Congressional Research Service Reports - 488 Matching Results

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Defense Primer: Under Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering
This report discusses the role of the Under Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering and how the position fits into the organizational structure of the Defense Department.
Supersonic Passenger Flights
This report provides an overview of the development of supersonic air travel, renewed interest in supersonic passenger flights, and issues and challenges related to supersonic flights.
American War and Military Operations Casualties: Lists and Statistics
This report provides U.S. war casualty statistics compiled from various Department of Defense (DOD) sources (listed at end). The first data table lists the number of casualties among American military personnel who served in principal wars and combat operations from 1775 to the present. Subsequent tables provide more specific information by conflict about the demographics of soldiers killed or wounded in action and information such as race and ethnicity, gender, branch of service, home state, and cause of death.
Trends in Mandatory Spending: In Brief
This report describes mandatory spending, its composition and growth over time, and possible mandatory spending in coming decades, as well as relevant policy options.
IRS Will No Longer Require Disclosure of Certain Nonprofit Donor Information
This report will first provide background on the statute and regulations regarding tax-exempt organizations' (EOs') disclosure of contributor information. Next, the report will discuss the justifications of and reactions to the new policy, including the views of proponents and opponents of the new policy. The report will then discuss the litigation Montana has filed against the policy. Finally, the report will provide considerations for Congress.
Strange Occurrences Highlight Insider Threat to Aviation Security
This report discusses insider threats to aviation security and how those concerns can be mitigated.
Supreme Court Appointment Process: Consideration by the Senate Judiciary Committee
This report discusses the role played by the Senate Judiciary Committee in the process for appointing Supreme Court Justices. Each appointment to the nine-member Court is of consequence because of the enormous judicial power that the Court exercises, separate from, and independent of, the executive and legislative branches.
Trade Adjustment Assistance for Workers and the TAA Reauthorization Act of 2015
After a brief discussion of the program's purpose and most recent reauthorization, this report describes TAA as reauthorized by the Trade Adjustment Assistance Reauthorization Act of 2015 (TAARA, Title IV of P.L. 114-27).
Canada-U.S. Relations
This report presents an overview of Canada's political situation, foreign and security policy, and economic and trade policy, focusing particularly on issues that may be relevant to U.S. policymakers.
Agriculture and Related Agencies: Fiscal Year 2018 Appropriations
This report discusses the FY2018 appropriations for the Department of Agriculture and recent funding trends.
China-U.S. Trade Issues
This report provides background and analysis of U.S.-China commercial ties, including history, trends, issues, and outlook. It will be updated as events warrant.
Organization of American States: Background and Issues for Congress
This report discusses the Organization of American States (OAS) which is a regional multilateral organization of all the independent countries in the western hemisphere (except Cuba) that was founded in 1948. Background on the organization, its structure, and current issues in Congress related to it are discussed.
Administration's Infrastructure Program Emphasizes Nonfederal Revenue
This report discusses the Trump Administration's infrastructure plan and specifically the newly proposed Infrastructure Incentives Program. The report focuses on the potential of the program for projects submitted to the Department of Transportation (DOT), one of the agencies that would be charged with administering the program in addition to the Corps of Engineers and the Environmental Protection Agency. The proposal does not break out the funds that would be directed to specific agencies or types of infrastructure.
HPSCI Memorandum Sparks Debate Over FISA Application Requirements
This report discusses the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) and its authority to allow the government to undertake electronic surveillance programs of people suspected of engaging in foreign intelligence activity along with recent debate regarding the issue.
Hunting and Fishing on Federal Lands and Waters: Overview and Issues for Congress
This report provides an overview of issues related to hunting and fishing on federal lands.
Potential Options for Electric Power Resiliency in the U.S. Virgin Islands
This report explores several alternative electric power system structures for meeting the electricity services and needs of the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI).
The $50 Billion Threshold in the Dodd-Frank Act: Key Findings
This report provides an overview key findings from the newly issued CRS Report R45036, Bank Systemic Risk Regulation: The $50 Billion Threshold in the Dodd-Frank Act. It includes some background information and a list of bills that may also affect the legislation.
Federal Procurement Law and Natural Disasters
This report discusses the federal procurement laws regarding federal agencies hiring contractors for disaster recovery work and the encouragement to use local contractors for the work to help the local economy recover.
Mixed-Oxide Fuel Fabrication Plant and Plutonium Disposition: Management and Policy Issues
This report discusses an agreement made between Russia and the U.S. to dispose of excess weapons-grade plutonium, and describes both Russian and U.S. methods and plans for disposal. The U.S. plans are discussed in more detail, with various Congressional considerations regarding funding of the program.
Softwood Lumber Imports from Canada: Current Issues
This report discusses the latest softwood lumber dispute between the U.S. and Canada, known as Lumber V. This report provides background information on the dispute, summarizes the key issues leading to the tensions between the United States and Canada over softwood lumber, and examines current developments in Lumber V.
The Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) Block Grant: A Primer on TANF Financing and Federal Requirements
This report the Temporary Assistance for Needy Children (TANF) block grant. It provides an overview of TANF financing and rules for state programs, describing federal TANF grants and state funds under a "maintenance-of-effort" (MOE) requirement; how federal TANF and state MOE funds may be used to help achieve the purpose and goals of the TANF block grant; rules that apply when TANF or MOE funds are used to provide "assistance" to needy families with children; rules that apply when TANF or MOE funds are used for benefits and services other than assistance; certain accountability requirements, including requirements that states submit plans and report data to the federal government; and provisions of TANF law not directly related to grants to states, such as competitive grants for promoting healthy marriage and responsible fatherhood, and tribal TANF provisions.
Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) in the United States
This report discusses the process of carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) and its use in the United States. Legislation in the 115th Congress and the current state of the CCS process are discussed.
Columbia: Background and U.S. Relations
This report analyzes the political and economic conditions in Colombia and examines major issues in U.S.-Colombian relations. Topics covered include recent Presidential administrations, economic conditions, the FARC Peace Accord, human rights concerns, the narcotics trade, and the U.S.-Colombia bilateral strategies known as Plan Colombia and Peace Colombia.
Generalized System of Preferences: Overview and Issues for Congress
This report discusses the U.S. Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) program which provides non-reciprocal, duty-free tariff treatment to certain products imported from designated beneficiary developing countries (BDCs). This report examines, first, recent legislative developments, along with a brief history, economic rationale, and legal background leading to the establishment of the GSP. Second, the report describes U.S. GSP implementation. Third, the report briefly analyzes of the U.S. program's effectiveness and stakeholders' views, and discusses possible options for Congress in renewing the program for fiscal year 2018.
Impact of the Budget Control Act Discretionary Spending Caps on a Continuing Resolution
This report answers common questions regarding the government's discretionary spending limits under the Budget Control Act which if they are exceeded trigger sequestration. The result of continuing budget resolutions and possibilities for fiscal year 2018 are addressed.
In Any Way, Shape, or Form? What Qualifies as "Any Court" Under the Gun Control Act?
This report discusses the requirements under the Gun Control Act of 1968 that prohibit persons convicted of felony crimes and misdemeanor domestic violence from buying or possessing firearms and what courts are covered under the phrase "any court' in the legislation.
The Latest Chapter in Insider Trading Law: Major Circuit Decision Expands Scope of Liability for Trading on a "Tip"
This report discusses a recent court decision regarding insider trading laws and the liability of someone who acts on a tip that consists of inside information that they should have known was obtained or shared illegally. Background on the case, relevant case law, and implications of the decision are discussed.
A Primer on U.S. Immigration Policy
This report provides a broad overview of U.S. immigration policy. The first section addresses policies governing how foreign nationals enter the United States either to reside permanently or to stay temporarily. Related topics within this section include visa issuance and security, forms of quasi-legal status, and naturalization. The second section discusses enforcement policies both for excluding foreign nationals from admission into the United States, as well as for detaining and removing those who enter the country unlawfully or who enter lawfully but subsequently commit crimes that make them deportable. The section also covers worksite enforcement and immigration fraud. The third section addresses policies for unauthorized aliens residing in the United States.
Statute of Limitation in Federal Criminal Cases: An Overview
This report describes the rules governing statutes of limitation for federal crimes and provides a list of federal statutes of limitation in criminal cases with a rough chart of comparable state provisions.
Trade Promotion Authority (TPA): Frequently Asked Questions
This report answers frequently asked questions regarding the Trade Promotion Authority (TPA) program which requires international trade agreements that reduce tariff or non-tariff barriers to trade in ways that require changes in U.S. law, to be implemented only through the enactment of legislation. If the trade agreement and the process of negotiating it meet certain requirements, TPA allows Congress to consider the required implementing bill under expedited procedures, pursuant to which the bill may come to the floor without action by the leadership, and can receive a guaranteed up-or-down vote with no amendments.
Coast Guard Polar Icebreaker Modernization: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on the sustainment and modernization of the Coast Guard's polar icebreaker fleet. The Coast Guard's proposed FY2018 budget requests $19 million in acquisition funding for a new polar icebreaker that the Coast Guard wants to begin building in FY2019.
Congressional Consideration of Resolutions to "Censure" Executive Branch Officials
This report summarizes the parliamentary procedures the House and Senate might use to consider a resolution to censure or condemn an executive branch official and provides links to additional reading material on the subject.
Federal Employees: Human Resources Management Flexibilities for Emergency Situations
This report discusses special flexibility and hiring options for federal employees after disasters that are issued by the Department of Personnel Management (OPM). Most recently these options have been offered to those effected by Hurricanes Harvey and Irma. The various options for employees using the program are listed and described in a tabular format.
Navy Columbia Class (Ohio Replacement) Ballistic Missile Submarine (SSBN [X]) Program: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and potential oversight issues for Congress on the Columbia class program, a program to design and build a new class of 12 ballistic missile submarines (SSBNs) to replace the Navy's current force of 14 Ohio-class SSBNs. The program was previously known as the Ohio replacement program (ORP) or SSBN(X) program. The Navy has identified the Columbia class program as the Navy's top priority program. The Navy wants to procure the first Columbia-class boat in FY2021.
Navy Virginia (SSN-774) Class Attack Submarine Procurement: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on the Virginia-class nuclear-powered attack submarine (SSN) program. The Navy's proposed FY2018 budget requests $5,225.9 million in procurement and advance procurement (AP) funding for the program. Decisions that Congress makes on procurement of Virginia-class boats could substantially affect U.S. Navy capabilities and funding requirements, and the U.S. shipbuilding industrial base.
Redeploying U.S. Nuclear Weapons to South Korea: Background and Implications in Brief
This report provides background information on the deployment of nuclear weapon systems in South Korea in the past, explores the options that might be available for the redeployment of nuclear weapons to South Korea now to deter the North Korean threat, and discusses the potential implications of doing so for South Korea, North Korea, Japan, and the U.S.
Resolutions Censuring the President: History and Context, 1st-114th Congresses
This report discusses times when Congress has issued or proposed censures of the President for his actions which though not laws show Congress's displeasure and reflect badly on the President.
Unauthorized Childhood Arrivals: Legislative Options
This report discusses bills proposed in Congress that either would provide temporary protection from removal or paths to citizenship for Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) recipients in the wake of the announcement of the phasing out of the DACA program.
The Federal Communications Commission: Current Structure and Its Role in the Changing Telecommunications Landscape
This report discusses the role of the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), its appropriations requests for fiscal year 2018, and various proposals for restructuring the agency made in Congress.
Federal Research and Development Funding: Fiscal Year 2018
This report begins with a discussion of the overall level of President Trump's FY2018 R&D request, followed by analyses of the R&D funding request from a variety of perspectives and for selected multiagency R&D initiatives. The report concludes with discussion and analysis of the R&D budget requests of selected federal departments and agencies that, collectively, account for nearly 99% of total federal R&D funding. Selected terms associated with federal R&D funding are defined in the text box on the next page. Appendix A provides a list of acronyms and abbreviations.
The Individual Mandate for Health Insurance Coverage: In Brief
This report provides an overview of the individual mandate, its associated penalty, and the exemptions from the mandate. It discusses the ACA reporting requirements designed, in part, to assist individuals in providing evidence of having met the mandate. The report includes some national- and state-level data on the application of the mandate's penalty in tax year (TY) 2014 and TY2015.
Navy Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) Program: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on the Aegis ballistic missile defense (BMD) program, which is carried out by the Missile Defense Agency (MDA) and the Navy, and gives Navy Aegis cruisers and destroyers a capability for conducting BMD operations. Congress's decisions on the Aegis BMD program could significantly affect U.S. BMD capabilities and funding requirements, and the BMD-related industrial base.
Navy Irregular Warfare and Counterterrorism Operations: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and potential issues for Congress on the Navy's irregular warfare (IW) and counterterrorism (CT) operations. The Navy's IW and CT activities pose a number of potential oversight issues for Congress, including how much emphasis to place on IW and CT activities in future Navy budgets.
Navy John Lewis (TAO-205) Class Oiler Shipbuilding Program: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on the John Lewis (TAO205) class oiler shipbuilding program, a program to build a new class of 20 fleet oilers for the Navy. The TAO-205 program was previously known as the TAO(X) program. The first ship in the program was funded in FY2016 at a cost of $674.2 million. The Navy's proposed FY2018 budget requests $466.0 million in procurement funding for the second ship, which the Navy wants to procure in FY2018, and $75.1 million in advance procurement (AP) funding for the third ship, which the Navy wants to procure in FY2019.
Navy Lasers, Railgun, and Hypervelocity Projectile: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on three potential new weapons that could improve the ability of Navy surface ships to defend themselves against enemy missiles--solid state lasers (SSLs), the electromagnetic railgun (EMRG), and the hypervelocity projectile (HVP).The issue for Congress is whether to approve, reject, or modify the Navy's funding requests and proposed acquisition strategies for these three potential new weapons. Congress's decisions on this issue could affect future Navy capabilities and funding requirements and the defense industrial base.
Navy LX (R) Amphibious Ship Program: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on the LX(R) program, a program to build a new class of amphibious ships for the Navy. The Navy wants to procure the first LX(R) in FY2020. The Navy's proposed FY2018 budget requests $9.6 million in research and development funds for the LX(R) program. Decisions Congress makes on the LX(R) program will affect Navy capabilities and funding requirements, and the U.S. shipbuilding industrial base.
Sifting Domestic Terrorism from Hate Crime ad Homegrown Violent Extremism
This report defines the terms domestic terrorism, hate crimes, and homegrown violent extremism as used by the FBI and the Department of Homeland Security and how they can intersect.
Comparing DHS Component Funding, FY2017: Fact Sheet
This report provides figures that show total net discretionary appropriations for Department of Homeland Security (DHS) broken down by component, and ordered from largest to smallest by FY2016 enacted funding level.
Defining Readiness: Background and Issues for Congress
This report discusses how differing uses of the term "readiness" affect congressional debate, but does not evaluate the current state of the U.S. military or provide a conclusive definition of readiness. It also considers how the different uses of the term readiness relate to certain issues: Is there a readiness crisis? What should the U.S. military be ready for? How should readiness be measured? How does the FY2018 budget request affect the U.S. military's readiness?
Effects of Buy America on Transportation Infrastructure and U.S. Manufacturing: Policy Options
This report begins by explaining Buy America restrictions in more detail. It describes how Buy America comports with international trade agreements that generally forbid procurement restrictions favoring domestic products; and how a relatively new provision enacted by Congress may require imports of materials on federally-funded transportation projects to be carried on U.S.-flag ships. The report identifies policy options Congress might consider in light of recent legislative proposals.