Congressional Research Service Reports - 465 Matching Results

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Cuba: U.S. Restrictions on Travel and Remittances
This report examines developments in U.S. policy restricting travel and remittances to Cuba, current permissible travel and remittances, enforcement of the travel restrictions, and debate on lifting the travel restrictions.
Defense Primer: Defense Appropriations Process
This report provides an overview of the defense appropriations process. The congressional appropriations process includes various rules and practices that Congress has adopted to distinguish appropriations measures and facilitate their consideration.
Defense Primer: Department of the Army and Army Command Structure
This report discusses the senior leadership and operational and institutional missions of the Department of the Army (DA).
Defense Primer: Navigating the NDAA
This report provides an overview of the structure and organization of the annual National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA).
Defense Primer: Organization of U.S. Ground Forces
This report outlines the organization of the Army, the U.S. military's primary ground force, and the Marine Corps, the Navy's land-based fighting force.
Defense Primer: Special Operations Forces
This report provides an overview of U.S. military Special Operations Forces (SOF), including personnel selection, command structure, Joint Special Operations Command (JSOC), and Theater Special Operations Commands (TSOCs).
Nuclear Energy: Overview of Congressional Issues
This report discusses nuclear energy and various issues and concerns related to it use in six topics: radioactive waste, economic viability, safety, technological advances, security and emergency plans, and nuclear weapon nonproliferation.
Serbia: Background and U.S. Relations
This report provides an overview of Serbia and its governmental structure, economy, and foreign relations with the U.S., Kosovo, Turkey, Russia, and the European Union (EU).
Teacher Preparation Policies and Issues in the Higher Education Act
This report provides a description of current programs and provisions in Title II-A and identifies a number of the key issues that may be part of the debate over the reauthorization of the Higher Education Act (HEA).
What Role Might the Federal Government Play in Law Enforcement Reform?
This report discuses policy options for Congress to consider in regard to law enforcement reform. Over the past few years, several high-profile police-involved shootings and alleged instances of excessive force have generated congressional interest in state and local policing.
Federal Civil Aviation Programs: In Brief
This report discusses the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) programs including organizational structures, updates on activities and reforms, funding sources, and other relevant information.
Fiscal Year 2019 National Defense Authorization Act: Selected Military Personnel Issues
This report highlights selected personnel-related issues that may generate high levels of congressional and constituent interest.
The Global Compact on Migration (GCM) and U.S. Policy
This report discusses the United Nations' Global Compact on Safe, Orderly and Regular Migration (GCM) and the Trump Administration's withdrawal of the United States from the GCM negotiations.
Election Security: Issues in the 2018 Midterm Elections
This report discusses concerns over possible election interference that could take place during the 2018 midterm elections.
Implementing EPA's 2015 Ozone Air Quality Standards
This report provides background on NAAQS (federal standards that apply to outdoor air), the process used to establish them, the 2008 and 2015 ozone standards, and issues that have been raised as EPA implements the final rule.
Navy Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) Program: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on the Navy's Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) program. A total of 32 LCSs have been procured through FY2018. For FY2019, the Navy is requesting the procurement of the 33rd LCS. The LCS program presents several oversight issues for Congress. Congress's decisions on the program will affect Navy capabilities and funding requirements, and the shipbuilding industrial base.
Toward the Creation of a U.S. "Space Force"
This report discusses the possibility of a new military service branch -- the Space Force -- with the goal of asserting "American dominance in space."
When Does Double Prosecution Count as Double Jeopardy?
This report discusses the Fifth Amendment's Double Jeopardy Clause; although the Clause provides that no person shall "be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb," the Supreme Court has made clear that that protection has its limits.
Army Futures Command (AFC)
This report summarizes the issue of development of major combat systems for the Army and the proposed solution: Army Futures Command. The report ends with possible issues for Congress to consider.
Media Consolidation: United States v. AT&T and Implications for Future Transactions
This report discusses the proposed merger of AT&T, Inc. (AT&T) with Time Warner Inc. (Time Warner), after one of the most closely watched antitrust trials in recent memory. This report first outlines current Section 7 doctrine and then discusses the particularities of the government's case against AT&T and Time Warner and the court's decision to allow the transaction to proceed. Finally, it analyzes the decision's implications for the media industry and future antitrust cases, and identify potential considerations for Congress.
Higher Education Tax Benefits: Brief Overview and Budgetary Effects
This report provides a brief overview of the higher education tax benefits that are currently available to students and their families. These tax benefits can be divided into three groups: incentives for current year expenses, incentives for preferential tax treatment of student loan expenses, and incentives for saving for college.
Legal Authorities Under the Controlled Substances Act to Combat the Opioid Crisis
This report discusses legal authorities available to the federal government under the Controlled Substances Act (CSA) that could be used to combat the opioid epidemic. The report then examines DEA initiatives and actions taken, pursuant to its legal authorities under the CSA, which specifically target the abuse of opioids. It concludes by discussing selected opioid-related legislative proposals in the 115th Congress that would amend the CSA.
NASA Appropriations and Authorizations: A Fact Sheet
This report provides data on past, current, and proposed appropriations for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. No bills have yet been introduced in the 115th Congress proposing future-year authorizations of NASA appropriations.
National Flood Insurance Program Borrowing Authority
This report evaluates the National Flood Insurance Program's (NFIP) borrowing authority to receive loans from the U.S. Department of the Treasury, particularly in the context of major floods, and discusses the current financial situation of the NFIP.
Navy DDG-51 and DDG-1000 Destroyer Programs: Background and Issues for Congress
This report presents background information and potential oversight issues for Congress on the Navy's Arleigh Burke (DDG-51) and Zumwalt (DDG-1000) class destroyer programs. The Navy's proposed FY2019 budget requests funding for the procurement of three DDG-51s. Decisions that Congress makes concerning destroyer procurement could substantially affect Navy capabilities and funding requirements, and the U.S. shipbuilding industrial base.
Navy Force Structure and Shipbuilding Plans: Background and Issues for Congress
This report presents background information and issues for Congress concerning the Navy's force structure and shipbuilding plans. The current and planned size and composition of the Navy, the rate of Navy ship procurement, and the prospective affordability of the Navy's shipbuilding plans have been oversight matters for the congressional defense committees for many years. The issue for Congress is whether to approve, reject, or modify the Navy's proposed FY2019 shipbuilding program and the Navy's longer-term shipbuilding plans.
Navy John Lewis (TAO-205) Class Oiler Shipbuilding Program: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on the John Lewis (TAO205) class oiler shipbuilding program.
Private Flood Insurance and the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP)
This report discusses the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) and the requirements that private insurers must meet to satisfy the federal flood insurance requirements. It also discusses legislation in the 115th Congress related to flood insurance.
What Happens if the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) Lapses?
This report provides a short overview of what would happen if the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) were not to be reauthorized by July 31, 2018, and allowed to lapse.
Capital Gains Tax: An Overview
This report gives a brief overview of taxes and tax law regarding capital gains.
Fannie and Freddie Investors Turn to Congress After the Supreme Court Declines to Resurrect Their Legal Claims
This report discusses the Supreme Court's decision to decline to review the case of "Perry Capital LLC. v. Murchin" which denied the claims of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac shareholders against the federal government. It also discusses some of the plaintiffs desire to seek legislative reform from Congress to change the law governing profit transfers from Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac.
FDA Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies (REMS): Description and Effect on Generic Drug Development
This report provides a brief history of FDA drug regulation, describes FDA's early risk management programs, and focuses on the agency's current risk management authorities, specifically risk evaluation and mitigation strategies (REMS). The report also discusses issues that have arisen as a result of REMS, particularly the impact on generic drug competition. While this report generally focuses on REMS in the context of generic drug development, the issues discussed are also relevant to biological and biosimilar product development.
Prescription Drug User Fee Act (PDUFA): 2017 Reauthorization as PDUFA VI
This report discusses the Prescription Drug User Fee Act (PDUFA) and its reauthorization by Congress as PDUFA I.
SBA's 8(a) Program: Overview, History, and Current Issues
This report examines the Minority Small Business and Capital Ownership Development Program's (8(a) Program) historical development, key requirements, administrative structures and operations, and the SBA's oversight of 8(a) firms. It also discusses two SBA programs designed to support 8(a) firms, the 7(j) Management and Technical Assistance Program and the 8(a) Mentor-Protégé Program, and provides various program statistics. It concludes with an analysis of current Program 8(a) issues.
The TRIO Programs: A Primer
This report provides an overview of the TRIO programs which provide support services to disadvantaged student to promote achievement in post-secondary education.
Update of "All Eyes on Allergan: Drug Company's Unprecedented Move Raises Questions for Patent and Drug Law (Part 1)"
This report is an update of a previous report discussing the case of "Allergan Inc. v. Teva Pharmaceuticals USA Inc." which deals with patent law and the rights of brand-name pharmaceutical companies and generic pharmaceutical companies as well as Native American tribes sovereign rights because the St. Regis Mohawk Tribe is a co-plaintiff in the case. The case is currently in the appeals process.
Armed Conflict in Syria: Overview and U.S. Response
This report discusses the ongoing conflict in Syria and past and current U.S. policies regarding the conflict and U.S. involvement in it. Topics covered include U.S. military aid and humanitarian assistance to groups in Syria, proposed legislation related to Syria n Congress, current U.S. policy aims, and recent events in Syria both diplomatically and militarily.
Defense Primer: Future Years Defense Program (FYDP)
This report discusses the Future Years Defense Program (FYDP) and its purpose and organization.
Jordan: Background and U.S. Relations
This report provides an overview of Jordanian politics and current issues in U.S.-Jordanian relations. It provides a brief discussion of Jordan's government and economy and of its cooperation with U.S. policies in the Middle East.
Medicare and Budget Sequestration
This report discusses how budget sequestration effects the Medicare program.
Small Business Administration: A Primer on Programs and Funding
This report describes the Small Business Administration's programs and funding sources.
Small Business Administration (SBA) Funding: Overview and Recent Trends
This report examines the Small Business Administration's (SBA's) appropriations (new budget authority, minus rescissions and sequestration) over time, focusing on developments and trends since FY2000.
The Committee on Foreign Investments in the United States (CFIUS)
This report discusses the Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States (CFIUS) which is an interagency body comprised of nine Cabinet members, two ex officio members, and other members as appointed by the President, that assists the President in overseeing the national security aspects of foreign direct investment in the U.S. economy. Various legislative and executive actions that would effect the operations of CFIUS are also discussed.
Expired Tax Provisions and "Tax Extenders"
This report discusses tax provisions which expired at the end of 2016 and were not addressed in the 2017 tax reform bill and various options for Congress to either extend them or end them.
House Judiciary Committee to Mark Up H.R. 4170, the Disclosing Foreign Influence Act
This report discusses the House Judiciary Committee's announcement that they would hold a full committee markup hearing on Wednesday, January 17 for H.R. 4170, the Disclosing Foreign Influence Act (DFIA).
"Marbury v. Madison Returns"! The Supreme Court Considers the Scope of "Judicial Power"
This report provides background on "Marbury v. Madison" and the upcoming case of Dalmazzi v. United States" which challenges the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court over the Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces (CAAF) and concludes by exploring the potential ramifications of the jurisdictional question "Dalmazzi" poses.
Respirable Crystalline Silica in the Workplace: New Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Standards
This report discusses OSHA's new standards for respirable crystalline silica in the workplace. Groups representing employers, manufacturers, and labor filed court challenges to the new standards. On December 22, 2017, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit upheld the new standards.
Supreme Court Agrees to Hear Constitutional Challenge to SEC Administrative Law Judges
This report discusses the case of "Lucia v. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)" which is scheduled to be heard by the Supreme Court. The case addresses whether administrative law judges(ALJs) within the SEC are "Officers of the United States" (officers) who must be appointed in accordance with the Appointments Clause of Article II of the Constitution.
Updated: Will the Supreme Court Address State's Power to Require that Retailers Tax Internet Sales?
This report is an update of an earlier report regarding a state's power to require retailers to tax internet sales in the purchasers state of residence. A case was brought by the state of South Dakota against Wayfair.com (South Dakota v. Wayfair) which was accepted to be heard by the Supreme Court on January 12, 2018.
Contracting the Adversary
This report discusses the training of Navy and Air Force pilots through the use of "adversary" squadrons which fly planes that are either similar or actual versions of those used by enemy countries. The Air Force is considering contracting out this service due to the pilot shortage in the Air Force. Various options and precedent for such contracting services are discussed.