Congressional Research Service Reports - 499 Matching Results

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EPA's Affordable Clean Energy Proposal
This report provides background information about the Clean Air Act (CAA) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the power sector, and also highlights some of the major components of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) "Affordable Clean Energy Rule" (ACE) proposal.
U.S. Foreign Aid to the Palestinians
This report discusses a number of issues regarding U.S. aid to the Palestinians that have relevance for Congress. Since the establishment of limited Palestinian self-rule in the West Bank and Gaza Strip in the mid-1990s, the U.S. government has committed more than $5 billion in bilateral economic and non-lethal security assistance to the Palestinians.
Drinking Water State Revolving Fund (DWSRF): Overview, Issues, and Legislation
This report discusses the Drinking Water State Revolving Fund (DWSRF) which is administered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and assists communities in building or restoring public water supply infrastructure to comply with federal standards for clean drinking water and public health safety.
Kuwait: Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy
This report discusses Kuwait's governmental structure and politics, defense policies and cooperation with the U.S., foreign policy towards its neighbors, economy, and human rights concerns.
Mexico: Background and U.S. Relations
This report provides an overview of political and economic conditions in Mexico, followed by assessments of selected issues of congressional interest in Mexico: security and foreign aid, extraditions, human rights, trade, migration, energy, education, environment, and water issues.
Enforcing U.S. Trade Laws: Section 301 and China
This report discusses the Trump Administration's decision to proceed with a Section 301 case against China's intellectual property rights (IPR) policies and their intent to impose 25% ad valorem tariffs on $50 billion worth of Chinese products. It also looks at past use of Section 301 against China.
Gas Exporting Countries Forum (GECF): Cartel Lite?
This report discusses the functions of the Gas Exporting Countries Forum (GECF), which was founded for the purpose of maximizing the value of natural gas; developing short-, medium-, and long-term analysis and forecasting; facilitating cooperation on issues of common interest among members; promoting natural gas as a fuel; and positioning the GECF as an internationally recognized organization. It also compares the GECF with the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), describes structural constraints, and outlines concerns for Congress.
Navy Ship Names: Background for Congress
This report describes the naming process for U.S. naval ships and various regulations regarding the process. Recent legislation related to ship names is also included.
North Korea's Nuclear and Ballistic Missile Programs
This report discusses the rapid advancements North Korea has made in its nuclear weapons and ballistic missile programs since 2012. Despite the absence of any missile launch activity or nuclear tests in 2018 to date, previous tests and official North Korean statements suggest that North Korea is striving to build a credible regional nuclear warfighting capability that might evade regional ballistic missile defenses. Such an approach likely reinforces their deterrent and coercive diplomacy strategy--lending more credibility as it demonstrates capability--but it also raises serious questions about crisis stability and escalation control. Congress may further examine these advances' possible effects on U.S. policy.
Role of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in Environmental Justice
This report explains what environmental justice means and how it is implemented by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).
U.S.-China Trade Issues
This report provides background and analysis of U.S.-China commercial ties, including history, trends, issues, and outlook.
U.S.-China Trade Issues
This report provides a summary of U.S.-China commercial ties, including history, trends, issues, and outlook.
Wildfire Statistics
This report briefly covers statistics about wildfires, such as annual wildfires and acres burned and top five years with largest wildfires.
Cuba: U.S. Policy Overview
This report discusses U.S. policy towards Cuba, including issues of government-to-government engagement, travel and commerce, change in U.S. immigration policy, continued human rights concerns, injuries of U.S. Embassy personnel in Havana, and Congressional action.
Defense Acquisitions: How and Where DOD Spends Its Contracting Dollars
This report examines how much money the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) obligates on contracts, what DOD is buying, and where that money is being spent. This report also examines the extent to which these data are sufficiently reliable to use as a factor when developing policy or analyzing government operations.
The Equal Rights Amendment: Close to Adoption?
This report discusses the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA), which was first presented to the states in 1972 and has been ratified by 37 states, most recently by Illinois in May 2018.
Federal Quantum Information Science: An Overview
This report provides an overview of quantum information science (QIS) technologies, including examples of their existing and future applications; brief summaries of funding and selected initiatives in research and development (R&D) in the United States and elsewhere around the world; a description of U.S. congressional activity; and a discussion of related policy considerations.
FY2019 Funding for CCS and Other DOE Fossil Energy R&D
This report discusses carbon capture and sequestration (CCS), a process that aims to capture man-made carbon dioxide (CO2) at its source and store it to prevent its release to the atmosphere.
Navy Ford (CVN-78) Class Aircraft Carrier Program: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and potential oversight issues for Congress on the Gerald R. Ford (CVN-78) class aircraft carrier program. The Navy's proposed FY2019 budget requests a total of $1,598.2 million in procurement funding for the program. Congress's decisions on the CVN-78 program could substantially affect Navy capabilities and funding requirements and the shipbuilding industrial base.
Partisan Gerrymandering: Supreme Court Provides Guidance on Standing and Maintains Legal Status Quo
This report discusses the Supreme Court's ruling in the case of Gill v. Whitford. On June 18, 2018 the Supreme Court ruled that in order to establish standing to sue upon a claim of unconstitutional partisan gerrymandering on the basis of vote dilution, challengers must allege injuries to their interests as voters in individual districts. Topics discussed include Supreme Court precedent, case background, and implications for the future.
Private Flood Insurance and the National Flood Insurance Program
This report describes the current role of private insurers in U.S. flood insurance, and discusses barriers to expanding private sector involvement. The report considers potential effects of increased private sector involvement in the U.S. flood market -- both for the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) and for consumers -- and outlines the provisions relevant to private flood insurance in the House and Senate NFIP reauthorization bills.
Farm Bill Programs Without a Budget Baseline Beyond FY2018
This report discusses programs under the Farm Bill that do not have guaranteed future funding known as "baseline" funding beyond FY2018.
From Slip Law to United States Code: A Guide to Federal Statutes for Congressional Staff
This report provides an overview of federal statutes in their various forms, as well as basic guidance for congressional staff interested in researching statutes.
Law Enforcement Access to Overseas Data Under the CLOUD Act
This report discusses the CLOUD Act recently passed by Congress which gives the U.S. government's the ability to force companies to disclose information stored on overseas servers that is covered under a warrant and updates the reciprocal agreements with other countries accessing data as a part of criminal investigations that is held in the United States. Legal commentary on the law is provided.
The Travel Ban Case and Nationwide Injunctions
This report addresses when, if ever, a regional federal trial judge adjudicating a case involving the federal government can award nationwide injunctive relief--a court order that commands a party to take or refrain from taking some action throughout the country. In the context of a suit against the federal government, an injunction with this type of "universal" effect acts to effectively void the law or policy in question. This report briefly explores the nationwide injunction at issue in the travel ban case (Trump v. Hawaii) and surveys a handful of the scholarly and judicial arguments surrounding the nationwide injunction in general
U.S. Circuit and District Court Nominations During President Trump's First Year in Office: Comparative Analysis with Recent Presidents
This report provides statistics related to the nomination and confirmation of U.S. circuit and district court nominees during the first year of the Trump presidency, as well as during the first year of each of his three immediate predecessors: Presidents Barack Obama, George W. Bush, and Bill Clinton.
Army Corps of Engineers: FY2018 Appropriations
This report discusses the FY2018 appropriations for the Army Corps of Engineers and funding priorities for the year.
China--U.S. Trade Issues
This report provides background and analysis of U.S.-China commercial ties, including history, trends, issues, and outlook.
Conference Committee and Related Procedures: An Introduction
This report is a brief summary of House and Senate procedures for reaching agreement on legislation. It discusses the provisions of House Rule XXII and Senate Rule XXVIII as well as other applicable rules, precedents, and practices. The report focuses on the most common and customary procedures. There are many exceptions, complications, and possibilities that are not addressed, and the House and Senate may modify or waive their procedures by unanimous consent or by other means.
District Court Decision May Help Pave the Way for Trump Administration's Border Wall Plans
This report discusses the U.S. District for the Southern District of California's recent decision in a case brought by the State of California against the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) regarding DHS's right to waive environmental and other administrative laws for border fence building projects. The court agreed with other court rulings on the issue and affirmed DHS's right to waive the laws.
Regulating the U.S. Campaign Environment: Politics and Policy
This report discusses current regulations governing election campaigns and potential new threats to campaigns that may require new regulations or policies.
Supreme Court Considering Second Partisan Gerrymandering Case This Term
This report discusses the Supreme Court case of "Benisek v. Lamone" which involves a challenge to a Maryland congressional district map on the basis that it was drawn as a part of partisan gerrymandering. Previous Supreme Court cases involving gerrymandering and background on this case is included.
U.S. Trade Policy Primer: Frequently Asked Questions
This report addresses frequently asked questions regarding U.S. trade policy and is intended to assist Members and staff who may be new to trade issues. The report provides context for basic trade concepts and data on key U.S. trade and investment trends. It also addresses how U.S. trade policy is formulated and describes the trade and investment policy tools used to advance U.S. objectives. The report is divided into five sections: The basics of trade, U.S trade trends, formulation of U.S. trade policy, U.S. trade policy tools, and the link between international investment and trade.
Commerce Determines Steel and Aluminium Imports Threaten to Impair National Security
This report discusses the Commerce Department's recommendations regarding actions to take to protect American industries from foreign competition in the steel and aluminium industries. Commerce recommendations on tariffs and quotas for steel and aluminium imports are included.
Presidential Funerals and Burials: Selected Resources
This report is a brief resource guide for congressional staff on funerals and burials for Presidents of the United States. It contains an overview of past practices for presidential funerals and selected online information resources related to official and ceremonial protocols, past presidential funerals, congressional documents, and other documents and books.
The Debt Limit Since 2011
This report discusses the U.S. government's debt limits since 2011 and the legislative history of the raising of the debt limit for each year through the present.
Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency: Overview and Issues for Congress
This report provides an overview of The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), including the agency's organizational structure, characteristics (i.e., the "DARPA model"), and strategic priorities. The report also describes funding trends at DARPA and the Administration's FY2018 budget request. Finally, the report discusses select issues for possible congressional consideration, including the appropriate level of funding for the agency, technology transfer, and the potential role of DARPA in maintaining the technological superiority of the U.S. military.
Domestic Solar Manufacturing and New U.S. Tariffs
This report discusses solar energy panel manufacturing and the effects new U.S. tariffs on imports of solar energy materials may have on the industry.
"Extraordinary Measures" and the Debt Limit
This report discusses the statuary debt limit and the use of "extraordinary measures" by the Treasury Department to postpone when Congress must act on raising the debt limit or risk defaulting on debts.
Federal Employees' Retirement System: Summary of Recent Trends
This report describes recent trends in the characteristics of annuitants and current employees covered by the Civil Service Retirement System (CSRS) and the Federal Employees' Retirement System (FERS) as well as the financial status of the Civil Service Retirement and Disability Fund (CSRDF).
House Committee Chairs: Considerations, Decisions, and Actions as One Congress Ends and a New Congress Begins
This report discusses the process of selecting House Committee chairs and covers the period from the House's early organization meetings in November to approximately March or April following the convening of a new Congress.
National African American History Month Speech Resources: Fact Sheet
This report links to authoritative information resources on National African American History Month. It is designed to assist congressional offices with work related to National African American History Month by providing links to legislation, CRS reports, sample speeches and remarks from the Congressional Record, and presidential proclamations and remarks. It also links to additional government web resources and selected advocacy, educational, cultural, and military, organizations.
Small Business Administration and Job Creation
This report discusses the Small Business Administration's programs and their impact on job creation. It examines the economic research on net job creation to identify the types of businesses that appear to create the most jobs, examines the possible implications this research might have for Congress and the SBA, and examines the arguments for providing federal assistance to small businesses.
Termination of Temporary Protected Status for Sudan, Nicaragua, Haiti, and El Salvador: Key Takeaways and Analysis
This report discusses Temporary Protected Status (TPS) designations and answers questions regarding the recent termination of TPS for those from El Salvador, Nicaragua, Haiti, and Sudan.
Trespassing: The Leading Cause of Rail-Related Fatalities
This report discusses trespassing on railroad property and tracks and how it is the leading cause of train accident fatalities. Statistics on rail related fatalities and prevention strategies are discussed.
Unfunded Mandates Reform Act: History, Impact, and Issues
This report examines debates over what constitutes an unfunded federal mandate and UMRA's implementation. It focuses on UMRA's requirement that CBO issue written cost estimate statements for federal mandates in legislation, its procedures for raising points of order in the House and Senate concerning unfunded federal mandates in legislation, and its requirement that federal agencies prepare written cost estimate statements for federal mandates in rules.
What Causes a Recession?
This report discusses causes of recessions and provides data on the length of time economic expansions of the past have lasted.
Cyprus: Reunification Proving Elusive
This report provides a brief overview of the history of the negotiations regarding reunification of the island of Cyprus and a description of some of the issues involved in those talks.
Military Service Records, Awards, and Unit Histories: A Guide to Locating Sources
This report provides information on locating military unit histories and individual service records of discharged, retired, and deceased military personnel. It also provides information on locating and replacing military awards and medals as well as contact information for military history centers, websites for additional sources of research, and a bibliography of other publications, including related CRS reports.
Changes in the Arctic: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides an overview of Arctic-related issues for Congress, and refers readers to more in-depth CRS reports on specific Arctic-related issues. Some general issues include Arctic territorial disputes; commercial shipping through the Arctic; Arctic oil, gas, and mineral exploration; endangered Arctic species; and increased military operations in the Arctic, which could cause the region in coming years to become an arena of international cooperation or competition. 2018 fiscal year funding requests are included.