Congressional Research Service Reports - 469 Matching Results

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The Emergency Food Assistance Program (TEFAP): Background and Funding
This report begins by describing the population using emergency food assistance. It goes on to discuss the the Emergency Food Assistance Program (TEFAP) program, including its administration at the federal, state, and local levels, eligibility rules, and funding structure. The report concludes by summarizing TEFAP's role in disaster response and recent reauthorization efforts.
Infrastructure Investment and the Federal Government
This report discusses federal infrastructure investment. The condition and performance of infrastructure are generally thought to be important for the nation's health, welfare, and economy.
Quantum Information Science: Applications, Global Research and Development, and Policy Considerations
This report provides an overview of quantum information science (QIS) technologies: sensing and metrology, communications, and computing and simulation. It also includes examples of existing and potential future applications; brief summaries of funding and selected R&D initiatives in the United States and elsewhere around the world; a description of U.S. congressional activity; and a discussion of related policy considerations.
United States and Saudi Arabia Energy Relations
This report provides an overview of the U.S.-Saudi Arabia energy relationship that dates back to at least 1933. Since then, this relationship has witnessed the creation of the Arabian American Oil Company (Aramco), nationalization and ownership transfer of Aramco to Saudi Arabia (renamed Saudi Aramco), a Saudi-supported embargo of crude oil shipments to the United States, and various periods of energy cooperation. Today, the U.S.-Saudi energy relationship includes interests within three general categories: (1) energy trade, (2) business operations, and (3) global petroleum prices.
The Violence Against Women Act (VAWA): Historical Overview, Funding, and Reauthorization
This report provides a brief history of the Violence Against Women Act (VAWA) with an overview of the crimes addressed through the act. It includes brief descriptions of earlier VAWA reauthorizations and a more-detailed description of the most recent reauthorization in 2013. The report concludes with a discussion of VAWA programs and a five-year history of funding from FY2014 through FY2018.
Cyprus: Reunification Proving Elusive
This report provides a brief overview of the history of the negotiations regarding reunification of the island of Cyprus and a description of some of the issues involved in those talks.
Disaster Unemployment Assistance (DUA)
This report describes the Disaster Unemployment Assistance (DUA) benefits, which are available only to those individuals who have become unemployed as a direct result of a declared major disaster and information on how to ascertain if an individual is eligible for DUA benefits.
Multiyear Procurement (MYP) and Block Buy Contracting in Defense Acquisition: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on multiyear procurement (MYP) and block buy contracting (BBC), which are special contracting mechanisms that Congress permits the Department of Defense (DOD) to use for a limited number of defense acquisition programs. Compared to the standard or default approach of annual contracting, MYP and BBC have the potential for reducing weapon procurement costs by several percent.
Navy Force Structure and Shipbuilding Plans: Background and Issues for Congress
This report presents background information and issues for Congress concerning the Navy's force structure and shipbuilding plans. The current and planned size and composition of the Navy, the rate of Navy ship procurement, and the prospective affordability of the Navy's shipbuilding plans have been oversight matters for the congressional defense committees for many years.
Navy Ship Names: Background for Congress
This report describes the naming process for U.S. naval ships and various regulations regarding the process. Recent legislation related to ship names is also included.
The Army's Armored Multi-Purpose Vehicle (AMPV): Background and Issues for Congress
This report discusses the Army's Armored Multi-Purpose Vehicle (AMPV) program and outlines its basic functions, procurement plans, and funding requests for FY2019.
Can a Foreign Employee of a Foreign Company be Federally Prosecuted for Foreign Bribery?
This report discusses whether foreign nationals and companies may be federally prosecuted for Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA) violations under conspiracy and accomplice liability theories.
Conflict in Mali
This report outlines the security and governance challenges that Mali has faced since the 2011-2013 crisis that devastated the military, central government institutions, and northern populations and the peace accord that followed in 2015.
Expedited Removal of Aliens: Legal Framework
This report provides an overview of the statutory and regulatory framework that governs expedited removal of aliens under INA Section 235(b)(1) and exceptions to expedited removal -- including provisions to seek review of an asylum claim. Finally, the report addresses the scope of judicial review, some of the legal challenges that have been raised to the expedited removal process, and potential legal issues that may arise if expedited removal were expanded to cover additional categories of aliens present in the United States.
Immigration: Frequently Asked Questions about "Public Charge"
This report provides answers to frequently-asked questions about current public charge policy, including the sources of laws that govern public charge determinations, who is subject to determinations, factors that are considered in determinations, and the consequences of determinations.
Intellectual Property Law: A Brief Introduction
This report provides a brief overview of each form of federal intellectual property (IP) protection, including patent law, copyright law, and trademarks.
International Law and Agreements: Their Effect upon U.S. Law
This report provides an introduction to the roles that international law and agreements play in the United States. This includes the role of different branches of government play in navigating such laws.
Iran's Nuclear Program: Status
This report looks at the background of Iran's nuclear policy including the current status of Iran's nuclear facilities, and current controversy surrounding them, as well as the effects of international sanctions on Iran, recent sabotages on the Iran Enrichment Program, an estimated timeline of Iran's nuclear weapon capabilities, and whether or not Iran even has a nuclear weapons program.
NAFTA and the Preliminary U.S.-Mexico Agreement
This report outlines the key provisions of the agreement between the U.S. and Mexico that is set to replace the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).
Supreme Court October Term 2017: A Review of Selected Major Rulings
This report highlights seven notable cases from the October Term 2017 that could impact the work of Congress: (1) Epic Systems Corp. v. Lewis; (2) Carpenter v. United States; (3) Murphy v. National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA); (4) Janus v. American Federation of State, County, and Municipal Employees, Council 31 (AFSCME); (5) National Institute of Family and Life Advocates (NIFLA) v. Becerra; (6) Trump v. Hawaii; and (7) Lucia v. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). For each case it provides background information, summarizes the arguments presented to the Court, explains the Court's ruling, and examines the potential implications for Congress, including the ramifications for the jurisprudence in a given area of law.
The Veterans Choice Program (VCP): Program Implementation
This report discusses the Veterans Choice Program (VCP) which allows veterans to use community health care providers and still be covered under VA (Veteran's Affairs) insurance benefits. The report provides details on how the VCP is being implemented and is meant to provide insight into the execution of the current VCP program.
WTO Disciplines on U.S. Domestic Support for Agriculture
This report outlines the rules and disciplines the United States has committed to abide by as a member of the World Trade Organization (WTO).
China Naval Modernization: Implications for U.S. Navy Capabilities--Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on China's naval modernization effort and its implications for U.S. Navy capabilities. The question of how the United States should respond to China's military modernization effort, including its naval modernization effort, is a key issue in U.S. defense planning and budgeting. Many U.S. military programs for countering improving Chinese military forces (particularly its naval forces) fall within the U.S. Navy's budget.
Emergency Department Boarding of Behavioral Health Patients
This report outlines emergency department (ED) boarding of behavioral health (BH) patients and highlights areas for research and discusses policy options Congress may consider to reduce BH patient boarding. Behavioral health refers to patients with psychiatric and/or substance use disorders. Boarding refers to the holding of inpatients in an ED after an admission or transfer decision has been made.
Fiscal Year 2019 Defense Appropriations Bill: An Overview of Housepassed H.R. 6157
This report provides an overview of the appropriations and provisions of the FY2019 Defense Appropriations Bill, such as proposed funding cuts and increases.
The National Hurricane Center and Forecasting Hurricanes: 2017 Overview and 2018 Outlook
This report first provides a synopsis of the role of the National Hurricane Center (NHC), part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA's) National Weather Service (NWS), in forecasting hurricanes, and it discusses some of the advances and remaining challenges in hurricane forecasting. The report then provides an overview of the 2017 hurricane season, with a focus on the three destructive hurricanes named above, and includes a brief summary of the hurricane outlook for 2018.
Transnational Crime Issues: Human Trafficking
This report discusses U.S. and international responses to the issue of human trafficking. Human trafficking is a domestic and international phenomenon that refers to the subjection of men, women, and children to exploitative conditions that may be tantamount to slavery.
The Army's Modular Handgun Procurement
This report discusses the Army Modular Handgun System (MHS), a weapon system produced by Sig Sauer that is to replace the Beretta M9/11 pistol, which has been used by the U.S. Army since 1986. Topics discussed include the conract, previous replacement effort, criticisms of the procurement process, and price determination.
Lebanon
This report provides an overview of Lebanon and current issues of U.S. interest. It provides background information, analyzes recent developments and key policy debates, and tracks legislation, U.S. assistance, and recent congressional action. The report includes information regarding Prime Minister Saad Hariri's resignation and subsequent reinstatement in November 2017.
Defense Authorization and Appropriations Bills: FY1961-FY2018
This report is a research aid that lists the DOD authorization bills (Table 1 and Table 2) and appropriations bills (Table 3 and Table 4) for FY1961-FY2018. This report includes all the pertinent information on the passage of these bills through the legislative process: bill numbers, report numbers, dates reported and passed, recorded vote numbers and vote tallies, dates of passage of the conference reports with their numbers and votes, vetoes, substitutions, dates of final passage, and public law numbers. Significant definitions are also included. This report will be updated as legislative activity warrants.
France and U.S.-French Relations: In Brief
This report discusses relations between the U.S. and France and collaboration between them in counter-terrorism efforts, military affairs, and economic matters as well as the current political situation in France and ongoing challenges with Muslims integration into French society.
A Peace Treaty with North Korea?
This report discusses the recent comments and upcoming summits between North Korea, South Korea, and the United States regarding denuclearization and negotiating a formal peace treaty to officially end the Korean War. A brief overview of past attempts to negotiate a peace treaty between the parties in the Korean War is provided and current priorities for a peace treaty are provided.
The President's Authority to the National Guard or the Armed Forces to Secure the Border
This report discusses the President's legal authority to send the National Guard or regular military forces to secure the U.S. border with Mexico and examines the statutes and precedent related to such uses of Presidential authority.
Spain and Its Relations with the United States: In Brief
This report discusses relations between the U.S. and Spain and include information on their partnerships with the U.S. in counter-terrorism and military matters, economic ties, and political issues in Spain. An overview of the Catalan independence crisis and U.S. and EU views on the matter is included.
The Individual Mandate for Health Insurance Coverage: In Brief
This report provides an overview of the individual mandate for health insurance, its associated penalty, and the exemptions from the mandate.
Membership of the 115th Congress: A Profile
This report presents a profile of the membership of the 115th Congress (2017-2018) as of January 3, 2018. Statistical information is included on selected characteristics of Members, including data on party affiliation, average age, occupation, education, length of congressional service, religious affiliation, gender, ethnicity, foreign births, and military service.
NERC Standards for Bulk Power Physical Security: Is the Grid More Secure?
This report discusses security measures for electric power plants and grids and the progress made since the implementation of the mandatory Physical Security Reliability Standard (CIP-014) for bulk power asset owners promulgated by the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) in 2015.
Section 232 Steel and Aluminium Tariffs: Potential Economic Implications
This report discusses the new tariffs imposed by President Trump on steel and aluminium imports and their potential economic impacts.
Women in Congress, 1917-2018: Service Dates and Committee Assignments by Member, and Lists by State and Congress
This report provides an overview of all women who have served in Congress and includes committee assignments, dates of service, district information, and listings by Congress and state, and (for Representatives) congressional districts of the 327 women who have been elected or appointed to Congress.
The Debt Limit Since 2011
This report discusses the U.S. government's debt limit and the various extensions of it since 2011.
Government Contract Bid Protests In Brief: Analysis of Legal Processes and Recent Developments
This report briefly analyzes the varying legal procedures applicable to bid protests under each forum, which may be relevant to Congress as it assesses potential reforms to the bid protest process. First, the report provides an overview of bid protests generally and the legal procedures applicable to bid protests made in each forum. Next, the report analyzes the legal distinctions among these forums. Finally, the report discusses recent legislative developments affecting bid protest procedures and potential considerations for Congress.
Iran's Foreign and Defense Policies
This report discusses Iran's foreign and defense policy and the reasoning behind it, as well as U.S. concerns regarding their power and nuclear weapon capability.
Is Impossibility Preemption Impossible? Federal Drug Law and Preemption of State Tort Claims
This report discusses the potential Supreme Court case of "Merck v. Albrecht". The report concludes with an overview of the "Merck" petition, analyzing the key issues of interest for Congress that the petition raises.
Prevalence of Mental Illness in the United States: Data Sources and Information
This report briefly describes the methodology and results of three large surveys that provide national prevalence estimates of diagnosable mental illness: the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R), the National Comorbidity Survey Replication Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A), and the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). This report presents prevalence estimates of any mental illness and serious mental illness based on each survey and ends with a brief discussion of how these prevalence estimates might inform policy discussions.
SBA Office of the National Ombudsman: Overview, History, and Current Issues
This report examines the Office of the National Ombudsman's origin and history; describes its organizational structure, funding, functions, and current activities; and discusses a recent legislative effort to enhance its authority. S. 1146, the Small Business Regulatory Relief Act of 2017. This report also discusses some challenges facing the Office of the National Ombudsman.
The 2017 National Security Strategy: Issues for Congress
This report discusses the 2017 National Security Strategy (NSS) document released by the Trump Administration on December 18, 2017, and its major themes.
Basic Concepts and Technical Considerations in Educational Assessment: A Primer
This report discusses assessments mandated by federal education policy and discusses the purpose of assessments, types of tests, technical considerations in assessment, and using assessment results appropriately. A glossary containing definitions of commonly used assessment and measurement terms is provided at the end of this report. The glossary provides additional technical information that may not be addressed within the text of the report.
The Deduction for Out-of-Pocket Teacher Expenses
This report discusses the tax deduction for out-of-pocket teacher expenses and the proposals to eliminate or increase it that were made in the House and Senate draft tax bills. The final bill left the deduction at its current rate.
Division A of H.R. 3922: The CHAMPIONING HEALTHY KIDS Act
This report summarizes provisions in Division A of the CHAMPIONING HEALTHY KIDS Act that would extend funding for certain public health programs and provide offsets for these funding extensions. CRS Report R44989, Comparison of the Bills to Extend State Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) Funding, summarizes provisions in Division B.
EPA's Clean Power Plan for Existing Power Plants: Frequently Asked Questions
This report answers some frequently asked questions regarding the EPA Clean Power Plan and its repeal in progress. It also provides background information, discusses the statutory authority under which EPA promulgated the rule, and describes the rule's current status as of November 2017. The report also summarizes the provisions of the Clean Power Plan rule as it was finalized on August 3, 2015 and options that Congress has to influence EPA's action.