Congressional Research Service Reports - 448 Matching Results

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Bahrain: Unrest, Security, and U.S. Policy
This report discusses the political structure and human rights issues in Bahrain, including the 2011 uprising and its aftermath. Additionally, the report discusses Bahrain's relations with the United States and with the other countries in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) alliance.
Cost-of-Living Adjustments for Federal Civil Service Annuities
This report discusses cost-of-living adjustments (COLAs) for the Civil Service Retirement System (CSRS) and the Federal Employee Retirement System (FERS). It includes the formulas used to calculate rates of inflation, amounts paid, and a table of retirement benefits.
Deference and its Discontents: Will the Supreme Court Overrule Chevron?
The Chevron deference is a seminal administrative law doctrine established by the Court's opinion in the 1984 case of Chevron U.S.A., Inc. v. Natural Resources Defense Council, Inc. As several members of the Supreme Court are critical of the doctrine, this report discusses the possibility of the Court reconsidering Chevron in the near future.
House Passes Bill to Amend the Federal "Crime of Violence" Definition
This report discusses the Community Safety and Security Act of 2018 (CSSA), which was recently passed in the House and which would amend the federal "crime of violence" (COV) definition.
Hurricane Michael: Brief Overview of FEMA Programs and Resources
This report provides a brief overview of emergency and major disaster declarations relevant to Hurricane Michael, and selected federal resources and links to CRS products related to Stafford Act declarations, disaster response, and recovery.
Postelection Issues in Bosnia and Herzegovina
This report discusses the political structure, presidency, legislative elections of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and the role of the Unites States.
Vehicle Fuel Economy and Greenhouse Gas Standards
This report discusses the amendments to the federal standards that regulate fuel economy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from new passenger cars and light trucks. The amendments were proposed by the Trump Administration on August 24, 2018.
3D-Printed Guns: An Overview of Recent Legal Developments
This report addresses the various legal questions that have arisen in recent litigation over 3D-printed guns by providing an overview of the issues and developments that have culminated in the injunction.
The National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP), Reinsurance, and Catastrophe Bonds
This report discusses the use of reinsurance to transfer some of the risk of an insurance policy from the primary insurer to a secondary insurer, and the National Flood Insurance Program's (NFIP) decision to use reinsurance through the issuance of catastrophe bonds (which pay out when a particular type of disaster set out in the bond agreement occurs) by the secondary private insurers.
Tax Policy and Disaster Recovery
This report discusses, in broad terms, disaster-related tax policy. Challenges associated with using the tax code to deliver federal financial assistance following natural disasters are also discussed.
U.S.-Taiwan Trade Relations
This report discusses Taiwan's economic situation and U.S.-Taiwan trade relations.
National Counterterrorism Center (NCTC)
This report provides a brief description of the establishment, purposes, and organization of the National Counterterrorism Center (NCTC).
CIA Ethics Education: Background and Perspectives
This report discusses the ethics education of CIA officers. Topics include baseline approaches to ethics education, perspectives on intelligence ethics, personal standards of conduct, and principles of professional ethics.
North Korea: Legislative Basis for U.S. Economic Sanctions
This report discusses the economic sanctions the United States imposes on North Korea for activities related to weapons proliferation, destabilizing the region, anti-terrorism, and undemocratic governance.
Expedited Citizenship through Military Service
This report discusses current law and policy regarding naturalization based on military service, controversy over deportation of veterans, and current legislative proposals.
Abortion at or Over 20 Weeks' Gestation: Frequently Asked Questions
This report provides answers to frequently asked questions concerning abortions that are performed in the second trimester of a woman's pregnancy because Congress and many state legislatures are considering legislation that would limit or ban abortions in midpregnancy. This report does not discuss constitutional or legal questions nor does it discusses differing state regulations regarding such abortions.
Class Action Lawsuits: A Legal Overview for the 115th Congress
This report serves as a primer on class action litigation in the federal courts. It begins by discussing the purpose of class actions, as well as the risks class actions may pose to defendants, class members, and society at large. The report also discusses the prerequisites that a class action must satisfy before a court may "certify" it--that is, before a federal court may allow a case to proceed as a class action. An Appendix to the report also contains a reference chart that graphically illustrates those prerequisites for class certification. The report then discusses Rule 23's restrictions on the parties' ability to settle a certified class action. The report concludes by identifying ways in which Congress could modify the legal framework governing class actions if it were so inclined, with a particular focus on a bill currently pending in the 115th Congress that would effectuate a variety of changes to the class action system.
Latin America and the Caribbean: Fact Sheet on Leaders and Elections
This report provides data on current Latin American and Caribbean leaders and the date of their last election as well as the next scheduled election.
Salaries of Members of Congress: Congressional Votes, 1990-2018
This report provides information about congressional votes regarding their salaries from 1990-2018.
Salaries of Members of Congress: Recent Actions and Historical Tables
This report discusses Congressional salaries and action related to them in Congress from fiscal year 2010 through pay projections for fiscal year 2019. It also includes a historical table of salary levels for Members of Congress from 1992 to 2018.
China-U.S. Trade Issues
This report provides background and analysis of U.S.-China commercial ties, including history, trends, issues, and outlook.
District Court Enjoins DACA Phase-Out: Explanation and Takeaways
This report discusses the case of "Regents of University of California v. U.S. Department of Homeland Security" and the district court ruling which limits the DACA phase-out to aliens not yet enrolled in DACA.
Expulsion of Members of Congress: Legal Authority and Historical Practice
This report discusses the nature of the power of Congress to remove a Member, including the historical background of the Clause, the implications of the limited judicial interpretations of the Clause's meaning, and other potential constitutional limitations in the exercise of the expulsion power. The report then analyzes the potential grounds upon which a Member might be expelled, including an overview of past cases resulting in expulsion and a discussion of the potential exercise of the expulsion power for conduct occurring prior to the Member's election or reelection to Congress.
Funding and Financing Highways and Public Transportation
This report discusses the current federal funding structure for surface transportation and the budget shortfalls in the Highway Trust Fund (made up of funds from gas taxes). Various options for resolving the funding shortfall are discussed, including raising the gas tax, public-private partnerships, and tolls.
Mandatory Minimum Sentencing of Federal Drug Offenses
This report is an overview of the Controlled Substances Act (or the Controlled Substances Import and Export Act) and federal minimum sentencing requirements for drug offenses.
Recent Changes in the Estate and Gift Tax Provisions
This report describes the basic structure of the estate and gift tax, provides a brief history of recent developments, discusses the revenue effects and distribution of the tax, and briefly discusses issues and options.
Temporary Extension of the Community Health Center Fund
This report discusses the funding of the Community Health Center program and the temporary extension of the program beyond FY2017 when its funding officially expired.
Update: Who's the Boss at the CFPB
This report is an update regarding the acting director of the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau, as there were two indivuduals who claimed the right to the job. The Trump Administration appointed acting director, Mick Mulvaney, was confirmed in his position after a lawsuit filed by the previous acting director, Leandra English, was denied by the DC courts.
Fiscal Year 2018 Defense Spending Under an Interim Continuing Resolution
This report discusses defense spending rates and funding for programs under the FY2018 interim continuing resolution.
Venezuela: Background and U.S, Policy
This report describes the government and political structure, economy, and the humanitarian crisis in Venezuela as well as U.S. policy towards Venezuela and recent humanitarian assistance offers made by Congress.
Arms Sales in the Middle East: Trends and Analytical Perspectives for U.S. Policy
This report analyzes state-to-state arms sales in the Middle East with a particular focus on U.S. transfers, as authorized and reviewed by Congress. The information in this report, including sales data, is drawn from a number of official and unofficial open sources. The report focuses on recent arms sales, primarily from the United States, to seven Middle Eastern states: Israel, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates (UAE), Iraq, Turkey, and Qatar. It concludes by considering a number of arms sales-related issues of congressional interest and options available to Members of Congress to influence or control aspects of arms sales, including those related to oversight, reporting requirements, checks on executive action, and conditions on transfers or funding.
The Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States (CFIUS)
This report discusses the Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States (CFIUS) which is a presidential advisory body consisting of nine cabinet members, two ex officio members, and other members appointed by the President to oversee direct investments by foreign countries in the United States. The President has the power to block a direct investment by another country if such an acquisition would pose a threat to U.S. national security. The basics of the committee's operations and laws governing their conduct and power, presidential blocks of investment, previous reforms to the original law governing the committee and its actions and current propositions in Congress to further amend the laws regarding the committee are discussed.
Farm Bill Primer Series: A Guide to Omnibus Legislation on Agriculture and Food Programs
This report constitutes a guide to a series of two-page reports that examine the various programs and policies that comprise periodic omnibus legislation on farm and food policy, commonly known as "the farm bill." The current farm bill (P.L. 113-79) was signed into law in February 2014. Many of the programs authorized by the 2014 farm bill are scheduled to expire in 2018 unless Congress provides for an extension, or reauthorizes them. Without congressional action, key commodity support programs would revert to permanently authorized legislation from the 1930s and 1940s. This report summarizes the farm bill primers listed below while also providing hyperlinks to the full reports. This report in not comprehensive but rather a work in progress in that summaries of additional primer reports will be added as they become available.
The Individual Mandate for Health Insurance Coverage: In Brief
This report provides an overview of the individual mandate, its associated penalty, and the exemptions from the mandate. It discusses the ACA reporting requirements designed, in part, to assist individuals in providing evidence of having met the mandate. The report includes some national- and state-level data on the application of the mandate's penalty in tax year (TY) 2014 and TY2015.
U.S. Periods of War and Dates of Recent Conflicts
This report lists the beginning and ending dates for "periods of war" found in Title 38 of the Code of Federal Regulations, dealing with the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). It also lists and differentiates other beginning dates given in declarations of war, as well as termination of hostilities dates and armistice and ending dates given in proclamations, laws, or treaties. The dates for the recent conflict in Afghanistan and Iraq including the campaign against the Islamic State are included.
Farm Bill Primer Series: A Guide to Omnibus Legislation on Agriculture and Food Programs
This report constitutes a guide to a series of two-page reports that examine the various programs and policies that comprise periodic omnibus legislation on farm and food policy, commonly known as "the farm bill." The current farm bill (P.L. 113-79) was signed into law in February 2014. Many of the programs authorized by the 2014 farm bill are scheduled to expire in 2018 unless Congress provides for an extension, or reauthorizes them. Without congressional action, key commodity support programs would revert to permanently authorized legislation from the 1930s and 1940s.
House Committee Chairs: Considerations, Decisions, and Actions as One Congress Ends and a New Congress Begins
This report outlines the roles of a committee chair in Congress and covers the activities of the period from the House's early organization meetings in November to approximately March or April following the convening of a new Congress.
NASA Appropriations and Authorizations: A Fact Sheet
This report provides data on past, current, and proposed NASA appropriations. No bills have yet been introduced in the 115th Congress proposing future-year authorizations of NASA appropriations. Table 1 shows appropriations for NASA from FY2012 through FY2017. The data for FY2012 through FY2016 include supplemental appropriations, rescissions, transfers, reprogramming, and, in the case of FY2013, sequestration, Table 2 shows enacted appropriations for FY2017, and Figure 1 shows NASA's total annual budget authority from the agency's establishment in FY1958 to FY2017, in both current dollars and inflation-adjusted FY2017 dollars.
U.S. Air Force Pilot Shortage
This report discusses the current shortage of pilots, especially fighter pilots, in the Air Force and factors influencing pilots to leave the Air Force and possible retention and recruitment methods to help alleviate the shortage.
Farm Safety-Net Payments Under the 2014 Farm Bill: Comparison by Program Crop
This report looks at available Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) and Federal Crop Insurance Act (FCIC) data for the major program crops and compares relative support using several different measures: absolute payments, payments per acre, payments as a share of the value of production, and payments as a share of the cost of production. In addition, price and income support levels are compared to market prices.
Insurance and the Financial CHOICE Act (H.R. 10)
This report discusses changes to current insurance law under the new Financial CHOICE Act.
Navy DDG-51 and DDG-1000 Destroyer Programs: Background and Issues for Congress
This report presents background information and potential oversight issues for Congress on the Navy's Arleigh Burke (DDG-51) and Zumwalt (DDG-1000) class destroyer programs. The Navy's proposed FY2018 budget requests funding for the procurement of two DDG-51s. Decisions that Congress makes concerning destroyer procurement could substantially affect Navy capabilities and funding requirements, and the U.S. shipbuilding industrial base.
Navy Littoral Combat Ship/Frigate (LCS/FFGX) Program: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on the Navy's Littoral Combat Ship/Frigate (LCS/FFG(X)) program, a program to procure a total of 40, and possibly as many as 52, small surface combatants (SSCs), meaning LCSs and frigates.
Overview of U.S. Sanctions Regimes on Russia
This report discusses the U.S.-imposed sanctions on Russia for malicious cyber activity.
Fiscal Year 2017 Agriculture and Related Agencies Appropriations: In Brief
This report outlines the fiscal year 2017 appropriations for the Department of Agriculture which were enacted on May 5, 2017 as a part of the Consolidated Appropriations Act. The discretionary total of the enacted appropriation is $20.877 billion, which is $623 million less than enacted in FY2016 (-2.9%). The appropriation also carries mandatory spending--largely determined in separate authorizing laws--that totaled about $132.5 billion. The overall total therefore exceeded $153 billion (Table 1). The discretionary caps were set so as not to trigger sequestration under limits established by the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2015 (P.L. 114-74).The White House released its FY2017 budget request on February 9, 2016, along with the detailed justification from the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). The new Administration released an outline for FY2018 appropriations on March 16, 2017.
Selected Homeland Security Issues in the 115th Congress
This report outlines an array of homeland security issues that may come before the 115th Congress. After a brief discussion of the definitions of homeland security, the homeland security budget, and the role of homeland security actors in the intelligence community, the report divides the specific issues into five broad categories: Counterterrorism and Security Management; Border Security and Trade; Disaster Preparedness, Response, and Recovery; Cybersecurity; and DHS Management Issues. Each of those areas contains a survey of topics briefly analyzed by Congressional Research Service experts. The information included only scratches the surface of most of these selected issues. More detailed information on these topics and others can be obtained by consulting the CRS reports referenced herein, or by contacting the relevant CRS expert.
Special Counsels, Independent Counsels, and Special Prosecutors: Investigations of the Executive Branch by the Executive Branch
This report discusses the authorities who may appoint a special counsel or independent counsel to conduct criminal investigations of the executive branch when the Department of Justice may have a conflict of interest.
FDA Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies (REMS): Description and Effect on Generic Drug Development
This report provides a brief history of FDA drug regulation, describes FDA's early risk management programs, and focuses on the agency's current risk management authorities, specifically risk evaluation and mitigation strategies (REMS). The report also discusses issues that have arisen as a result of REMS, particularly the impact on generic drug competition. It does not discuss antitrust issues raised by restricted distribution systems.
The Army's Armored Multi-Purpose Vehicle (AMPV): Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information on the Armored Multi-Purpose Vehicle (AMPV), which is the Army's proposed replacement to the Vietnam-era M-113 personnel carriers.
How Legislation Is Brought to the House Floor: A Snapshot of Parliamentary Practice in the 114th Congress (2015-2016)
This report provides a snapshot of the forms and origins of measures that, according to the Legislative Information System of the U.S. Congress, received action on the House floor in the 114th Congress (2015-2016) and the parliamentary procedures used to bring them up for initial House consideration.