Congressional Research Service Reports - 552 Matching Results

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21st Century U.S. Energy Sources: A Primer
This report provides an overview of U.S. energy issues, and suggests related information, data, and CRS contacts. It is mainly organized around the major fuels and energy sources: resources on federal lands, oil, natural gas, electric, coal, nuclear power, and renewable energy.
The DOD's JEDI Cloud Program
This report discusses the Deputy Secretary of Defense (DSD) Patrick Shanahan's memorandum calling for the accelerated adoption of a Department of Defense (DOD)-wide cloud computing system. Under the Joint Enterprise Defense Infrastructure (JEDI) Cloud program, DOD seeks to "acquire services solution that can support Unclassified, Secret, and Top Secret requirements," with a focus on commercially-available services.
Funding for EPA Water Infrastructure: A Fact Sheet
This report provides a table showing budget requests and appropriations for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) water infrastructure assistance programs since 1973.
Guide to Individuals Seated on the House Dais
This report outlines the members of the House of Representatives who are seated on the dais during meetings in the House chamber of the Capitol.
Guide to Individuals Seated on the Senate Dais
This report outlines the members of the Senate who are seated on the dais during meetings in the Senate chamber of the Capitol.
Latin America and the Caribbean: Fact Sheet on Leaders and Elections
This report provides data on current Latin American and Caribbean leaders and the date of their last election as well as the next scheduled election.
Methane and Other Air Pollution Issues in Natural Gas Systems
This report provides information on the natural gas industry and the types of air pollutants in the sector, as well as the role of the federal government in regulating these emissions, such as provisions in the Clean Air Act and other statutes. It concludes with a brief discussion of a number of issues under debate, including 1) defining the roles of industry and local, state, and federal governments; 2) establishing comprehensive emissions data; 3) determining the proper control of pollutants and sources; 4) understanding the human health and environmental impacts of emissions; and 5) estimating the costs of pollution abatement.
Party Leaders in the House: Election, Duties, and Responsibilities
This report summarizes the election, duties, and responsibilities of the Speaker of the House, the majority and minority leaders, and the whips and whip system.
Presidential Disability Under the Twenty-fifth Amendment: Constitutional Provisions and Perspectives for Congress
This report provides a description and analysis of Sections 3 and 4 of the Twenty-Fifth Amendment, which deal with presidential disability or inability. It also reviews the history of presidential disability and earlier proposals to provide for such contingencies, provides a legislative history of the Twenty-Fifth Amendment and examines relevant legislative proposals pending in the 115th Congress.
Agency Delay: Congressional and Judicial Means to Expedite Agency Rulemaking
This report outlines the various tools that Congress can use to encourage agencies to act within a particular time frame. It then analyzes how those tools inform judicial analysis of challenges to agency actions as "unreasonably delayed" or "unlawfully withheld" under the Administrative Procedure Act (APA) and provides concluding remarks..
Agricultural Provisions of the U.S.-Mexico-Canada Agreement
This report discusses the agricultural provisions of the United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement (USMCA), which replaces the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).
Do Courts Have Inherent Authority to Release Secret Grand Jury Materials?
This report discusses the issue of releasing secret grand jury material. Although a long-established principle that has been deemed essential to the grand jury's functioning and independence is that matters occurring before it are to be kept secret, the Federal Rule of Criminal Procedure 6(e) establishes exceptions.
This report provides an overview of Lebanon and current issues of U.S. interest. It provides background information, analyzes recent developments and key policy debates, and tracks legislation, U.S. assistance, and recent congressional action
The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act's (ACA's) Risk Adjustment Program: Frequently Asked Questions
This report provides responses to some frequently-asked questions (FAQs) about the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) risk adjustment program. It includes background on the health insurance market, discusses why risk mitigation matters, and introduces the role of risk adjustment in risk mitigation. The report also describes the mechanics of the program and concludes with questions regarding the program's experience thus far and future changes to the program.
Proposed U.S.-Mexico-Canada (USMCA) Trade Agreement
This report discusses the U.S.-Mexico-Canada Agreement (USMCA), which is to replace the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). Topics include market access, dispute settlement, intellectual property rights (IPR), energy, and labor and environment.
Russian Compliance with the Intermediate Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty: Background and Issues for Congress
This report describes the current status of the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty and highlights issues that Congress may address as the United States pursues its compliance concerns with Russia. It starts with a historical overview and provides summaries of the provisions of the INF Treaty, Russia's concerns, and options that the United States has under the agreement, as well as a discussion of a potential Russian violation regarding development of a non-compliant missle.
Spain and Its Relations with the United States: In Brief
This report discusses relations between the U.S. and Spain and includes information on partnerships in counter-terrorism and military matters, economic ties, and political issues in Spain. It also provides an overview of the Catalan independence crisis and U.S. and EU views on the matter.
Statutory Canon Aimed at International Organization Immunity
This report discusses the upcoming Supreme Court case Jam v. International Finance Corp. The petitioners--a group of Indian nationals from Gujarat--seek to hold International Finance Corp. (IFC) liable for extensive environmental damage throughout their community caused by the construction of a power plant financed and overseen by IFC. The U.S. Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit (D.C. Circuit) dismissed their lawsuit, holding, in accordance with the circuit's precedent, that the International Organizations Immunities Act (IOIA) grants absolute immunity to IFC in this case.
Trade Related Agencies: FY2019 Appropriations, Commerce, Justice, Science and Related Agencies (CJS)
This report provides an overview of the FY2019 budget request and appropriations for the International Trade Administration (ITA), the U.S. International Trade Commission (USITC), and the office of the United States Trade Representative (USTR). These three trade-related agencies are funded through the annual Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies (CJS) appropriations act. This report also provides a review of these agencies' trade-related programs.
Georgia: Background and U.S. Policy
This report discusses the politics and economy of the nation of Georgia, as well as their relations with the European Union, NATO, Russia, separatist regions, and the United States.
The Congressional Review Act: Determining Which "Rules" Must Be Submitted to Congress
This report describes what types of agency actions can be overturned using the Congressional Review Act (CRA) by providing a close examination and discussion of the statutory definition of "rule." It also explains how Members can use the CRA to overturn agency rules that have not been submitted to Congress.
NATO's 2018 Brussels Summit
This report discusses the meeting of leaders from the North Atlantic Treaty Organization's (NATO's) 29 member states, scheduled to take place on hold a summit at NATO headquarters in Brussels, Belgium, on July 11-12, 2018. Despite the heightened U.S.-European tensions, NATO officials say they expect the allies to announce new NATO initiatives in six main areas at the summit: enhancing collective defense and deterrence, defense spending and burdensharing, countering terrorism, enhancing NATO cooperation with the European Union, and NATO enlargement.
Navy Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) Program: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on the Aegis ballistic missile defense (BMD) program, which is carried out by the Missile Defense Agency (MDA) and the Navy, and gives Navy Aegis cruisers and destroyers a capability for conducting BMD operations.
Navy Lasers, Railgun, and Gun-Launched Guided Projectile: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on three new ship-based weapons the Navy is developing that could improve the ability of Navy surface ships to defend themselves against missiles, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), and surface craft: the Surface Navy Laser Weapon System (SNLWS), the electromagnetic railgun (EMRG), and the gunlaunched guided projectile (GLGP), previously known as the hypervelocity projectile (HVP). The Navy refers to the initial (i.e., Increment 1) version of SNLWS as HELIOS, an acronym meaning high-energy laser with integrated optical dazzler and surveillance.
Questions Remain, Litigation Continues, over Military Service by Transgender Individuals
This report discusses the controversy regarding transgender individuals serving in the military, President Trump's memorandums on the subject, and the four lawsuits challenging the President's memorandums.
Section 232 Investigations: Overview and Issues for Congress
This report provides an overview of Section 232 of the Trade Expansion Act of 1962, which provides the President with the ability to impose restrictions on certain imports based on an affirmative determination by the U.S. Department of Commerce that the product under investigation "is being imported into the United States in such quantities or under such circumstances as to threaten to impair the national security." It also analyzes the Trump Administration's Section 232 investigations and actions, and considers potential policy and economic implications and issues for Congress.
Bahrain: Reform, Security, and U.S. Policy
This report discusses Bahrain's political and governmental structure, economy, regional policies, defense agreements with the U.S., and human rights concerns. It includes information about the 2011 uprising against the royal family and its aftermath.
The Opioid Epidemic and the Food and Drug Administration: Legal Authorities and Recent Agency Action
This report focuses on the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as a key player in federal efforts to curb the opioid epidemic. It provides an overview of FDA's role in approving new prescription drugs, including challenges of approval and regulation of opioid products; addresses FDA's multifaceted approach in responding, including recent agency action; and concludes with a discussion of selected opioid-related legislation in the 115th Congress.
Abortion and Family Planning-Related Provisions in U.S. Foreign Assistance Law and Policy
This report details legislation and policies that restrict or place requirements on U.S. funding of abortion or family planning activities abroad. The level and extent of federal funding for these activities is an ongoing and controversial issue in U.S. foreign assistance and has continued to be a point of contention during the 115th Congress.
Fiscal Year 2018 Defense Appropriations Act: An Overview
This report provides an overview of the appropriations and provisions of the FY2018 Defense Appropriations Act.
Immigration Consequences of Criminal Activity
This report identifies the major criminal grounds that may bar an alien from being admitted into the United States or render an alien within the country removable. The report also discusses additional immigration consequences of criminal activity, including those that make an alien ineligible for certain relief from removal, including cancellation of removal, voluntary departure, withholding of removal, and asylum. The report also addresses the criminal grounds that render an alien ineligible to adjust to lawful permanent resident (LPR) status, as well as those grounds barring LPRs from naturalizing as U.S. citizens. The report also discusses the scope of several general criminal categories referenced by the INA, including "crimes involving moral turpitude," "aggravated felonies," and "crimes of violence."
Options to Cease Implementing the Iran Nuclear Agreement
This report discusses the 2015 Iran nuclear deal and various options for possible U.S. withdrawal if President Trump decided to try to reimpose sanctions on Iran.
SBA's Office of Inspector General: Overview, Impact, and Relationship with Congress
This report examines the Small Business Administration(SBA), Office of the Inspector General (OIG's) statutory authorities; reporting requirements; funding ($26.9 million in FY2018, including $7 million in supplemental appropriations for overseeing SBA disaster assistance); staffing and organizational structure; and recent activities (audits, investigations, etc.). It also examines the SBA OIG's impact on monetary savings, SBA programs and operations, and legislation affecting the agency. The report concludes with observations concerning the SBA OIG's relationship with Congress.
Tax Incentives for Opportunity Zones: In Brief
This report discusses tax incentives for opportunity zones (OZ) which are low-income areas selected by state governors for revitalization efforts. This report briefly describes what census tracts are eligible to be nominated as an OZ by the "chief executive officer" (typically, the governor) of each state or territory, what types of entities can be certified as Qualified Opportunity Funds (QOFs), and the tax benefits of investments in QOFs.
What Happens When Five Supreme Court Justices Can't Agree?
This report discusses the Supreme Court case of "Hughes v. United States" where all five justices agreed on the party that should win but they could not agree on why that party should win. The report discusses what justice's opinion, if any should enter future law through case law precedent, similar past cases, and the background of the "Hughes" case.
Afghanistan: Background and U.S. Policy in Brief
This report provides an overview of current political and military dynamics, with a focus on the Trump Administration's new strategy for Afghanistan and South Asia, the U.S.-led coalition and Afghan military operations, and recent political developments, including prospects for peace talks and elections.
A Bar Bouncer Equivalent for Planes in Flight
This report discusses the decisions of two U.S. Appeals Courts regarding the cases of "U.S. v. Lynch" and "U.S. v. Petras" which both concerned passenger misconduct toward flight attendants.
Economic Growth, Regulatory Relief, and Consumer Protection Act (S. 2155) and Selected Policy Issues
This report discusses the provisions of the Economic Growth, Regulatory Relief, and Consumer Protection Act (S. 2155) and some related policy issues.
Guns, Excise Taxes, Wildlife Restoration, and the National Firearms Act
This report discusses excise taxes collected on firearms which are used to fund wildlife restoration and legislative proposals to adjust the tax system on firearms.
International Trade and Finance: Overview and Issues for the 115th Congress
This report discusses major topics of interest and debate in the 115th Congress related to trade and finance.
Iraq: In Brief
This report discusses Iraq's political and governmental structure, economy, humanitarian issues, military operations, and relations with the U.S.
Joint-Resolution Seeks to End U.S. Support for Saudi-led Coalition Military Operations in Yemen
This report discusses Senate Joint Resolution 54 which directs the President to remove U.S. forces from "hostilities in or affecting" Yemen (except for those U.S. forces engaged in counterterrorism operations directed at al Qaeda or associated forces). It provides a brief overview of U.S. involvement in Yemen both militarily and diplomatically through advisement of Saudi Arabia on reducing civilian casulaties and refueling of Saudi planes used in airstrikes.
Material Support for Terrorism is Not Always an "Act of International Terrorism," Second Circuit Holds
This report discusses the decision of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit in the case of "Linde v. Arab Bank, PLC".
Tax-Preferred College Savings Plans: An Introduction to 529 Plans
This report provides an introduction to 529 college savings plans and examines the specific tax advantages of these plans.
The 2018 National Defense Strategy
This report discusses the 2018 National Defense Strategy which lays out the goals and methods of the Defense Department for the year.
China's Economic Rise: History, Trends, Challenges, and Implications for the United States
This report discusses Chinese economic development in recent years implications for the United States.
Congressional Liaison Offices of Selected Federal Agencies
This report lists about 200 congressional liaison offices and is intended to help congressional offices in placing telephone calls and addressing correspondence to government agencies. The information was supplied by the appropriate agency and is current as of the date of publication. Entries are arranged alphabetically in four sections: legislative branch; judicial branch; executive branch; and agencies, boards, and commissions.
New Nuclear Warheads: Legislative Provisions
This report reviews legislation addressing research and development on new or low-yield nuclear weapons. It does not address the policy debate on the benefits and risks of this capability.
The New START Treaty: Central Limits and Key Provisions
This report discusses the New START Treaty signed by Russia and the United States in 2010 which will be abided by until at least 2021 by the United States. The main provisions of the agreement andits ratification process and implementation, and issues for congress to consider are discussed(
Nutrition Labeling of Restaurant Menu and Vending Machine Items
This report discusses nutrition labeling for items on restaurant menus, in vending machines, prepared food at groceries, and entertainment venues which is required by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act passed in 2010 but now due to be fully implemented in May 2018.