Congressional Research Service Reports - 503 Matching Results

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Energy and Water Development Appropriations: Nuclear Weapons Activities
This report discusses the Weapons Activities section of the annual Energy and Water Development appropriations bill which funds the maintenance of U.S. nuclear warheads and related infrastructure. The report provides an overview of the programs funded through the bill and the FY2019 budget request.
Oman: Reform, Security, and U.S. Policy
This report discusses Oman's political and governmental structure, economy, foreign policy, and human rights concerns as well as U.S. security assistance and cooperation.
U.S. Agent Orange/Dioxin Assistance to Vietnam
This report discusses U.S. assistance to Vietnam for the environmental and health damage attributed to a dioxin contained in Agent Orange and other herbicides sprayed over much of the southern portion of the country during the Vietnam War, which remains a major issue in bilateral relations.
Defense's 30-Year Aircraft Plan Reveals New Details
This report discusses the U.S. Department of Defense 30-year aviation plan released in April 2018. The yearly plan is intended to chart the direction of the aviation enterprise and is typically relatively short on specifics. By contrast, the most recent 30-year aviation plan is full of details on specific programs, including cancellations, life extensions, and new starts.
Effects of U.S. Tariff Action on U.S. Aluminum Manufacturing
This report discusses the aluminum tariffs put in effect by the U.S. in March 2018. The United States has assessed duties of 10% or more on certain imports of aluminum on national security grounds. The duties are controversial, with some Members of Congress questioning whether the duties will encourage domestic aluminum production and whether they could adversely affect U.S. industries that use aluminum.
Iran's Foreign and Defense Policies
This report discusses Iran's foreign and defense policy and the reasoning behind it, as well as U.S. concerns regarding their power and nuclear weapon capability.
Social Media Adoption by Members of Congress: Trends and Congressional Considerations
This report examines Member adoption of social media platforms outside of Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube, such as Instagram, Flickr, and Google+, which have each been adopted by at least 2.5% of Representatives and Senators. It discusses the possible implications of the adoption of social media, including managing multiple platforms, the type of content and posting location, the allocation of office resources to social media communications, and archiving social media content.
Venezuela: Political and Economic Crisis and U.S. Policy
This report discusses the ongoing political, economic, and humanitarian crisis in Venezuela under President Nicolás Maduro and U.S. responses.
Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) in the United States
This report includes a primer on the CCS (and carbon utilization) process and discusses the current state of CCS in the United States, as well as the DOE program for CCS R&D and CCS-related legislation in the 115th Congress.
Congress's Power over Courts: Jurisdiction Stripping and the Rule of Klein
This report highlights a series of Supreme Court rulings that have examined separation-of-powers-based limitations on the Exceptions Clause, congressional jurisdiction stripping, and the ability of Congress to amend laws with the purpose of directly impacting litigation. The Court's jurisprudence largely begins with the Reconstruction-era case, United States v. Klein, and leads to Patchak v. Zinke, from the October 2017 term.
Department of State, Foreign Operations and Related Programs: FY2019 Budget and Appropriations
This report outlines the 2019 fiscal year budget request for the U.S. State Department, foreign operations, and related programs such as foreign aid. It discusses information about funding levels requested, major projects for the year, and Congressional actions.
Hazing in the Armed Forces
This report discusses the issue of hazing as an initiation custom in the Armed Forces. Congress has oversight of this issue under Article 1, Section 8 of the U.S. Constitution; this report outlines the context of this issue and recent actions taken to counteract it to help Congress decide whether or not to address hazing in the military through oversight and legislation.
Iran's Nuclear Program: Status
This report looks at the background of Iran's nuclear policy. It covers the current status of Iran's nuclear facilities, and current controversy surrounding them, as well as the effects of international sanctions on Iran, recent sabotages on the Iran Enrichment Program, an estimated timeline of Iran's nuclear weapon capabilities, and whether or not Iran even has a nuclear weapons program.
Proliferation Security Initiative (PSI)
This report looks at the background and current status of the Proliferation Security Initiative (PSI), which was formed to increase international cooperation in interdicting shipments of weapons of mass destruction (WMD).
Proposed U.S.-EU Trade Negotiations: Hitting Pause on a Trade War?
This report discusses the announcement by the United States and European Union (EU) that they are at a "new phase" in their relationship for "freer, fairer, and more reciprocal trade." The announcement came on July 25, 2018 at a challenging time for transatlantic trade relations.
The U.S. Export Control System and the Export Control Reform Initiative
This report discusses the U.S. export control system for defense related exports and examines the current split administration of the various parts of the system and proposals to unify and streamline the system.
Coast Guard Polar Icebreaker Program: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on the Coast Guard's program for acquiring new polar icebreakers. The Coast Guard's proposed FY2019 budget requests $750 million in acquisition funding for the program.
United States Special Operations Command Acquisition Authorities
This report describes United States Special Operations Command (SOCOM) acquisition authorities for unclassified acquisition programs and compares these authorities to those granted to the military departments. It also compares the military departments' and SOCOM's chains of command, describes the scope of acquisition activity and program oversight, and explores whether SOCOM has unique characteristics that influence how it conducts acquisition.
Who Interprets Foreign Law in U.S. Federal Courts?
This report discusses the interpretation of foreign law, from routine breach of contract and tort claims to complex cases implicating the judicial branch's role in international affairs. In Animal Science Products, Inc. v. Hebei Welcome Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., the Supreme Court announced the standard of deference for U.S. federal courts to apply when considering a foreign government's interpretation of its own law.
Civilian Nuclear Waste Disposal
This report discusses disposal of nuclear waste, primarily highly radioactive spent fuel from nuclear power plants. Presidential and Congressional actions regarding nuclear waste disposal sites and the Yucca Mountain Project, other alternatives previously proposed by the Obama Administration, and temporary solutions are discussed.
Oil and Gas Activities Within the National Wildlife Refuge System
This report contains sections on recent developments related to oil and gas wells in the National Wildlife Refuge System (NWRS) and related issues for Congress. The report presents information on the number and location of oil and gas wells, compatibility of oil and gas activities with NWRS purposes, and regulatory mechanisms for the administration of oil and gas activities.
U.S. Decision to Cease Implementing the Iran Nuclear Agreement
This report analyzes the Trump Administration's decision to pullout from the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) and its potential implications. The other powers that negotiated the accord with Iran--Russia, China, France, Britain, and Germany--have consistently asserted that the JCPOA is succeeding in its core objectives and that its implementation should not be jeopardized.
Business Investment Spending Slowdown
This report discusses the slowdown in business investment spending over the last decade and various reasons why the slowdown may have occurred.
Residential Energy Tax Credits: Overview and Analysis
This report discusses current residential energy tax credits, options to extend or modify them, and an analysis of their effectiveness.
Sexual Harassment and Title VII: Selected Legal Issues
This report discusses Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (Title VII) and legal interpretations regarding whether it covers sexual harassment in the workplace and if so what types of employer actions are permissible or impermissible under the law.
The Army;s Armored Multi-Purpose Vehicle (AMPV): Background and Issues for Congress
This report discusses the Army's Armored Multi-Purpose Vehicle (AMPV) program and outlines its basic functions, procurement plans, and funding requests for FY2019.
Bipartisan Budget Act of 2018 (P.L. 115-23): Brief Summary of Division E-The Advancing Chronic Care, Extenders, and Social Services (ACCESS) Act
This report provides a brief summary of each of the provisions included in Division E (the ACCESS Act) of the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2018, along with the contact information for the CRS expert who can answer questions about each provision. Division E consists of 12 titles. Each title is addressed in a separate table, and the provisions are discussed in the order they appear in the law. Topics discussed in this report include Medicare, Medicaid, the State Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP), public health, child and family services, foster care, social impact partnerships, child support enforcement, and prison data reporting. Subsequent CRS reports examining selected subsets of these provisions will be linked to this report as they become available.
Cybersecurity: Selected Issues for the 115th Congress
This report covers a variety of topics related to cybersecurity in order to provide context and a framework for further discussion on selected policy areas. These topics include cybersecurity incidents, major federal agency roles and responsibilities, recent policy actions by Congress and the White House, and descriptions of policy issues that may be of interest for the 115th Congress.
Department of Veterans Affairs Fiscal Year 2018 Appropriations
This report discusses the Department of Veterans Affairs FY2018 appropriation and the legislative budget process.
The National Health Service Corps
This report provides an overview of the National Health Service Corps and its role and funding mechanisms.
The President's Fiscal Year 2019 Budget Request for the Department of Energy
This report discusses President Trump's FY2019 budget request for the Department of Energy (DOE) and it compares it with past budgets.
Private Activity Bonds: An Introduction
This report provides an introduction to private activity bonds and their use.
SBA Small Business Investment Company Program
This report describes the Small Business Investment Company (SBIC) program's structure and operations, focusing on SBIC eligibility requirements, investment activity, and program statistics. It also includes information concerning the SBIC program's debenture SBIC program, participating securities SBIC program, impact investment SBIC debenture program (targeting underserved markets and communities facing barriers to access to credit and capital), and the now-sunset early stage debenture SBIC initiative.
Small Business Administration 7(a) Loan Guaranty Program
This report discusses the rationale provided for the Small Business Administration's 7(a) loan guaranty program. It also examines issues raised concerning the SBA's administration of the 7(a) program, including the oversight of 7(a) lenders and the program's lack of outcome-based performance measures. The report also surveys congressional and presidential actions taken in recent years to enhance small businesses' access to capital.
TPP Countries Sign New CPTPP Agreement without U.S. Participation
This report discusses the completion of the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) free trade agreement between 11 countries after the U.S. withdrew from negotiations and its potential effects on U.S. trade in the region.
Venezuela: Background and U.S. Relations
This report report provides an overview of the overlapping political, economic, and social crises in Venezuela, followed by an overview of U.S. policy toward Venezuela.
Congressional Gold Medals: Background, Legislative Process, and Issues for Congress
This report discusses Congressional gold medals which are awarded by Congress periodically for distinguished contributions to the United States. The history, selection process, award designs and production process, and issues for Congress are discussed.
Enforcement of the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act: Select Legal Issues
This report discusses the enforcement of the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and various penalties available for violations.
Family First Prevention Services Act (FFPSA)
This report discusses the Family First Prevention Services Act (FFPSA) which was passed as a part of the 2018 budget bill.
Insurance Regulation: Legislation in the 115th Congress
This report discusses legislation related to insurance companies introduced or passed in the 115th Congress.
U.S. Family-Based Immigration Policy
This report discusses family based immigration law and policy and arguments for expanding or restricting family-based immigration numbers.
Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR): An Overview
This report discusses the oil and gas program recently approved by President Trump for the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) in the context of the ANWR's history, its energy and biological resources, Native interests and subsistence uses, energy market conditions, and debates over protection and development.
Budget Enforcement Procedures: The Senate Pay-As-You-Go (PayGO) Rule
This report discusses the Senate pay-as-you-go (PAYGO) rule, which generally requires that any legislation projected to increase direct spending or reduce revenues must also include equivalent amounts of direct spending cuts, revenue increases, or a combination, so that the legislation does not increase the on-budget deficit in the current fiscal year, the budget year, a six-year period, or an 11-year period (the latter two periods beginning with the current fiscal year). This update includes the most recent changes to the rule, and adds information on points of order raised under the rule since 2015.
Martin Luther King Jr. Day Speech Resources: Fact Sheet
This report assists congressional offices with work related to Martin Luther King, Jr. Day. It contains links to legislation, CRS reports, sample speeches and remarks from the Congressional Record, and presidential proclamations and remarks. It also contains links to additional government web resources and selected educational, cultural, and advocacy organizations.
Monetary Policy and the Federal Reserve: Current Policy and Conditions
This report discusses U.S. monetary policy and the Federal Reserve. It provides an overview of monetary policy and recent developments, a summary of the Fed's actions following the financial crisis, and ends with a brief overview of the Fed's regulatory responsibilities.
Salaries of Members of Congress: Recent Actions and Historical Tables
This report discusses recent fiscal year Congressional pay raise freezes and provides: historical tables on the rate of pay for Members of Congress since 1789; details on enacted legislation with language prohibiting the automatic annual pay adjustment since the most recent adjustment; the adjustments projected by the Ethics Reform Act as compared with actual adjustments in Member pay; and Member pay in constant and current dollars since 1992.
Supreme Court to Hear Voter Roll Case: What are the Implications?
This report discusses the Supreme Court case of "Husted v. Phillip Randolph Institute," which charges the state of Ohio with violating the National Voter Registration Act (NVRA) through their secondary voter registration maintenance program which removes people from the voter rolls due to inactivity. It discusses a brief history of the case before its coming to the Supreme Court and possible implications of the decision.
Can Congress Limit the President's Power to Launch Nuclear Weapons?
This report discusses whether Congress has the power to implement legislation restricting the President from using nuclear weapons under the separation of powers principle.
Diversity Immigrant Visa Program
This report discuses the Diversity Immigrant Visa program (DV) which is a lottery system that makes 50,000 visas available annually to immigrants from countries who had sent less than 50,000 immigrants to the U.S. over the last five years. Eligibility, the application and admission process, statistics on places of origin, and legislative proposals are discussed.
Lebanon
This report provides an overview of Lebanon's political and governmental structure, economy, security situation, refugee population, and other current issues of U.S. interest. It provides background information, analyzes recent developments and key policy debates, and tracks legislation, U.S. assistance, and recent congressional action.