Congressional Research Service Reports - 503 Matching Results

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Bahrain: Unrest, Security, and U.S. Policy
This report discusses the political structure and human rights issues in Bahrain, including the 2011 uprising and its aftermath. Additionally, the report discusses Bahrain's relations with the United States and with the other countries in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) alliance.
Comparing DHS Component Funding, FY2019: In Brief
This report reviews the budget authority provided to Department of Homeland Security (DHS) for FY2018, requested by the Trump Administration for FY2019, as well as the funding levels proposed in Senate and House Appropriations Committee-reported legislation for FY2019. It examines net discretionary annual appropriations for DHS--a perspective on the net impact of legislation funding DHS on congressionally tracked budget totals--and also provides a more inclusive look at the resources available to DHS components to perform their missions.
Federal Research and Development (R&D) Funding: Fiscal Year 2019
This report begins with a discussion of the overall level of President Trump's FY2019 R&D request, followed by analyses of the R&D funding request from a variety of perspectives and for selected multiagency R&D initiatives. The remainder of the report provides discussion and analysis of the R&D budget requests of selected federal departments and agencies that, collectively, account for approximately 99% of total federal R&D funding.
Infantry Brigade Combat Team (IBCT) Mobility, Reconnaissance, and Firepower Programs
This report discusses the Army's Infantry Brigade Combat Teams (IBCTs) and the transport and reconnaissance vehicles being developed for their use, as well as information about the FY2019 budget request for the program.
Iraq: Issues in the 115th Congress
This report discusses issues in Iraq, including remaining Islamic State fighters, the May 2018 election, economic challenges, humanitarian issues and stabilization.
Latin America and the Caribbean: Fact Sheet on Leaders and Elections
This report provides data on current Latin American and Caribbean leaders and the date of their last election as well as the next scheduled election.
Latin America and the Caribbean: Issues in the 115th Congress
This report examines the political and economic environment in Latin America and the Caribbean and U.S. policy toward the region in the 115th Congress, highlighting congressional interest and legislative action.
Qatar: Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy
This report discusses Qatar's governmental structure and politics, economy, foreign policy and regional disputes with other Gulf countries, U.S.-Qatar relations and security collaboration, and human rights issues.
Reserve Component Personnel Issues: Questions and Answers
This report is designed to provide an overview of key reserve component personnel issues. The term "Reserve Component" refers collectively to the seven individual reserve components of the Armed Forces: the Army National Guard of the United States, the Army Reserve, the Navy Reserve, the Marine Corps Reserve, the Air National Guard of the United States, the Air Force Reserve, and the Coast Guard Reserve.
Venezuela: Overview of U.S. Sanctions
This report discusses the sanctions the U.S. employs against Venezuela related to terrorism, drug trafficking, trafficking in persons, antidemocratic actions, human rights violations, and corruption.
Defense Primer: Lowest Price Technically Acceptable Contracts
This report discusses the use of lowest-price technically-acceptable (LPTA) contracts by the Department of Defense (DOD), benefits of using LPTA, and when it is appropriate.
Electric Grid Cybersecurity
This report discusses the current state of electric grid cybersecurity, and the interconnected dependency of critical infrastructure with regard to electric sector reliability. It includes discussions of recent developments, cyber and physical security, threats to the grid and supply chain risks, use of artificial intelligence, improvements to grid cybersecurity, recent legislation and other issues for Congress.
Federal Role in U.S. Campaigns and Elections: An Overview
This report provides a resource for understanding the current campaigns and elections regulatory structure. It addresses those areas of law and public policy that most directly and routinely affect American campaigns and elections: campaign finance; election administration; election security; redistricting; qualifications and contested elections; and voting rights.
Trade Promotion Authority (TPA): Frequently Asked Questions
This report discusses the Trade Promotion Authority program which allows the President to request an expedited procedure for an international trade deal that meets certain requirements. The report answers a variety of frequently asked questions regarding TPA's functions and purpose and Congressional power over it.
U.N. Report Recommends Burmese Military Leaders Be Investigated and Prosecuted for Possible Genocide
This report discusses the United Nations recommendations that the International Criminal Court (ICC) investigate and prosecute "senior officials in the Tatmadaw" (Burma's military) for genocide, crimes against humanity, and war crimes. It also discusses U.S. and international response and the steps that will be taken next.
Fiscal Year 2018 National Defense Authorization Act
This report discusses the FY2018 defense budget request and provides a summary of congressional action on the National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) for fiscal year (FY) 2018. The annual NDAA authorizes appropriations for the Department of Defense (DOD) and defense-related nuclear energy programs of the Department of Energy and typically includes provisions affecting DOD policies or organization. Unlike an appropriations bill, the NDAA does not provide budget authority for government activities.
Withdrawal from International Agreements: Legal Framework, the Paris Agreement, and the Iran Nuclear Agreement
This report outlines the legal framework for withdrawal from international agreements under domestic and international law, and it examines legal issues related to the potential termination of two agreements that may be of significance to the 115th Congress: the Paris Agreement on climate change and the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) related to Iran's nuclear program.
China's Retaliatory Tariffs on Selected U.S. Agricultural Products
This report discusses China's retaliatory tariffs on many U.S. agricultural products in response to the U.S. tariffs on Chinese steel and aluminium imports.
The Corporation for National and Community Service: Overview of Programs and Funding
This report provides an overview of the Corporation for National and Community Service (CNCS) which is an independent federal agency that administers the programs authorized by two statutes: the National and Community Service Act of 1990 (NCSA; P.L. 101-610), as amended, and the Domestic Volunteer Service Act of 1973 (DVSA; P.L. 93-113), as amended. NCSA and DVSA programs were most recently reauthorized by the Edward M. Kennedy Serve America Act (P.L. 111-13). The report describes programs authorized by these laws and compares CNCS funding for FY2015, FY2016, FY2017, and FY2018.
Data, Social Media, and Users: Can We All Get Along?
This report examines policy issues surrounding the Cambridge Analytica data breach/misuse of Facebook and provides options for Congress to consider. While this event has started discussions on election security and social media company requirements to report advertising, this report addresses data security concerns without discussing the impacts or consequences of data use.
FDIC's Deposit Insurance Assessments and Reserve Ratio
This report discusses the FDIC's deposit insurance assessments and reserve ratio used to guarantee the repayment of deposits at a bank up to the insured level.
Federal Research and Development (R&D) Funding: Fiscal Year 2019
This report discusses President Trump's budget request for federal research and development funding for FY2019, recent trends in funding levels, and different departments research funding levels.
The President's Fiscal Year 2019 Military Construction Budget Request
This report discusses President Trump's FY2019 budget request for military construction and compares the funding levels with previous years by construction type.
Title I of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA): A Summary of the Statute
This report summarizes selected statutory provisions of Title 1 of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) but does not discuss agency regulations and guidance that may provide more detailed direction for conducting risk evaluation and selecting regulatory options to prevent unreasonable risks of specific chemicals.
U.S. Trade Deficit and the Impact of Changing Oil Prices
This report provides an estimate of the initial impact of changing oil prices on the United States's merchandise trade balance.
Acquisition Reform in the FY2016-FY2018 National Defense Authorization Acts (NDAAs)
This report provides a brief overview of selected acquisition-related provisions found in the National Defense Authorization Acts (NDAAs) for FY2016 (P.L. 114-92), FY2017 (P.L. 114-328), and FY2018 (P.L. 115-91), including the following topics that were a focus of the legislation: Major Defense Acquisition Programs, the acquisition workforce, commercial items, Other Transaction Authority, and contract types. This report also discusses the breakup of the office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics, as well as the shift of authority from that office to the military departments.
Changes in the Arctic: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides an overview of general, Arctic-related issues for Congress, such as: Arctic territorial disputes; commercial shipping through the Arctic; Arctic oil, gas, and mineral exploration; endangered Arctic species; and increased military operations in the Arctic, which could cause the region in coming years to become an arena of international cooperation or competition.
EPA Proposes to Repeal the Clean Power Plan
This report is an update of an earlier report regarding the EPA's (Environmental Protection Ageny's) proposed repeal of the Clean Power Plan, which was intended to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. On Dec. 28, 2017 the EPA issued an Advanced Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (ANPRM) seeking input on creating a new replacement regulation for the previous Clean Power Plan.
Serbia: Background and U.S. Relations
This report provides an overview of Serbia and its governmental structure, economy, and foreign relations with the U.S., Kosovo, Turkey, Russia, and the EU.
Cuba: U.S. Restrictions on Travel and Remittances
This report examines developments in U.S. policy restricting travel and remittances to Cuba, current permissible travel and remittances, enforcement of the travel restrictions, and debate on lifting the travel restrictions. Appendix A provides a chronology of major actions taken on travel restrictions; Appendix B provides a history of related legislative.
Defining Broadband: Minimum Threshold Speeds and Broadband Policy
This report discusses the definition of broadband, minimum threshold speeds for broadband service, and related policy.
The Foreign Agents Registration Act (FARA): A Legal Overview
This report examines the nature and scope of the current regulatory scheme, including the scope of FARA's application to agents of foreign principals; what the statute requires of those covered under the Act; exemptions available under the statute; and methods of enforcement. The report concludes by discussing various legislative proposals to amend FARA in the 115th Congress.
Nuclear Negotiations with North Korea: In Brief
This report summarizes past nuclear and missile negotiations between the United States and North Korea, also known by its formal name, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK), and highlights some of the lessons and implications that can be drawn from these efforts.
Oman: Reform, Security, and U.S. Policy
This report describes Oman's political structure and government, economy, defense policies, regional relations, U.S. relations, and human rights concerns.
Public Sector Union Dues: Grappling with Fixed Stars and Stare Decisis (Part 1)
First part of a report discussing the upcoming Supreme Court case of "Janus v. American Federation of State, County, and Municipal Employees Council," concerning whether requiring non-union member employees is constitutional. It provides general background on an earlier case regarding the issue "Abood v. Detroit Board of Education" and the case law leading up to "Janus."
Public Sector Union Dues: Grappling with Fixed Stars and Stare Decisis (Part 2)
Second part of a report discussing the upcoming Supreme Court case of "Janus v. American Federation of State, County, and Municipal Employees Council," concerning whether requiring non-union member employees is constitutional. It begins with a brief summary of the parties' arguments, highlights some key statements from the prior decisions of Justice Gorsuch (who is likely to be a critical voice), and finally explores the potential implications of the decision.
Senate Committee Hearings: Preparation
This report identifies many of the tasks that need to be performed by a full committee or subcommittees in advance of a hearing; these are based on Senate or committee rules, or common committee practice. It also outlines responsibilities which are divided among the committee's majority staff, shared by majority and minority staff, or performed by a Senator's personal office staff, depending on the tasks.
Defense Primer: A Guide for New Members
This report discusses series of short primers developed by CRS to give Members of Congress an overview of key aspects of the Department of Defense and how Congress exercises authority over it. A consolidated list of these primers is contained in this report, along with links to each document.
Department of the Interior Secretarial Order 3356
This report discusses Department of Interior Secretarial Order 3356 which was issued on September 15, 2017 and directs bureaus and offices that manage public lands to enhance opportunities for hunting, fishing, and recreational shooting while also promoting conservation activities on all public lands including National Monuments. Past orders and related legislation and reactions to the order are also discussed.
Diversity, Inclusion, and Equal Opportunity in the Armed Services: Background and Issues for Congress
This report starts by giving an overview of recent research on diversity and organizational management to demonstrate why organizations value diversity and what the findings on diversity mean in a military context. The next sections outline DOD's military personnel policies, processes and organizational structure for managing diversity, inclusion, and equal opportunity. Following that, the report examines how the concept of diversity and inclusion has evolved over the history of the Armed Forces and provides a snapshot of the current demographic composition of the military relative to the U.S. civilian population. Finally, the report addresses some of the current legislative and policy issues related to diversity in the Armed Forces.
U.S. Farm Income Outlook for 2017
This report discusses U.S. farm revenues and the overall health of the industry as indicated by the USDA's Economic Research Service (ERS) national net farm income report for 2017 and outlooks for 2018.
Possible U.S. Policy Approaches to North Korea
This report describes President Trump's current policy toward North Korea and possible options for future U.S. policy. Options include diplomatic engagement, international and U.S. sanction increases, military strikes, destabilization of the North Korean government through intelligence activities and popular resentment, enhanced military cooperation with allies, and additional funding for preventing arms trading and related trade with North Korea.
Iran Sanctions
This report analyzes U.S. and international sanctions against Iran and provides some examples, based on open sources, of companies and countries that conduct business with Iran.
Tolling U.S. Highways and Bridges
This report explains current federal policies governing tolling and discusses issues related to increasing the use of tolls as a source of revenue for surface transportation projects.
Congressional Roll Call Votes on the Keystone XL Pipeline
This report provides roll call vote data on Keystone XL Pipeline legislation identified by CRS using's Roll Call Vote Report database as well as the legislative database. Roll call votes listed in the tables are broken down by chamber, Congress, and type of legislation--substantive votes (i.e., votes on amendments or passage of bills) versus procedural votes (e.g., votes to recommit the bill to a committee or to provide for the consideration of a bill). Votes are also listed in chronological order for each Congress. This report is current through the end of the 114th Congress and will be updated as events warrant.
Department of Transportation (DOT): Fiscal Year 2017 Appropriations
This report outlines the Department of Transportation's (DOT) appropriations for fiscal year 2017 and highlights selected areas of funding such as intercity passenger rail, Highway trust funding solvency, TIGER grants, and Essential Air Service (EAS).
FirstNet's Nationwide Public Safety Broadband Network Moves Forward
This report discusses FirstNet's announcement of a partnership with AT&T to build a dedicated wireless broadband network for use by public safety agencies which will allow first responders during an emergency to share information with other public safety departments and have a dedicated internet connection for emergency communication.
Scientific Basis of Environmental Protection Agency Actions: H.R. 1430 and H.R. 1431
This report discusses House bills H.R. 1430 and 1431 which were passed by the House in late March 2017. These bills address regulations regarding the EPA's obligation to share the scientific basis for their actions.
Update to "Smith v. Obama": A Servicemember's Legal Challenge to the Campaign Against the Islamic State
This report discusses a case which was brought by Army Captain Nathan Smith against President Barack Obama in 2016, arguing that President Obama had no authority to be conducting the campaign against the Islamic State because no Congressional approval had been given. The case was dismissed in Nov. 2016 but he has appealed the dismissal of the case to the U.S. Court of Appeals.
The Budget Reconciliation Process: Stages of Consideration
This report discusses the budget reconciliation process which allows Congress to use an expedited procedure when considering legislation that would bring existing spending, revenue, and debt limit laws into compliance with current fiscal priorities established in the annual budget resolution.