Congressional Research Service Reports - 474 Matching Results

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Air Force B-21 Raider Long-Range Strike Bomber
This report discusses the development of a new long-range bomber aircraft, the B-21 Raider (previously known as LRS-B). The U.S. Department of Defense proposes to acquire at least 100 of them, initially to replace the fleets of B-1 and B-2 bombers, and possibly to replace B-52s in the future.
The Peace Corps: Current Issues
This report discuses the Peace Corps functions and funding as well as current issues, including: the available funding for Peace Corps expansion, whether volunteers are able to function in a safe and secure environment, and volunteer access to abortion.
Costs of Government Interventions in Response to the Financial Crisis: A Retrospective
This report summarizes government assistance programs and presents how much the programs ultimately cost (or benefit) the taxpayers based on straightforward cash accounting as reported by the various agencies.
Fiscal Year 2019 Appropriations for the Department of Energy
This report discusses the President's FY2019 budget request for the Department of Energy (DOE), funding proposed in the request, funding proposed by the conference committee, and key changes.
Fiscal Year 2019 Appropriations for the Department of Energy
This report discusses the appropriations budget for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), funding proposed in the request, and key changes .
Supreme Court Nomination: CRS Products
This report lists key Congressional Research Service (CRS) products on the judicial decisions of Justice Kennedy and Judge Kavanaugh, as well as information on Supreme Court vacancies and nominations.
Ebola: Democratic Republic of Congo
This report discusses an Ebola outbreak in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), first reported to the World Health Organization (WHO) on May 8, 2018. As of June 10, 2018, WHO reported a total of 55 cases, including 28 deaths.
The June 12 Trump-Kim Jong-un Summit
This report covers the June 12, 2018 meeting between President Donald Trump and North Korean leader Kim Jong-un. During the meeting the two discussed North Korea's nuclear program, building a peace regime on the Korean Peninsula, and the future of U.S. relations with North Korea.
Federal Election Commission: Membership and Policymaking Quorum: In Brief
This report discusses the Federal Election Commission's structure, membership, and quorum requirements and what happens if they lose their policymaking quorum.
Millennium Challenge Corporation
This report provides an overview of the Millennium Challenge Corporation's (MCC) functions, funding, and success rate. The MCC provides economic assistance through a competitive selection process to developing nations that demonstrate positive performance in three areas: ruling justly, investing in people, and fostering economic freedom.
Regulatory Reform 10 Years After the Financial Crisis: Systemic Risk Regulation of Non-Bank Financial Institutions
This report discusses the progress of regulatory reform for non-bank financial institutions since the 2008 financial crisis.
Softwood Lumber Imports from Canada: Current Issues
This report discusses current issues and developments in "Lumber V", a dispute between Canada and the U.S. over the pricing and quantity of softwood lumber imports from Canada to the U.S., which has been a source of friction between the two countries for decades.
U.S. Senate Vacancies: Contemporary Developments and Perspectives
This report discusses the procedures for filling a vacant Senate seat and provides a brief description of the most recent Senate vacancies and the election proceedings used to fill the vacancies. Various legislative proposals to alter the procedures for filling Senate vacancies are also discussed.
Class Actions are Back at the Supreme Court: Statutory Time Limits and "Serial Relitigation" of Class Certification
This report discusses the the Supreme Court case of "China Agritech v. Rush" which concerns whether a plaintiff in a failed class action suit can sue again individually even if they would have normally been barred from doing so by the statute of limitations. The report explores the history behind the existing rules that apply with respect to statutes of limitations and class actions (the American Pipe rule), before discussing the specifics of China Agritech and the importance of the case for Congress.
The Constitutionality of Censuring the President
This report discusses whether Congressional censure of the President is constitutional and provides examples of past Congressional censures of presidents.
EPA's Wood Stove/Wood Heater Regulations: Frequently Asked Questions
This report presents some of the most frequent questions raised concerning the EPA's new wood heater emissions rule, so as to provide basic background information about the final wood heater rule, its potential impacts, and stakeholder reactions to it.
Latin American and the Caribbean: Issues in the 115th Congress
This report provides an overview of U.S. policy toward Latin America and the Caribbean during the 115th Congress. It begins with background on the region's political and economic environment and then examines U.S. policy toward the region, focusing on the Trump Administration. The report then examines selected regional and country issues, highlighting congressional interest and legislative action. An Appendix lists hearings on the region in the 115th Congress.
Northern Ireland, Brexit, and the Irish Border
This report discusses the issue of Northern Ireland's border with the Republic of Ireland following Brexit and the ongoing negotiations regarding the issue.
Northern Ireland: Current Issues and Ongoing Challenges in the Peace Process
This report discusses the history of the implementation of the 1998 "Good Friday" Peace Agreement in Northern Ireland, ongoing challenges in the peace process, initiatives to further peace, and current issues surrounding the collapse of the devolved government and the refusal to form a coalition by either major party and the Brexit negotiations.
Threats to National Security Foiled? A Wrap Up of New Tariffs on Steel and Aluminium.
This report discusses the new tariffs on steel and aluminium imports which go into effect on March 23, 2018. Possible effects of the tariff on the American market and reactions to the tariffs by other countries are also discussed.
The United Kingdom: Background, Brexit, and Relations with the United States
This report discusses the United Kingdom's relations with the U.S., current political situation, and the Brexit negotiations.
D.C. Circuit Court Upholds as Constitutional the Structure of the CFPB: Part 1
This report discusses the decision of the D.C. Circuit Appeals Court which upheld the structural design of the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB). This report begins with a brief summary of the Supreme Court's views of the President's removal power before addressing the PHH litigation and the en banc majority opinion. Part II of this series will address some of the separate opinions issued in the case and then highlight certain implications for Congress.
D.C. Circuit Court Upholds as Constitutional the Structure of the CFPB: Part 2
This report discusses the decision of the D.C. Circuit Appeals Court which upheld the structural design of the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB). This report is Part II of a two part series and will address some of the separate opinions issued in the case and then highlight certain implications for Congress.
Department of State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs: FY2018 Budget and Appropriations
This report discusses the State Department's Foreign Operations and Related Programs budget for Fiscal Year 2018 and Congressional action related to it.
Emergency Assistance for Agricultural Land Rehabilitation
This report discusses federal programs which provide emergency agricultural land rehabilitation funds.
Financial Stability Oversight Council (FSOC): Structure and Activities
This report discusses the Financial Stability Oversight Council (FSOC) and its Office of Financial Research (OFR) which were established by the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (P.L. 111203) to address several potential sources of systemic risk. It provides an overview of the FSOC's structure and analyzes FSOC policy-related issues and legislation.
Individual Income Tax Rates and Other Key Elements of the Federal Individual Income Tax: 1988 to 2017
This report summarizes the tax brackets and other key elements of the individual income tax that help determine taxpayers' marginal and average effective tax rates going back to 1988. It is updated to reflect indexation adjustments and changes in tax law.
Israel: Background and U.S. Relations in Brief
This report discusses Israel's relations with the U.S. and its neighbors, the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, and the domestic political scene amid allegations of corruption against the Prime Minister.
Would it Violate Equal Protection to Prohibit Naturalized "Dreamers: from Sponsoring Their Parents for Immigrant Visas?
This report discusses the question of whether "Dreamers" who were given a pathway to citizenship and became naturalized citizens could sponsor their parents for immigration visas in the same way any other U.S. citizen could. Case law and various considerations which could affect such a decision are discussed.
History, Evolution, and Practices of the President's State of the Union Address: Frequently Asked Questions
This report answers frequently asked questions about the President's annual State of the Union Address.
The Logan Act: An Overview of a Sometimes Forgotten 18th Century Law
This report discusses the Logan Act, including a brief explanation of some of the constitutional concerns that surround the law. This report concludes with a discussion of what Congress could do to modify the statute to make it less susceptible to some of these concerns.
Small Business Administration Microloan Program
This report discusses the Small Business Administration's (SBA) microloan program. It describes the Microloan program's eligibility standards and operating requirements for lenders and borrowers and examines the arguments presented by the program's critics and advocates. It also examines changes to the program authorized by P.L. 111-240, the Small Business Jobs Act of 2010 and several bills introduced during the 114th and 115th Congresses.
Trends in Bank Secrecy Act/Anti-Money Laundering Enforcement
This report provides an overview of recent trends in the enforcement of the Bank Secrecy Act (BSA), the principal U.S. anti-money laundering law regulating financial institutions. The report begins by providing general background information on BSA penalties and enforcement. The report concludes by discussing three recent trends that commentators have observed in BSA enforcement: (1) an increase in the frequency with which BSA enforcement actions involve an assessment of money penalties, and an increase in the size of those penalties, (2) an increased emphasis by regulators on the acceptance of responsibility by institutions entering into settlement agreements for BSA violations, and (3) an increased risk of individual liability for BSA violations.
U.S. Postal Service Governors: And Then There Were None
This report discusses the U.S. Postal Service's Board of Governors and the current state of the board having no governors on it. The workings of the board and the implications of the board's lack of members is also discussed.
A Shift in the International Security Environment: Potential Implications for Defense--Issues for Congress
This report discusses the security environment of the world, how it has changed since the Cold War, and implications of the security environment for defense. The report also discusses issues for Congress concerning potential reassessment of U.S. defense.
Suing Subway: When Does a Class Action Settlement Benefit Only the Lawyers
This report explores the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit's "Subway" ruling which rejected a proposed settlement of a class-action suit brought against Subway for falsely advertising the length of their sandwiches; the settlement required them to inspect sandwich lengths and pay the plaintiff's attorney fees, but it only benefited the lawyers and not consumers. The report discusses the case's broader significance to class action litigation, tort reform, and consumer rights.
Supreme Court Declines to Take Up Military Commission Challenges-Al Bahlul and Al-Nashiri
This report discusses the Supreme Court's rejection of cases submitted by two detainees at Guantanamo Bay (Ali Hamza Ahmad Suliman al Bahlul & Abd Al-Rahim Hussein Al-Nashiri) challenging the current military commission system under the Military Commissions Act (MCA). It discusses the merits of the cases, the various legal proceedings regarding them, and case law related to the issue.
Taylor Force Act: Palestinian Terrorism-Related Payments and U.S. Aid
This report discusses possible legislation (the Taylor Force Act) that would affect U.S. aid payments to the Palestinian Authority. It provides background on the concerns that money might go toward payments to families accused of terrorism by Israel, as well as a discussion of proposed bills.
Fiscal Year 2018 Appropriations for the Department of Justice
This report discusses proposed appropriations for the Department of Justice (DOJ) for the 2018 fiscal year divided into each department of the DOJ. The Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2017 (P.L. 115-31) appropriated $28.962 billion for DOJ while President Trump's proposed 2018 budget requests $28.205 billion for DOJ which amounts to 2.6% less than the FY2017-enacted appropriation.
Instances of Use of United States Armed Forces Abroad, 1798-2017
This report lists hundreds of instances in which the United States has used its Armed Forces abroad in situations of military conflict or potential conflict or for other than normal peacetime purposes. It was compiled in part from various older lists and is intended primarily to provide a rough survey of past U.S. military ventures abroad, without reference to the magnitude of the given instance noted.
Multiyear Procurement (MYP) and Block Buy Contracting in Defense Acquisition: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on multiyear procurement (MYP) and block buy contracting (BBC),1 which are special contracting mechanisms that Congress permits the Department of Defense (DOD) to use for a limited number of defense acquisition programs. Compared to the standard or default approach of annual contracting, MYP and BBC have the potential for reducing weapon procurement costs by several percent.
NAFTA Renegotiation and Modernization
This report provides a brief overview of The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the role of Congress in the renegotiation process. It discusses key issues that are likely to be discussed during the current negotiations, and it provides a discussion of policy implications for Congress going forward.
The National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP): Issues in Brief
This report discusses the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program which is made up of four agencies (FEMA, The National Science Foundation, USGS, and National Institute of Standards and Technology) who are responsible for monitoring, reporting, and studying earthquakes and increasing resiliency to earthquakes through means such as stronger infrastructure, early warning systems, and recovery plans.
CRISPR Gene Editing Research in Embryos Generates Scientific and Ethics Debate
This report discusses the results of a recent experiment on the use of gene modification for decreasing the chance of children having hypertrophic cardiomyopathy which was done through the use of CRISPR to modify the genes of human embryos at a private facility. Restrictions on the use of public funds for such studies, a brief explanation of the science, and ethical concerns are discussed.
Executive Branch Legislative Proposals Affecting Veterans Benefits in the Fiscal Year 2018 Budget
This report discusses legislative proposals that would affect veterans' disability payments and Cost of Living Adjustments (COLAs) in the 2018 Fiscal Year budget proposals.
Introduction to the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP)
This report provides introductory information on key components of the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP), ranging from floodplain mapping to the standard flood insurance forms. This report will be updated as significant revisions are made to the NFIP through legislation or administrative action.
Military Sexual Assault: A Framework for Congressional Oversight
This report provides a framework for Congressional analysis and oversight of sexual assault in the military and seeks to help congressional staff understand the legislative and policy landscape, link proposed solutions with potential impact metrics, and identify possible gaps that remain unaddressed. Four categories of oversight and action related to sexual assault in the military are addressed; Department of Defense (DOD) management and accountability, prevention, victim protection and support, and military justice and investigation.
Programs for Minority Serving Institutions Under the Higher Education Act
This report describes the several programs devoted to financially assisting minority serving institutions (MSIs) under the Higher Education Act (HEA). First discussed is how the various HEA MSI programs are funded. It then provides a description of each program, organized by the type of MSI to which the program is available. Included in each program description is a discussion of eligibility criteria for program participation; a description of authorized uses of financial awards; and administrative procedures, including a description of how funds are allocated among multiple institutions either via a competitive award process or a formula-based grant. Appendix A provides a list of acronyms used in this report. Appendix B details mandatory and discretionary appropriations for selected MSI programs authorized under the HEA. MSIs include, but are not limited to, American Indian Tribally Controlled Colleges and Universities (TCCUs); Alaska Native and Native Hawaiian-serving institutions (ANNHs); predominantly Black institutions (PBIs); Native American-serving, nontribal institutions (NASNTIs); Asian American and Native American Pacific Islander-serving institutions (ANNAPISIs), historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs), and Hispanicserving institutions (HSIs).
Section 471 of H.R. 10, H.R. 1219, S. 444, and Section 914 of H.R. 3280: Supporting America's Innovators
This report discusses various current bills in Congress that are related to to increasing business innovation and easing regulation on securities and venture-capitol firms. Brief outlines of the goals of each bill and their current progress along with arguments for and against them are presented.
Social Security: The Trust Funds
This report covers how the Social Security program is financed and how the Social Security trust funds work. It will be updated annually to reflect current projections of the financial status of the Social Security trust funds.