Congressional Research Service Reports - 462 Matching Results

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Section 232 Investigations: Overview and Issues for Congress
This report provides an overview of Section 232 of the Trade Expansion Act of 1962, analyzes the Trump Administration's Section 232 investigations and actions, and considers potential policy and economic implications and issues for Congress. To provide context for the current debate, the report also includes a discussion of previous Section 232 investigations and a brief legislative history of the statute.
U.S. Strategic Nuclear Forces: Background, Developments, and Issues
This report reviews the ongoing programs that will affect the expected size and shape of the U.S. strategic nuclear force structure. It includes information of the historic structure and changes over time as well as details about each category of delivery vehicle--land-based intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs), submarine launched ballistic missiles (SLBMs), and heavy bombers--focusing on their current deployments and ongoing and planned modernization programs. The report concludes with a discussion of issues related to decisions about the future of the U.S. strategic nuclear force.
Armed Conflict in Syria: Overview and U.S. Response
This report discusses the ongoing conflict in Syria and U.S. policy regarding the conflict and potential resolutions. It includes information on the recent U.S., French, and British joint missile strike in response to the the use of chemical weapons in Douma, Syria by Syrian government forces.
Electronic Filing of Senate Campaign Finance Reports
This report discusses recent changes in campaign finance reporting requirements for Senate candidates.
Farm Bills: Major Legislative Actions, 1965-2018
This report examines the major legislative milestones for the last 11 farm bills covering 53 years and illustrates trends that may provide useful background and context as the current farm bill debate proceeds.
Saudi Arabia: Background and U.S. Relations
This report discuses Saudi Arabia's governmental structure, human rights issues, relations with countries in the region, defense policies, and U.S. relations with the country. Special focus is given to military affairs and trade with Saudi Arabia.
Armed Conflict in Syria: Overview and U.S. Response
This report discusses the ongoing conflict in Syria and U.S. policy regarding the conflict and potential resolutions.
Judge Brett M. Kavanaugh: His Jurisprudence and Potential Impact on the Supreme Court
This report provides an overview of Judge Kavanaugh's jurisprudence and discusses his potential impact on the Court if he were to be confirmed to succeed Justice Kennedy. It focuses upon those areas of law where Justice Kennedy can be seen to have influenced the High Court's approach to certain issues or served as a fifth and deciding vote on the Court, with a view toward how Judge Kavanaugh might approach these same issues.
The Purple Heart: Background and Issues for Congress
This report examines the history of the Purple Heart award for military service members and changes in eligibility over time. It also discusses current issues facing Congress -- such as whether traumatic brain injuries or PTSD diagnoses should be grounds for receiving the award, and whether those injured or killed assisting others during terror attacks outside their military duties should be eligible.
Civil-Suit Provision in House-Passed Concealed Carry Reciprocity Bill (H.R. 38): Scope and Application
This report discusses legal implications of the Concealed Carry Reciprocity Act of 2017 which was passed by the House in December 2017.
Defense Primer: Under Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering
This report discusses the role of the Under Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering and how the position fits into the organizational structure of the Defense Department.
Defense Science and Technology Funding
This report provides an overview of the portion of Department of Defense (DOD) research, development, testing, and evaluation (RDT&E) funding referred to as Defense Science and Technology (Defense S&T). It provides perspectives on the role of Defense S&T in supporting U.S. defense capabilities, historical funding levels, recent funding trends, and approaches to determining how much the federal government should invest in Defense S&T, particularly in basic research.
How Broad a Shield? A Brief Overview of Section 230 of the Communications Decency Act
This report discusses Section 230 of the Communications Act of 1934 which was added too the law in 1996 to provide liability protection to online service providers regarding what users posted on their sites. Concerns about criminal activity being allowed to continue by companies due to the law and internet freedom advocates support for the law are discussed.
The Joint Select Committee on Budget and Appropriations Process Reform
This report discusses the structure, powers, and funding of the Joint Select Committee on Budget and Appropriations Process Reform and provides an overview of the parliamentary procedures the chambers may use to consider its recommendations.
Pedal to the Metal: Commerce Recommends Revving Up Trade Measures on Steel and Aluminium
This report discusses new proposed tariffs on steel and aluminium imports and the Commerce Department report behind the new tariff proposals.
Russians Indicted for Online Election Trolling
This report discusses the indictment of three Russian companies and 13 Russian national by the Department of Justice for interference in the 2016 presidential election. The charges brought for each one are detailed along with the sentencing guidelines for the crimes.
U.S. Manufacturing in International Perspective
This report is designed to inform the debate over the health of U.S. manufacturing through a series of charts and tables that depict the position of the United States relative to other countries according to various metrics. This report does not describe or discuss specific policy options.
Veterans Benefits: The Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Program
This report discusses the Veterans Administration's (VA) vocational rehabilitation and employment program for disabled veterans.
Navy Columbia (SSBN-826) Class Ballistic Missile Submarine Program: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and potential oversight issues for Congress on the Columbia-class program, a program to design and build a new class of 12 ballistic missile submarines (SSBNs) to replace the Navy's current force of 14 Ohio-class SSBNs. The Navy has identified the Columbia-class program as the Navy's top priority program, and wants to procure the first Columbia-class boat in FY2021.
Supreme Court Declines to Review Ninth Circuit Court Decision Applying Federal Reserved Water Rights Doctrine to Groundwater
This report discusses the case of "Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians v. Coachella Valley Water District" relating to groundwater water rights on federal lands. The Supreme Court declined to hear the case in July 2017.
Tailoring Bank Regulations: Differences in Bank Size, Activities, and Capital Levels
This report discusses various types of banks and legislative proposals regarding how to tailor regulations to banks of different sizes.
The Campus-Based Financial Aid Programs: Background and Issues
This report begins with a brief discussion of the history of each of the campus-based federal student aid programs (the Federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant (FSEOG) program, the Federal Work-Study (FWS) program, and the Federal Perkins Loan program) and the formula used to allocate funds among IHEs participating in them. This is followed by a discussion of institutional and student participation in the programs relative to participation in other federal aid programs. The report concludes with a discussion of issues related to the campus-based programs that might garner attention as the 115th Congress considers reauthorization of the Higher Education Act (HEA).
Deficits and Debt: Economic Effects and Other Issues
This report explores distinctions in the concept and composition of deficits and debt and explains how those two measures interact with each other and the general economy.
The Distribution of the Tax Policy Changes in H.R 1 and the Senate's Tax Cuts and Jobs Act
This report discusses the Joint Committee on Taxation's (JCT) November 14, 2017 distributional analysis report of the House and Senate's proposed tax reform legislation which outlines how the changes made by the bill would effect the economic well-being of American taxpayers.
FDA Human Medical Product User Fee Programs: In Brief
This report discusses FDA human medical product user fees for prescription drugs, medical devices, generic drugs, and biosimilars which are charged to companies producing the products and make up a large portion of the FDA's revenues. User fees are authorized in legislation on a five-year cycle, with authority for their actual collection and expenditure provided each year through the annual appropriations process. Appendix A outlines various features of the user fee programs.
Keystone XL Pipeline: Recent Developments
This report discusses the Keystone XL Pipeline and the recent route modification and its effects on permits and permissions needed. A brief overview of the controversy regarding the pipeline and areas of land that require various permits to cross are included.
Post-Heller Second Amendment Jurisprudence
This report examines the scope of the Second Amendment, as interpreted by the federal circuit courts of appeals, after the watershed Supreme Court decisions in "District of Columbia v. Heller" and "McDonald v. City of Chicago". After "Heller" and "McDonald", numerous challenges were brought on Second Amendment grounds to various federal, state, and local firearm laws and regulations. Because Heller neither purported to define the full scope of the Second Amendment, nor suggested a standard of review for evaluating Second Amendment claims, the lower federal courts have been tasked with doing so in the Second Amendment challenges brought before them. This report discusses in detail notable post-Heller Second Amendment cases decided by federal courts of appeals. Because "Heller" and "McDonald" provide the only recent Supreme Court guidance on the Second Amendment, the analyses in these cases may provide useful guideposts for Congress should it seek to enact further firearm regulations.
Volcano and Landslide Provisions in Title X of S. 1460, the Energy and Natural Resources Act of 2017
This report discusses a proposed volcano early warning system and a landslide hazards reduction program that would both be administered by the USGS. Provisions of the law that would create the system and volcanoes on the high priority watch-list are described.
Energy Provisions in the 2014 Farm Bill (P.L. 113-79): Status and Funding
This report focuses on those policies contained in the 2014 farm bill that support agriculture-based renewable energy, especially biofuels. The introductory sections of this report briefly describe how USDA bioenergy policies evolved and how they fit into the larger context of U.S. biofuels policy. Then, each of the bioenergy provisions of the 2014 farm bill are defined in terms of their function, goals, administration, funding, and implementation status. In an appendix at the end of this report, Table A-1 presents data on 2014 farm bill budgetary authority for energy provisions, while Table A-2 presents the original budget authority for Title IX programs under the previous 2008 farm bill. A third table (Table A-3) provides a side-by-side comparison of Title IX energy-related provisions for current versus previous law.
FDA Authorization Act of 2017 (FDARA, P.L. 115-52)
This report presents an overview of the Food and Drug Administration Reauthorization Act (FDARA) of 2017 by title and section, providing a narrative context for each title, as well as a brief description of each section.
Itemized Tax Deductions for Individuals: Data Analysis
This report analyzes the most recently available public data from the Internal Revenue Service's (IRS) Statistics of Income (SOI) to provide an overview of who claims itemized deductions, what they claim them for, and the amount in deductions claimed. In addition, the revenue loss associated with several of the larger deductions is presented using data from the Joint Committee on Taxation's (JCT's) tax expenditure estimates. This report concludes with a brief discussion of the implications of various policy options to reform or limit itemized deductions.
Navy Force Structure and Shipbuilding Plans: Background and Issues for Congress
This report presents background information and issues for Congress concerning the Navy's force structure and shipbuilding plans. The current and planned size and composition of the Navy, the rate of Navy ship procurement, and the prospective affordability of the Navy's shipbuilding plans have been oversight matters for the congressional defense committees for many years. The Navy's proposed FY2018 budget, as amended on May 24, 2017, requests the procurement of nine new ships, including one Gerald R. Ford (CVN-78) class aircraft carrier, two Virginia-class attack submarines, two DDG-51 class destroyers, two Littoral Combat Ships (LCSs), one TAO-205 class oiler, and one towing, salvage, and rescue ship.
Patent Law: A Primer and Overview of Emerging Issues
This report begins with an overview of patent law. It then discusses the Supreme Court's role in the development of patent law generally before examining the Court's recent decisions in detail. Finally, the report closes with a preview of developments in patent law that are on the horizon, such as the continued viability of certain administrative proceedings related to the validity of patents, which is the subject of two cases scheduled to be heard during the Court's upcoming term, as well as patent reform activity in the legislative and executive arenas.
Puerto Rico and Electric Power Restoration from Hurricane Maria
This report discusses efforts to restore power in Puerto Rico after Hurricane Maria decimated the island's electricity infrastructure. Challenges in power restoration due to the extent of the damage, supply deliveries, timing of the storm after Hurricane Harvey and Irma, and the electric company's financial crisis along with recommendations for strengthening the electric system are discussed.
Comparing DHS Component Funding, Fiscal Year 2018: In Brief
This report illustrates the appropriations for various parts of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) for fiscal year 2018 compared with funding levels for fiscal year 2017 in a series of charts and tables.
Domestic Terrorism: An Overview
This report provides background regarding domestic terrorists--detailing what constitutes the domestic terrorism threat as suggested by publicly available U.S. government sources. It also illustrates some of the key factors involved in assessing this threat.
Russia: Background and U.S. Policy
This report provides descriptions and background information on Russian government organization and power, the Russian military's role, and U.S. policy toward Russia. Specific topics covered include Russian governmental structures and background, Vladimir Putin's rise to power, human rights concerns, opposition groups, the economy of Russia and the impact of sanctions, the foreign relations of Russia with other countries in Europe, NATO, the EU, China, Syria, and the U.S., the Ukraine conflict and Russian military aggression. U.S. policies toward Russia, U.S. sanctions on Russia, and cyber warfare.
Select Acquisition Reform Provisions in the House and Senate Versions of the Fiscal Year 2018 National Defense Authorization Act
This report discusses the Department of Defense's acquisition reform provisions in the House and Senate versions of the National Defense Authorization Act for fiscal year 2018. The main areas of acquisition addressed by these provisions are commercial items, service contracts, Other Transaction (OT) authority, intellectual property, and acquisition system management.
Farm Bill Programs Without a Budget Baseline Beyond FY2018
This report discusses the 2014 farm bill, which contains 39 programs that received mandatory funding that do not have baseline beyond FY2018. These programs had estimated mandatory spending totaling $2.824 billion over the five-year farm bill.
Reform of U.S. International Taxation: Alternatives
This report describes and assesses the principal prescriptions that have been offered for broad reform of the international system. It begins with an overview of current law and possible revisions. It then sets the framework for considering economic efficiency as well as tax shelter activities. Finally, it reviews alternative approaches to revision in light of those issues.
FY2016 State Grants Under Title 10A of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA)
This report provides final FY2016 state grant amounts under each of the four formulas used to determine Title I-A grants. Overall, California received the largest FY2016 Title I-A grant amount ($1.8 billion or 11.98% of total Title I-A grants). Wyoming received the smallest FY2016 Title IA grant amount ($34.8 million or 0.24% of total Title I-A grants).
Monetary Policy and the Federal Reserve: Current Policy and Conditions
This report provides an overview of monetary policy and recent developments. It discusses issues for Congress, including transparency and proposals to change the Federal Reserve's (Fed's) mandate, and ends with a brief overview of the Fed's regulatory responsibilities.
Out of Breath: Military Aircraft Oxygen Issues
This report discusses hypoxia, caused by lack of oxygen, which has affected pilots of F-22, F/A-18, and T-45 aircraft in recent years.
Reception and Placement of Refugees in the United States
This report discusses the U.S. Refugee Admissions Program (USRAP), which is managed by the Department of State (DOS), responsible for resettling refugees from around the world in the United States.
The Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) Block Grant: Subsidized Employment Demonstration Proposal: In Brief
This report discusses the proposed Accelerating Individuals into the Workforce Act (H.R. 2842) which would provide $100 million in FY2018 funding under the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) block grant for demonstrations to test two approaches--subsidized employment and "career pathways" programs--to help disadvantaged individuals. These funds would be provided in addition to the TANF basic block grant to the states. The $100 million cost of the proposal would be financed by reserving funds from the FY2018 appropriation for the TANF contingency fund. Subsidized employment programs are those where public funds are used to pay all or part of the wages, benefits, and other costs of employing an individual. Career pathways are a workforce development approach that combines education, training, and other services to help individuals enter or advance within a specific occupation or occupation grouping. The bill was ordered reported from the House Ways and Means Committee on June 15, 2017. It is scheduled for House floor consideration the week of June 19, 2017.
Airline Passenger Denied Boarding: Rules and Regulations
This report discusses regulations regarding an airline's responsibilities when a passenger with a confirmed ticket is denied boarding on a flight due to lack of seats (known as overselling). The various updates to the original regulation from 1967 are discussed with the latest modifications occurring in 2015.
The Budget Control Act and the Defense Budget: Frequently Asked Questions
This report addresses several frequently asked questions related to the Budget Control Act (BCA) and the defense budget. The BCA limits discretionary spending on defense through the process of sequestration and was enacted in 2011. Recent proposals to remove the restrictions of the BCA on defense or raise the spending limits are also discussed.
The Congressional Arts Caucus and the Congressional Art Competition: History and Current Practice
This report provides a brief history of the Congressional Arts Caucus and the Congressional Art Competition which is an art competition for high school students. It also provides a history of sponsorship and support for the caucus and the annual competition. The report includes copies of the original correspondence establishing the competition, a sample competition announcement, sample guidelines and required forms for the competition, and a chronological list of congressional co-chairs.
Cybersecurity: Critical Infrastructure Authoritative Reports and Resources
This report provides resources for congressional staff researching cybersecurity issues and critical infrastructure.The annotated descriptions of these sources are listed in reverse chronological order with an emphasis on material published in the past several years.The report includes resources and studies from government agencies (federal, state, local, and international), think tanks, academic institutions, news organizations, and other sources. Table 1 contains overview reports and resources, Table 2 lists energy industry resources, Table 3 lists financial industry resources, Table 4 contains healthcare industry resources, Table 5 contains telecommunications and communication industry resources, and Table 6 contains transportation industry resources.
The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act: Background and Summary
This report reviews issues related to financial regulation and provides brief descriptions of major provisions of the Dodd-Frank Act, along with links to CRS products going in to greater depth on specific issues. It does not attempt to track the legislative debate in the 115th Congress.