protecting life in global health assistance, and authorizing the extension of PEPFAR (President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief).
The United Arab Emirates (UAE): Issues for U.S. Policy
This report discusses the current political and economic landscape of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and its relationship with the U.S. The UAE has been a significant U.S. partner in Gulf security for more than two decades, and the alliance has deepened further in recent years in order to address multiple regional threats.
Department of Homeland Security Appropriations: Fiscal Year 2018
This report provides an overview and analysis of FY2018 appropriations for the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). The primary focus is on Congressional direction and funding provided through the appropriations process, but also notes funding made available to DHS outside this process (e.g., user fees and trust funds). It includes an appendix with definitions of key budget terms, and lists other Congressional Research Service reports that provide context and additional details regarding specific component appropriations and issues.
ATF's Ability to Regulate "Bump Stocks"
This report discusses whether ATF has the right to regulate "bump stocks" for rifles which allow rifles to mimic the actions of an automatic weapon and recent proposed regulatory action by ATF.
Bankruptcy Basics: A Primer
This report serves as a primer for Members and their staffs on the basics of U.S. bankruptcy law. The report provides a brief overview of the most essential concepts necessary for an informed understanding of the U.S. bankruptcy system
Department of Health and Human Services: Fiscal Year 2019 Budget Request
This report discusses the FY2019 appropriations request for the Department of Health and Human Services. The report begins by reviewing the department's mission and structure. Next, the report offers a brief explanation of the conventions used for the FY2018 estimates and FY2019 request levels in the budget documents released by the HHS and the Office of Management and Budget (OMB). The report also discusses the concept of the HHS budget as a whole, in comparison to how funding is provided to HHS through the annual appropriations process. The report concludes with a breakdown of the HHS request by agency, along with additional HHS resources that provide further information on the request. A table of CRS key policy staff is included at the end of the report.
Domestic Food Assistance: Summary of Programs
This report discusses food assistance programs which are administered by the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Food and Nutrition Service (USDA-FNS) programs as well as nutrition programs administered by the Administration on Aging (AOA), within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' Administration for Community Living (HHS-ACL).
Federal Reserve: Legislation in the 115th Congress
This report provides an overview of the Federal Reserve and legislation related to it proposed or passed during the 115th Congress.
It Belongs in a Museum: Sovereign Immunity Shields Iranian Antiquities Even When It Does Not Protect Iran
This report discusses the Supreme Court's decision in the case of "Rubin v. Islamic Republic of Iran" where the court ruled that the Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act (FSIA) did not permit U.S. victims of Iran-sponsored terrorist attacks to seize a collection of Persian antiquities on loan from Iran to a museum at the University of Chicago. The background of the case and case law about the FSIA is also discussed.
Unauthorized Childhood Arrivals: Legislative Activity in the 115th Congress
This report provides a summary of proposed legislation in the Senate regarding unauthorized childhood arrivals and DACA recipients in the United States and discusses some of the major issues surrounding the topic.
Bankruptcy and Student Loans
This report discusses This report provides a comprehensive overview of the various legal issues related to whether, and under what circumstances, a debtor may discharge a student loan in bankruptcy. The report begins by providing general background on bankruptcy law and the principles governing the discharge of outstanding debt. In so doing, the report explains how and why the Bankruptcy Code generally makes student loans nondischargeable absent an "undue hardship." The report then describes the various legal standards that courts have applied when determining whether a particular debtor is entitled to an undue hardship discharge. The report closes by describing various potential considerations for Congress, including ways in which Congress could alter the Bankruptcy Code's current treatment of student loans.
Budget Reconciliation Measures Enacted Into Law: 1980-2017
This report identifies and briefly summarizes the 21 budget reconciliation measures enacted into law during the period covering 1980, when reconciliation procedures were first used by both chambers, through 2017.
The Closure of Institutions of Higher Education: Student Options, Borrower Relief, and Implications
This report discusses options available to students whose colleges close before completion of their degree to complete their degrees and finance their education at another institution. Types of financial assistance discussed are federal loan discharges, educational benefit programs refunds, future legibility status for loans and financial aid, and tax considerations.
Fiscal Year 2019 Budget: Government Reorganization and Federal Workforce Reform
This report discusses the proposed FY2019 general U.S. budget and its plans for government reorganization and federal workforce reform.
Financial Stability Oversight Council (FSOC): Structure and Activities
This report provides an overview of the The Financial Stability Oversight Council's (FSOC's) structure and analyzes FSOC policy-related issues and legislation.
Floodplain Management and Flood Resilience: Current Policy and Considerations for Congress
This report describes presidential direction for federal floodplain management and presents considerations for Congress.
Israel: Background and U.S. Relations in Brief
This report discusses relations between the U.S. and Israel and addresses recent developments such President Trump's recognition of Jerusalem as the capital of Israel and various regional reactions to the announcement, local security concerns, Israeli-Palestinian relations, and Israeli domestic political disputes an ongoing criminal investigation of Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu.
Policy Options to Increase Physician Training Education in Proper Opioid Prescribing
This report discusses the recommendations of the President's Commission on Combating Drug Addiction and the Opioid Crisis regarding mandating "medical education and prescriber education initiatives in proper opioid prescribing and risks of developing an SUD [Substance Use Disorder]." It provides an overview on various policy options to encourage further training for physicians and other prescription empowered providers while in school and training as well as on the job.
Cuba: U.S. Policy in the 115th Congress
This report examines U.S. policy toward Cuba in the 115th Congress. It is divided into three major sections analyzing Cuba's political and economic environment; U.S. policy toward Cuba; and selected issues in U.S.-Cuban relations, including restrictions on travel and trade, funding for democracy and human rights projects in Cuba and for U.S. government-sponsored radio and television broadcasting, migration, antidrug cooperation, U.S. property claims, and U.S. fugitives from justice in Cuba. Legislative initiatives in the 115th Congress are noted throughout the report, and Appendix A lists introduced bills. Appendix B provides links to U.S. government information and reports on Cuba.
Fiscal Year 2018 National Defense Authorization Act: Selected Military Personnel Issues
This report provides a brief synopsis of selected sections in the National Defense Authorization Act for FY2018 (H.R. 2810), as passed by the House on July 14, 2017, and the Senate on September 18, 2017. The FY2018 NDAA Conference report was passed by the House on November 14, 2017, and the Senate on November 16, 2017. Issues include military endstrengths, pay and benefits, and other personnel policy issues.
Navy Columbia (SSBN-826) Class Ballistic Missile Submarine Program: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and potential oversight issues for Congress on the Columbia-class program, a program to design and build a new class of 12 ballistic missile submarines (SSBNs) to replace the Navy's current force of 14 Ohio-class SSBNs. The program was previously known as the Ohio replacement program (ORP) or SSBN(X) program. The Navy has identified the Columbia-class program as the Navy's top priority program. The Navy wants to procure the first Columbia-class boat in FY2021. The Navy's proposed FY2018 budget requests $842.9 million in advance procurement (AP) funding and $1,041.7 million in research and development funding for the program. The program poses a number of funding and oversight issues for Congress. Decisions that Congress makes on the Columbia-class program could substantially affect U.S. military capabilities and funding requirements, and the U.S. shipbuilding industrial base.
Navy Force Structure and Shipbuilding Plans: Background and Issues for Congress
This report presents background information and issues for Congress concerning the Navy's force structure and shipbuilding plans. The current and planned size and composition of the Navy, the rate of Navy ship procurement, and the prospective affordability of the Navy's shipbuilding plans have been oversight matters for the congressional defense committees for many years. The Navy's proposed FY2018 budget, as amended on May 24, 2017, requests the procurement of nine new ships, including one Gerald R. Ford (CVN-78) class aircraft carrier, two Virginia-class attack submarines, two DDG-51 class destroyers, two Littoral Combat Ships (LCSs), one TAO-205 class oiler, and one towing, salvage, and rescue ship. On December 15, 2016, the Navy released a new force-structure goal that calls for achieving and maintaining a fleet of 355 ships of certain types and numbers. The issue for Congress is whether to approve, reject, or modify the Navy's force structure and shipbuilding plans. Decisions that Congress makes on this issue can substantially affect Navy capabilities and funding requirements, and the U.S. shipbuilding industrial base.
The Net Neutrality Debate: Access to Broadband Networks
This report discusses the net neutrality debate regarding whether internet providers should be required to offer equal service speeds to everyone. Congressional action in the 115th Congress regarding the issue and the current status of the revision of the rules by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) are discussed.
Saudi Arabia: Background and U.S. Relations
This report discuses Saudi Arabia's governmental structure, human rights issues, relations with countries in the region, defense policies, and U.S. relations with the country. Special focus is given to military affairs and trade with Saudi Arabia.
Zimbabwe's Political Transition: Issues for Congress
This report discusses the resignation of Zimbabwean President Robert Mugabe after a military intervention and the installation of one of his former vice-presidents, Emmanuel Mnangagwa as interim President. Various possible outcomes of the change and possible actions by Congress to advance U.S. interests in the region are discussed.
Corporate Tax Reform: Issues for Congress
This report provides an overview of corporate tax issues and discusses potential reforms in the context of these issues, with particular attention to some of the research concerning large behavioral responses and their implications for revenue and distribution. The first section reviews the size and history of the corporate income tax, and discusses an important issue that has been given little attention by those who propose deep cuts in the corporate tax: its role in preventing the use of the corporate form as a tax shelter by wealthy business owners. This section also discusses the potential effect of behavioral responses on corporate tax revenues. The second section examines the role of the corporate tax in contributing to a progressive tax system and discusses claims that the burden falls on workers. The third section reviews arguments relating to efficiency and revenue yield, and traditional criticisms of the corporate tax as one that causes important behavioral distortions. One aspect of this discussion is the question of how the tax might be viewed differently in a more global economy. The final section examines options for reform.
Iran's Foreign and Defense Policies
This report gives a overview of Iran's defense policies and programs and foreign policy. Regions covered are the Near East, South and Central Asia,Russia, Europe, East Asia, Latin America, Africa, and the United States. Iran's nuclear programs and security issues are also discussed.
National Flood Insurance Program Borrowing Authority
This report evaluates the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) borrowing authority to receive loans from the U.S. Department of the Treasury (Treasury), particularly in the context of major floods, and discusses the current financial situation of the NFIP as it begins to pay claims from Hurricanes Harvey and Irma.
Navy Littoral Combat Ship/Frigate (LCS, FFGX) Program: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on the Navy's Littoral Combat Ship/Frigate (LCS/FFG(X)) program, a program to procure a total of 40, and possibly as many as 52, small surface combatants (SSCs), meaning LCSs and frigates. A total of 29 LCSs have been procured through FY2017. For FY2018, the Navy is requesting the procurement of two more LCSs, which would be the 30th and 31st. The program presents several oversight issues for Congress. Congress's decisions on the LCS/FFG(X) program will affect Navy capabilities and funding requirements, and the shipbuilding industrial base.
Wastewater Infrastructure: Overview, Funding, and Legislative Developments
This report discusses federal funding for wastewater treatment through the State Water Pollution Control Revolving Fund (SRF) program and several other programs as well as current and future funding for the programs.
S. 488, H.R. 1343, and Section 406 of H.R. 10: Encouraging Employee Ownership
This report provides background and a policy discussion of similar legislation, S. 488, H.R. 1343 (which passed the House on April 4, 2017), and Section 406 in H.R. 10, the Financial CHOICE Act, which passed the House on June 8, 2017. According to H.R. 1343's sponsor, Representative Randy Hultgren, the legislation is aimed at "eas[ing] the ability of companies to offer ownership to their ... employees."
Afghanistan: Post-Taliban Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy
This report discusses Afghanistan's historical governments and the activities of the U.S. and other countries during various phases of war against terrorist groups and current U.S. policies in regard to Afghanistan. Topics such as troop numbers, military and governmental strategies, Afghan Army training, developmental aid, the economy, and human rights issues are discussed.
Department of Homeland Security Appropriations: Fiscal Year 2018
This report provides an overview and analysis of FY2018 appropriations for the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). The primary focus of this report is on Congressional direction and funding provided to DHS through the appropriations process, though note is also made of funding made available to DHS outside this process (e.g., user fees and trust funds). It includes an Appendix with definitions of key budget terms used throughout the suite of Congressional Research Service reports on homeland security appropriations. It also directs the reader to other reports providing context for and additional details regarding specific component appropriations and issues engaged through the FY2018 appropriations process.