Congressional Research Service Reports - 511 Matching Results

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Defense Primer: Congress's Constitutional Authority with Regard to the Armed Forces
This report provides an overview of Congress's war powers under the U.S. Constitution.
Defense Primer: Legal Authorities for the Use of Military Forces
This report provides an overview of United States war powers.
Defense Primer: RDT&E
This report describes the appropriations structure and funding levels for the U.S. Department of Defense's (DOD's) research, development, test, and evaluation (RDT&E). The DOD relies on scientific and technical research funded by the department and performed by industry, universities, federal laboratories, and others; the DOD also relies on technology developed by the private sector for commercial markets.
Lame Duck Sessions of Congress Following a Majority-Changing Election: In Brief
This report describes "lame duck" sessions of Congress, which take place whenever one Congress meets after its successor is elected but before the term of the current Congress ends. It specifically provides additional information on the 1954, 1994, and 2010 lame duck sessions.
Congressional Primer on Responding to Major Disasters and Emergencies
This report provides information to aid policymakers related to the laws and administrative policies governing the disaster response and recovery process. It also reviews the legislative framework for providing federal financial assistance following disasters, as well as the policies the executive branch employs to provide supplemental help to state (or territory), tribal, and local governments during time of disasters.
Hurricane Florence: Brief Overview of FEMA Programs and Resources
This report provides a brief overview of emergency and major disaster declarations relevant to Hurricane Florence, and selected federal resources and links to CRS products related to emergency and disaster declarations, disaster response, and recovery.
Locomotive Idling, Air Quality, and Blocked Crossings
This report discusses the risks and disruptions that occur when trains idle on the tracks and block crossings as well as possible responses to address the problem.
Military Retirement: Background and Recent Developments
This report discusses the military retirement system, which includes monthly compensation for qualified active and reserve retirees, disability benefits for those deemed medically unfit to serve, and a survivor annuity program for the eligible survivors of deceased retirees.
The Nordic Countries and U.S. Relations
This report provides an overview of U.S. relations with the five Nordic countries -- Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden -- which share deep historical, linguistic, and cultural ties and many political and economic similarities. Topics include foreign and security policies, policies toward Russia, and countering terrorism.
Senate Confirmation Votes on U.S. Supreme Court Nominations: Overview
This report provides an overview of several issues related to final confirmation votes by the Senate on Supreme Court nominations.
Emergency Use Authorization and FDA's Related Authorities
This report discusses when the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) may permit a medical product to be provided to patients outside of the standard regulatory framework.
Kosovo: Background and U.S. Relations
This report describes Kosovo's government and political structure, economy, and relations with the U.S., Serbia, and the European Union (EU).
Nuclear Energy: Overview of Congressional Issues
This report discusses nuclear energy and various issues and concerns related to it use. Congressional actions and related CRS reports are described for six topics which are: radioactive waste, economic viability, safety, technological advances, security and emergency plans, and nuclear weapon nonproliferation.
Qatar: Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy
This report discusses Qatar's governmental structure and politics, economy, foreign policy and regional disputes with other Gulf countries, U.S.-Qatar relations and security collaboration, and human rights issues.
The War in Yemen: A Compilation of Legislation in the 115th Congress
This report provides a summary of all legislative proposals that the 115th Congress has considered to date regarding the conflict in Yemen. Proposed stand-alone legislation, resolutions, and amendments to wider bills [National Defense Authorization Act (H.R. 2810; P.L. 115-91) and Defense appropriations (H.R. 3219/Division I, H.R. 3354)] reflect a range of congressional perspectives and priorities.
F-35 Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) Program
This report provides an overview of the DOD's F-35 development and procurement program and funding levels for FY2018 and requested funding levels for FY2019.
Federal Lands and Related Resources: Overview and Selected Issues for the 115th Congress
This report provides a brief overview of federal land management and its challenges along with legislation in the 115th Congress which related to federal land management.
Multilateral Development Banks: U.S. Contributions FY2000-FY2019
This report provides an overview of U.S. contributions to multilateral development banks. It shows in tabular form how much the Administration requested and how much Congress appropriated for U.S. payments to the multilateral development banks (MDBs) since 2000.
Navy LPD-17 Flight II (LX[R]) Amphibious Ship Program: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on the LPD-17 Flight II amphibious ship program, previously known as the LX(R) program.
Offshore Oil and Gas Development: Legal Framework
This report discusses the various legal authorities and regulations that govern offshore oil and gas exploration and drilling in U.S. waters. The report also discusses recent executive action and legislative proposals concerning offshore oil and natural gas exploration and production.
Regulatory Reform 10 Years After the Financial Crisis: Dodd-Frank and Securities Law
This report discusses the success and challenges of securities regulation reform passed 10 years ago as a a part of the Dodd-Frank Act and new legislation in Congress that would repeal or change aspects of the Dodd-Frank Act.
Special Counsels, Independent Counsels, and Special Prosecutors: Legal Authority and Limitations on Independent Executive Investigations
This report analyzes the use of special prosecutors and independent counsels that were authorized under now-expired provisions of the Ethics in Government Act of 1978, as well as the use of special counsels that are currently authorized by DOJ regulations. A glossary of terms at the beginning of the report briefly defines these italicized terms (see Table 1). The report continues with an examination of various constitutional issues relevant to these efforts.
Adoption Tax Benefits: An Overview
This report provides an overview of tax benefits for adoptive parents.
Arming Teachers as a Response to School Shootings
This report discusses the proposal of arming teachers in public schools that was made by President Trump in the wake of the Stoneman Douglas High School shooting in Parkland, Florida and arguments for and against the proposal.
Can the Government Prohibit 18-Year Olds From Purchasing Firearms?
This report discusses whether the federal government can prevent 18 year old individuals from buying firearms. The report examines case law regarding the issue.
The Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States (CFIUS)
This report provides information about the structure, role, and funding of the Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States (CFIUS).
Congressionally Directed Medical Research Programs Funding for FY2016 and FY2017
This report provides an overview of Congressional funding for medical research programs in FY2016 and FY2017.
Navy Columbia (SSBN-826) Class Ballistic Missile Submarine Program: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and potential oversight issues for Congress on the Columbia-class program, a program to design and build a new class of 12 ballistic missile submarines (SSBNs) to replace the Navy's current force of 14 Ohio-class SSBNs.
The President Acts to Impose Tariffs on Steel and Aluminium Imports
This report discusses President Trump's announcement of new tariffs on steel and aluminium imports in response to a Department of Commerce report which stated that imported steel and aluminium was harming national security.
Russia's 2018 Presidential Election
This report discusses the 2018 Russian presidential elections and the strict control exercised by the Russian government over the election process and candidates allowed to run. Brief overviews of all the candidates are provided as well as notable absences from the election along with possible plans for the future by President Vladimir Putin.
Tax-Preferred College Savings Plan: An Introduction to Coverdells
This report describes the mechanics of Coverdell college savings plans and examines the specific tax advantages of these plans. Specifically, this report reviews the major parameters of Coverdells and then examines the income and gift tax treatment of Coverdells, using a stylized example to illustrate key concepts. The report also examines the tax treatment of rollovers and the interaction of Coverdells with other education tax benefits. Finally, the report looks at how Coverdells affect a student's eligibility for federal need-based student aid.
Diversity Immigrants' Regions and Countries of Origin: Fact Sheet
This report provides data on the regional and national origins of diversity immigrants (DV immigrants) and how they have shifted over time.
Ecuador: In Brief
This report discusses Ecuador's political and governmental structure (including the 2017 elections), economy, and their relationship with the U.S.
Federal Disaster Assistance: The National Flood Insurance Program and Other Federal Disaster Assistance Programs Available to Individuals and Households After a Flood
This report discusses federal disaster relief programs, such as the National Flood Insurance Program, available to people after a flood.
Introduction to the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP)
This report provides a brief overview of the National Flood Insurance Program(NFIP) and its funding and authorization status.
National Flood Insurance Program: Selected Issues and Legislation in the 115th Congress
This report discusses legislation and debates regarding the National Flood Insurance Program in the 115th Congress.
Nonstrategic Nuclear Weapons
This report provides basic information about U.S. and Russian nonstrategic nuclear weapons. It begins with a brief discussion of how these weapons have appeared in public debates in the past few decades, then summarizes the differences between strategic and nonstrategic nuclear weapons. It then provides some historical background, describing the numbers and types of nonstrategic nuclear weapons deployed by both nations during the Cold War and in the past decade; the policies that guided the deployment and prospective use of these weapons; measures that the two sides have taken to reduce and contain their forces, and the 2018 NPR's recommendation for the deployment of new U.S. nonstrategic nuclear weapons. The report reviews the issues that have been raised with regard to U.S. and Russian nonstrategic nuclear weapons, and summarizes a number of policy options that might be explored by Congress, the United States, Russia, and other nations to address these issues.
The Veterans Health Administration and Medical Education: In Brief
This report discusses the Veterans Health Administration (VA) program for medical training and its funding.
Afghanistan: Post-Taliban Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy
This report discusses Afghanistan's history of conflict, governmental structure, human rights issues, and security policies and initiatives. A special focus is put on the U.S. involvement in Afghan security and ongoing fights against the Taliban and other terrorist groups and U.S. aid to Afghanistan both economically and militarily. It includes fiscal year 2018 aid requests for both military assistance and economic and humanitarian aid.
China-U.S. Naval Modernization: Implications for U.S. Navy Capabilities-Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on China's naval modernization effort and its implications for U.S. Navy capabilities. For an overview of the strategic and budgetary context in which China's naval modernization effort and its implications for U.S. Navy capabilities may be considered, see Appendix A.
Cluster Munitions: Background and Issues for Congress
This report discusses cluster munitions and their use and dangers. U.S. policy regarding them is discussed including the November 2017 rule issued by the DOD which relaxed standards for cluster munitions to allow the use of munitions that did not gave a 1% or less unexploded submunitions rate in extreme war situations reversing a 2008 rule.
Introduction to U.S. Economy: The Business Cycle and Growth
This report describes the concept of business cycles and their effect on the economy.
Navy Ship Names: Background for Congress
This report describes the naming process for U.S. naval ships and various regulations regarding the process. Recent legislation related to ship names is also included.
21st Century Flood Reform Act (H.R. 2874): Reforming the National Flood Insurance Program
This report discusses the National Flood Insurance Act and the proposed 21st Century Flood Reform Act in the House. House leaders submitted an Amendment in the Nature of a Substitute (H.R. 2874ANS) on November 6, 2017, that would modify H.R. 2874, the 21st Century Flood Reform Act, to add provisions from the six other bills approved by the House Financial Services Committee. H.R. 2874 would authorize the NFIP until September 30, 2022. This report summarizes selected provisions of the bill, concentrating on changes related to premiums and surcharges, affordability, increasing participation, the role of private insurance, treatment of multiple loss properties, and some provisions related to floodplain mapping and mitigation.
EPA Proposes to Repeal the Clean Power Plan
This report discuses the EPA proposal in October 2017 to repeal the "Clean Power Plan" due to their determination after review of the rule that it exceeded their statutory authority to implement it. Steps in the process of repealing the rule, the outcome of the current court case regarding the rule, and possible replacement rules regarding Carbon dioxide emissions and power plants.
Flood-Risk Reduction and Resilience: Federal Assistance and Programs
This report provides an overview of flood assistance programs and the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) related mitigation incentives; it also raises flood-related policy considerations associated with federal programs and practices.
Potential Effects of a U.S. NAFTA Withdrawal: Agricultural Markets
This report examines some of the potential consequences to U.S. agricultural markets of a U.S. withdrawal from NAFTA, focusing on the possibility that higher tariffs could be imposed on U.S. imports and exports. In particular, under a NAFTA withdrawal, it is likely that most-favored nation (MFN) tariffs would be imposed on agricultural products traded among the NAFTA countries instead of the current zero tariff (i.e., duty-free trade) for most agricultural products. In general, MFN tariffs on U.S. agricultural imports would likely raise prices both to U.S. consumers and other end users, such as manufacturers of value-added food products.
Tax Reform: The Child Credit and the Child Care Credit
This report discusses the child credit and the child care credit and what changes are being made to them in the new tax reform plan currently being debated. This report provides background to help assess who would be assisted by potential changes to either credit. It shows what types of families with children receive both credits and how the credits are distributed across the income distribution.
Two-Sided Credit Card Markets: The Supreme Court Takes Up Novel Antitrust Issue
This report discusses the case of "Ohio v. American Express" which the Supreme Court has accepted for hearing which poses the question of how federal antitrust law should treat two-sided markets which are platforms in which two distinct user groups operate in an interdependent way. The case challenges anti-steering clauses in American Express contract agreements with merchants that prevent the merchants from promoting the use of other credit cards. The case has the potential to change the way vendors accept card payments across the country--but the case also provides the Supreme Court with the opportunity to guide the lower courts that are increasingly confronting antitrust issues concerning two-sided markets. As a result, the American Express case raises several issues for Congress that could implicate its legislative and oversight roles with respect to the financial services industry and, more generally, the regulation of two-sided markets.
Armed Conflict in Syria: Overview and U.S. Response
This report discusses the ongoing conflict in Syria and previous actions taken by the United States to intervene in the conflict, mediate peace, and assist refugees as well current considerations related to Syria in Congress.