Congressional Research Service Reports - 513 Matching Results

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Immigration: "Recalcitrant" Countries and the Use of Visa Sanctions to Encourage Cooperation with Alien Removals
This report discusses the use of visa sanctions by the Trump Administration, past uses of visa sanctions, and alternatives to visa sanctions to encourage countries to comply with repatriation of their citizens.
Introduction to the Legislative Process in the U.S. Congress
This report introduces the main steps through which a bill (or other item of business) may travel in the legislative process. For many bills, the process will not follow the sequence of congressional stages that are often understood to make up the legislative process. This report presents a look at each of the common stages through which a bill may move, but complications and variations abound in practice.
Points of Order, Rulings, and Appeals in the Senate
This report describes the process of enforcing a rule of order in the U.S. Senate.
The SUPPORT for Patients and Communities Act (P.L. 115-271): Food and Drug Administration and Controlled Substance Provisions
This report summarizes the provisions in Title III--the FDA (Food and Drug Administration) and Controlled Substance Provisions, as well as Section 4004 "Modernizing the Reporting Requirements of Biological and Biosimilar Products" in Title IV--Offsets.
Who Can Serve as Acting Attorney General
This report discusses the two primary arguments raised to challenge the President's decision to name Matthew Whitaker as Acting Attorney General: first, that the Vacancies Act does not apply because another statute, 28 U.S.C. ยง 508, provides that the Deputy Attorney General (DAG) serves as Acting AG in the event of a vacancy; and second, that the Appointments Clause prohibits Whitaker, a non-Senate-confirmed official, from serving as the head of the Department of Justice (DOJ).
Internships in Congressional Offices: Frequently Asked Questions
This report addresses frequently-asked questions (FAQs) about congressional interns and internships. It is intended to provide information about the role of interns and to provide a summary of some of the policies and guidance provided by the House and the Senate related to internships. It addresses the House and Senate rules that apply to congressional internships, factors that may affect an office's selection process, and an individual's eligibility to serve in an internship, as well as some of the congressional resources and training opportunities available for interns.
Iran's Nuclear Program: Tehran's Compliance with International Obligations
This report provides a brief overview of Iran's nuclear program and describes the legal basis for the actions taken by the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) board and the Security Council.
NIH Funding: FY1994-FY2019
This report discusses funding for the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) from 1994 to 2019. The NIH is the primary federal agency charged with conducting and supporting biomedical and behavioral research. It is the largest of the eight health-related agencies that make up the Public Health Service (PHS) within the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS).
VA Housing: Guaranteed Loans, Direct Loans, and Specially Adapted Housing Grants
This report discusses three types of housing assistance--the loan guaranty program, direct loan programs, and Specially Adapted Housing program-- includingg their origins, how they operate, and how they are funded. It also briefly describes a home rehabilitation pilot program designed to help veterans who have low incomes or disabilities repair or modify their homes, and has a section that discusses the default and foreclosure of VA-guaranteed loans.
DOD's Troops to Teachers Program (TTT)
This report describes the U.S. Department of Defense's Troops to Teachers (TTT) program which provides assistance to veterans pursuing careers in education.
Jrisdiction Stripping: When May Congress Prohibit the Courts from Hearing a Case?
This report discusses the Supreme Court case of "Patchak v. Zinke" and its relevance to Congress. It begins by briefly describing the Court's prior attempts to demarcate the boundaries of Congress's power to take cases away from the federal judiciary. It then discusses the facts and opinions in Patchak and analyzes the effect Patchak may have on Congress's legislative objectives.
Modes of Constitutional Interpretation
This report provides a brief overview of the major theories of constitutional interpretation.
Pass-Throughs, Corporations, and Small Businesses, A Look at Firm Size
This report discusses the definition of small businesses and what types of companies they are (corporatiom, pass-through, sole proprietorship etc.) along with information on the relation between firm size and company type.
The U.S. Export Control System and the Export Control Reform Initiative
This report discusses the U.S. export control system for defense related exports and examines the current split administration of the various parts of the system and proposals to unify and streamline the system.
Bahrain: Reform, Security, and U.S. Policy
This report discusses Bahrain's political and governmental structure, economy, regional policies, defense agreements with the U.S., and human rights concerns. The 2011 uprising against the royal family and its aftermath are also discussed.
Commemorative Commissions: Overview, Structure, and Funding
This report discusses commemorative commissions created by Congress to oversee a special event for a commemoration of an event or person. Using a dataset of all commemorative commissions created by statute since the 96th Congress (1979-1980), this report examines the content of typical legislative language used to create commemorative commissions and how commemorative commissions are funded. This report does not address noncommemorative congressional commissions, nor does it address commemorative entities created by the President or statutory commissions tasked with designing and building monuments and memorials in Washington, DC.
Discretionary Spending Levels Under the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2018
This report discusses how the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2018 effected discretionary spending levels and provides statistics related to discretionary levels over the past few years.
Guide to Committee Activity Reports: Purpose, Rules, and Contents
This report provides a discussion of the types of information that may be included in the activity reports, variations across reports and time, and the filing process. A table provides a comparison of the committee activity reports and other congressional publications, including the types of information found in each as well as their timeframe for coverage and publication.
Has the Economy Reached Full Employment? If So, Will It Stay There?
This report considers the question of whether the U.S. has reached full employment (defined as the lowest level of unemployment that is sustainable for the economy without over-inflating wages) and provides statistical charts of the unemployment rate and labor force participation rates along with analysis of the data.
Methane and Other Air Pollution Issues in Natural Gas Systems
This report provides information on the natural gas industry and the types and sources of air pollutants in the sector. It examines the role of the federal government in regulating these emissions, including the provisions in the Clean Air Act and other statutes, and EPA's and other agencies' regulatory activities. It concludes with a brief discussion of a number of issues under debate.
Resolving Legislative Differences in the Congress: Conference Committees and Amendments Between the Houses
This report summarizes the procedures the two houses of Congress use most frequently to resolve their legislative differences. It is based upon an interpretation of the rules and published precedents of the House and Senate and an analysis of the application of these rules and precedents in recent practice.
Tax Exempt Bonds: A Description of State and Local Government Debt
This report provides information about state and local government debt. State and local governments issue debt instruments in exchange for the use of individuals' and businesses' savings. This debt obligates state and local governments to make interest payments for the use of these savings and to repay, at some time in the future, the amount borrowed. State and local governments may finance capital facilities with debt rather than out of current tax revenue to more closely align benefits and tax payments. The federal government subsidizes the cost of most state and local debt by excluding the interest income from federal income taxation.
The Federal Communications Commission: Current Structure and Its Role in the Changing Telecommunications Landscape
This report discusses the structure and role of the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) and recent legislation in the 115th Congress regarding the FCC.
The Purple Heart: Background and Issues for Congress
This report examines the history of the Purple Heart award for military service members and changes in eligibility over time. The report also discusses current issues facing Congress -- such as whether traumatic brain injuries or PTSD diagnoses should be grounds for receiving the award, and whether those injured or killed assisting others during terror attacks outside their military duties should be eligible.
Small Business Administration HUBZone Program
This report discusses the Historically Underutilized Business Zone Empowerment Contracting (HUBZone) program, which provides participating small businesses located in areas with low income, high poverty, or high unemployment with contracting opportunities in the form of set-asides, sole-source awards, and price-evaluation preferences. It provides information about the program and it's structure; outlines arguments for an against targeting assistance and the continuation of the program; analyzes the program's administration; and examines related legislation.
What Share of Taxpayers Would See a Tax Increase or a Tax Decrease Under a Senate Version of the Tax Reform Bill
This report provides a brief overview and charts illustrating statistics about who would receive tax cuts, tax increases, or stay the same under the Senate version of the Tax Reform Bill.
The Article V Convention to Propose Constitutional Amendments: Current Developments
This report provides information for Members of Congress and congressional staff on current developments in Congress, the states, and the relevant advocacy and policy communities concerning the Article V Convention alternative for proposing constitutional amendments.
Joint Employment and the Save Local Business Act
This report discusses the proposed "Save Local Business Act" in the House and its provisions and implications for employers and employees in businesses where unions exist. The National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) broadening of the definition of what constituted a joint employer in the case of Browning-Ferris Industries of California led to resist by some in the business community and the "Save Local Business Act" seeks to restore the former more narrow definition of joint employers.
Telehealth Services Proposed for Medicare Part B Reimbursements, 2018: Fact Sheet
This report discusses telehealth services covered under Medicare and describes the five conditions that a telehealth service must meet to be covered and paid for under Medicare Part B, provides an overview of how the Secretary of the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) adds telehealth services to Medicare's reimbursable list, and includes a table listing the proposed telehealth services to be added to the CY2018 list for Medicare reimbursement.
2017 Hurricanes and Army Corps of Engineers: Background for Flood Response and Recovery
This report outlines the role of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in hurricane disaster relief and recovery. This role encompasses emergency response to floods and general disaster recovery, maintaining or repairing flood control structures such as dams that they operate as well as assisting in the repair of non-federally owned flood control structures. Recent activities of the Corps during and after Hurricanes Harvey and Irma are discussed.
China's Economic Rise: History, Trends, Challenges, and Implications for the United States
This report provides background on China's economic rise; describes its current economic structure; identifies the challenges China faces to maintain economic growth; and discusses the challenges, opportunities, and implications of China's economic rise for the United States.
Implementation Date Nears for HHS Emergency Preparedness (EP) Rule
This report discusses the new emergency preparedness rules for organizations which participate in the Medicaid and Medicare programs that will be required to be in place by November 16, 2017.
Iran Nuclear Agreement
This report discusses the Iran nuclear agreement that was made on July 14, 2015 and the lifting of sanctions related to their nuclear weapons programs which occurred on January 16, 2016. Iran's obligations under the agreement and Congressional discussion of adjustments to the agreement or withdrawal are outlined.
Iran Sanctions
This report analyzes U.S. and international sanctions against Iran and provides some examples, based on open sources, of companies and countries that conduct business with Iran. CRS has no way to independently corroborate any of the reporting on which these examples are based and no mandate to assess whether any firm or other entity is complying with U.S. or international sanctions against Iran. The sections are grouped by function, in the chronological order in which the themes have emerged
Maritime Territorial and Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) Disputes Involving China: Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on maritime territorial and exclusive economic zone (EEZ) disputes in the East China (ECS) and South China Sea (SCS) involving China, with a focus on how these disputes may affect U.S. strategic and policy interests.
Oil Spills: Background and Governance
This report provides background information regarding oil spills and identifies the legal authorities and processes for oil spill prevention, response, liability, and compensation. The first section highlights background issues, including oil spill statistics and potential environmental impacts. The second section discusses the legal and regulatory framework that governs oil spill prevention and response.
Regulatory Exclusivity Reform in the 115th Congress
This report introduces the various regulatory exclusivities that protect certain medicines from marketplace competition for a set period of time and then describes pertinent legislation in the 115th Congress addressing them.
A Shift in the International Security Environment: Potential Implications for Defense-Issues for Congress
This report discuses a shift to a new international security environment and implications of that new environment on defense-related issues. It does not discuss potential implications of a shift in the international security environment for other policy areas, such as foreign policy and diplomacy, trade and finance, energy, and foreign assistance.
State Department Special Envoy, Representative, and Coordinator Positions: Background and Congressional Actions
This report provides background on the use of special envoys, representatives, and coordinators (primarily within the foreign affairs arena; for the most part, interagency positions are not included). It identifies various temporary positions, their purpose, and existing authorities. The report presents commonly articulated arguments for and against the use of these positions and issues for Congress going forward. The scope of this report is limited to the special envoy and related positions identified by the Department of State in a 2017 report to Congress and additional selected positions identified by CRS. This report may be updated to reflect congressional action.
Supreme Court October Term 2016: A Review of Select Major Rulings
This report highlights four particularly notable cases the Court heard and ruled on during the October 2016 term: Matal v. Tam, which examines the interplay between the First Amendment and trademark law; Sessions v. Morales-Santana, a case exploring the relationship between immigration law and the Court's Equal Protection jurisprudence; Trinity Lutheran Church of Columbia, Inc. v. Comer, the latest chapter in the Court's Free Exercise jurisprudence; and Ziglar v. Abbasi, a case limiting the types of damages claims that can be asserted against federal officers for alleged constitutional violations under the Bivens doctrine. Each case is addressed in a separate section below, which provides background information on the case; summarizes the arguments that were presented to the Court; explains the Court's ultimate ruling; and examines the implications that the Court's ruling could have for Congress, including broader ramifications for jurisprudence in a given area of law.
Charlottesville Car Crash Attack: Possibility of Federal Criminal Prosecution
This report discusses the announcement that the Charlottesville, Virginia car crash attack is being investigated as a federal civil rights case. It also outlines the sections of the federal law under which the attack could be classified.
Coast Guard Cutter Procurement: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and potential oversight issues for Congress on the Coast Guard's programs for procuring 8 National Security Cutters (NSCs), 25 Offshore Patrol Cutters (OPCs), and 58 Fast Response Cutters (FRCs). Congress's decisions on these three programs could substantially affect Coast Guard capabilities and funding requirements, and the U.S. shipbuilding industrial base.
Coast Guard Polar Icebreaker Modernization: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on the sustainment and modernization of the Coast Guard's polar icebreaker fleet. The Coast Guard's proposed FY2017 budget requests $150 million in acquisition funding for a new polar icebreaker that the Coast Guard wants to begin building in FY2020. The issue for Congress is whether to approve, reject, or modify the Administration's FY2017 acquisition funding request for a new polar icebreaker, and, more generally, whether to approve, reject, or modify the Coast Guard's overall plan for sustaining and modernizing the polar icebreaking fleet.
Commemorative Coins: Background, Legislative Process, and Issues for Congress
This report discusses the commemorative coin program that allows coins to be created for special events such as centennials and sold at or above face value to raise money for the sponsoring organization. Topics discussed are the history of the program, Congressional procedures for approval of a coin, design processes, and policy issues and implications for Congress to consider.
EPA's 20115 Ozone Air Quality Standards
This report discusses the EPA's standard-setting process for National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), the specifics of the most recent reviews, and issues raised by the 2015 rulemaking, which lowered the allowed levels of ozone pollution in the air, and its implementation.
Inspector General Community Launches Oversight.gov to Increase Accessibility to Reports
This report discusses the launch of oversight.gov by the Council of Inspectors General on Integrity and Efficiency (CIGIE) and which agencies are currently participating in the beta test. The site allows Office of the Inspector General (OIG) reports related to participating agencies to be accessed in one place with keyword searchability.
Navy Ship Names: Background for Congress
This report discusses the process of naming Navy ships, which have traditionally been chosen and announced by the Secretary of the Navy. Rules for giving certain types of names to certain types of Navy ships have evolved over time.
The Net Neutrality Debate: Access to Broadband Networks
This report discusses net neutrality and the concept of open internet access. A decision by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) in 2015 to classify broadband internet service as a telecommunication subjected the industry to further regulation and provoked a debate over what level of regulation should be used for the internet. The FCC in May 2017 announced their intention to modify rules from the 2015 regulations opening the debate once again. Past and current Congressional legislation related to internet policy is included in the final section.
Trespassing: The Leading Cause of Rail-Related Fatalities
This report discusses rail-related fatalities and the problem of trespassing by pedestrians on the railroad tracks which is the leading cause of fatalities in rail incidents. Statistics on fatalities, known causes of trespassing, and initiatives to reduce trespassing incidents such as Operation Lifesaver are discussed.
Cyprus: Reunification Proving Elusive
This report provides a brief overview of the history of the negotiations between Greek and Turkish Cypriot leaders, a review of the negotiations since 2008, and a description of some of the issues involved in the talks.