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Agriculture and Related Agencies: FY2006 Appropriations
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The Berne Union: An Overview
The Berne Union, or the International Union of Credit and Investment Insurers, is an international organization comprised of 54 public and private sector members that represent various segments of the export credit and investment insurance industry. Within the Berne Union, the United States is represented by the U.S. Export-Import Bank (Eximbank) and the Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC) and four private-sector firms and by one observer. Congress, through its oversight of Eximbank and OPIC, as well as international trade and finance, has interests in the functioning of the Berne Union.
Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE, or "Mad Cow Disease") in North America: A Chronology of Selected Events
This report provides a chronology of selected events leading up to and following the discoveries of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, or “mad cow disease”) in North America. These are primarily regulatory, legal, and congressional developments that are frequently referenced in the ongoing policy debate. The chronology does not contain entries for the introduction of the many BSE-related bills introduced into this or previous Congresses, except for those in recent years where committee or floor action has occurred. This report, which will be updated if significant developments ensue, is intended to be used alongside other CRS reports that provide more background and context for the BSE policy debate, and that cover many specific legislative proposals.
Congressional Gifts and Travel, Legislative Proposals for the 109th Congress
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Congressional Primaries and Filing Deadlines, 2006 Schedule
This report provides the dates of congressional filing deadlines and primary and runoff primary dates for 2006 for the states, the District of Columbia, and territories.
Country-of-Origin Labeling for Foods
H.R. 2744, USDA’s FY2006 appropriation, again postpones rules requiring many retailers to provide country-of-origin labeling (COOL) for fresh produce, red meats, and peanuts — until September 30, 2008. Mandatory COOL for seafood was finalized on September 30, 2004. Some in Congress still strongly support mandatory COOL, and say they voted against final passage of H.R. 2744 because of the delay. Others counter that COOL should be voluntary. Several pending bills would alter the program including H.R. 2068, H.R. 2744, S. 135, S. 1300, S. 1331, and S. 1333.
Defense Authorization and Appropriations Bills: FY1970-FY2006
This report is a research aid, which lists the DOD authorization bills (Table 1) and appropriations bills (Table 2). This report includes all the pertinent information on the passage of these bills through the legislative process: bill numbers, report numbers, dates reported and passed, recorded vote numbers and vote tallies, dates of passage of the conference reports with their numbers and votes, vetoes, substitutions, dates of final passage, and public law numbers. Table 3 shows real growth or decline in national defense funding for FY1940-FY2009. Table 4 gives a more detailed picture of both regular and supplemental defense appropriations from the 103rd Congress to the present (FY1993-FY2005). Table 5 shows the President’s DOD appropriations budget requests for FY1950-FY2005 vs. final amount enacted.
Extending the 2001, 2003, and 2004 Tax Cuts
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A Free Trade Area of the Americas: Major Policy Issues and Status of Negotiations
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Harvey v. Veneman
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House Committee Markup: Preparation
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Immunities Accorded to Foreign Diplomats, Consular Officers, and Employees of International Organizations Under U.S. Law
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Iraq: Map Sources
This report identifies selected websites for maps of Iraq, including government, library, and organizational websites. Maps of the Middle East, Iraq, facilities used by U.S. forces in the Gulf, and U.S. government humanitarian assistance and reconstruction activities in Iraq are also provided.
Limiting Tort Liability of Gun Manufacturers and Gun Sellers: Legal Analysis of P.L. 109-92 (2005)
This report examines P.L. 109-92 (2005), which passed the Senate and the House as S. 397, 109th Congress and was signed by the President on October 26, 2005
Low-Income Home Energy Assistance Program (LIHEAP): Formula and Estimated Allocations
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Water Quality: Implementing the Clean Water Act
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Dallas Love Field: The Wright and Shelby Amendments
The history of the Wright Amendment dates back to the 1960s when the now defunct Civil Aeronautics Board (CAB) proposed the creation of a single regional airport in the Dallas-Fort Worth (DFW) area. This report discusses legislation affecting the Wright/Shelby restrictions that have been introduced in the 109th Congress.
Federal Deposit Insurance Reform Legislation (Including Budgetary Implications)
This report discusses two major deposit insurance reform bills that are currently before Congress, the Federal Deposit Insurance Reform Act of 2005 and the Safe and Fair Deposit Insurance Act of 2005. Both bills, if passed, would effectively raise assessments paid by banks and savings associations to the deposit insurance fund.
Federal Voluntary Voting System Guidelines: Summary and Analysis of Issues
This report begins with a discussion of the historical context of the VVSG, followed by a summary of the guidelines and a discussion of each of the issues identified above. However, there are many specific issues, such as whether wireless communications should be permitted, that are not covered here. The report also briefly summarizes relevant legislative proposals in the 109th Congress
Homeland Security Research and Development Funding, Organization, and Oversight
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WTO Doha Round: Agricultural Negotiating Proposals
The pace of negotiations in the Doha Round of multilateral trade negotiations has quickened as the mid-December Hong Kong Ministerial Conference of the World Trade Organization (WTO) approaches. At Hong Kong, WTO member countries are expected to reach agreements on specific measures (known as modalities) to expand global trade in agricultural and industrial products and services and set the stage for intensive negotiations that would take place during 2006. Despite intense negotiations, agreements on modalities, especially for agriculture, have eluded negotiators. This report provides background information on the WTO, the Doha Round, the key negotiating groups, and a schedule of historical and upcoming events relevant to the agricultural negotiations; reviews the agreements reached in the July 2004 framework and identifies issues that remain to be resolved by the Hong Kong Ministerial in December; discusses and compares the major agricultural negotiating proposals; and discusses the potential effects of an agricultural agreement on U.S. farm policy.
Avian Influenza: Agricultural Issues
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Budget Reconciliation and the PBGC
The Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation (PBGC) posted a deficit of $23.5 billion as of the latest reporting period, and the deficit is expected to grow further. Major bills introduced in the 109th Congress to reform funding rules for the defined benefit pension system and to raise PBGC premiums include H.R. 2830 and S. 1783. Neither has yet passed the full House or Senate. PBGC premiums are an important source of revenue for meeting the budget reconciliation targets. The House Budget Committee has reported out H.R. 4241, a budget reconciliation package that would raise PBGC premiums. The Senate has passed S. 1932, a budget reconciliation package that also contains PBGC premium increases.
Dairy Policy Issues
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Defense Procurement: Full Funding Policy — Background, Issues, and Options for Congress
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Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Legislation in the 109th Congress
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Head Start: Background and Issues
This report discusses federal program called head start program that has provided comprehensive early childhood development services to low-income children since 1965. The Head Start program has received increases of varying levels over the past two decades.
Navy Force Structure and Shipbuilding Plans: Background and Issues for Congress
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Pandemic Influenza: Domestic Preparedness Efforts
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Population Assistance and Family Planning Programs: Issues for Congress
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Proposals for a Commission on the Accountability and Review of Federal Agencies (CARFA): Analysis and Issues for Congress
No Description Available.
Wagnon v. Prairie Band Potawatomi Nation:
No Description Available.
Bankruptcy Relief and Natural Disaster Victime
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Bosnia: Overview of Issues Ten Years After Dayton
On November 21-22, 2005, the United States will host a meeting with Bosnia’s collective leadership to commemorate the 10th anniversary of the Dayton accords, an agreement brokered under U.S. leadership that ended the 1992-1995 conflict in Bosnia- Herzegovina. Since early 2005, the Bush Administration has given renewed emphasis to “unfinished business” in the western Balkan region, such as the unresolved status of Kosovo, a U.N.-run province of Serbia. The United States also seeks to bolster Bosnia’s further development as a unified, democratic, and stable state on the path toward Euro- Atlantic integration, including major constitutional reforms. This report provides an overview of prominent current issues concerning Bosnia and will be updated after the 10th anniversary meeting in Washington.
Davis-Bacon Suspension and Its Legislative Aftermath
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The International Space Station and the Iran Nonproliferation Act (INA): The Bush Administration's Proposed INA Amendment
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Millennium Challenge Account: Implementation of a New U.S. Foreign Aid Initiative
This report discusses the Millennium Challenge Account (MCA), which provides assistance, through a competitive selection process, to developing nations that are pursing political and economic reforms in three areas: ruling justly, investing in people, and fostering economic freedom.
The Safe and Drug-Free Schools and Communities Act: Reauthorization and Appropriations
This report discusses the approved reauthorization legislation to extend and amend the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) and the Safe and Drug-Free Schools and Communities Act (SDFSCA).
School Choice: Current Legislation
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Accounting and Management Problems at Freddie Mac
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Accounting Problems at Fannie Mae
On September 22, 2004, the Office of Federal Housing Enterprise Supervision (OFHEO) made public a report that was highly critical of accounting methods at Fannie Mae, the government-sponsored enterprise that plays a leading role in the secondary mortgage market. OFHEO charged Fannie Mae with not following generally accepted accounting practices in two critical areas: (1) amortization of discounts, premiums, and fees involved in the purchase of home mortgages and (2) accounting for financial derivatives contracts. According to OFHEO, these deviations from standard accounting rules allowed Fannie Mae to reduce volatility in reported earnings, present investors with an artificial picture of steadily growing profits, and, in at least one case, to meet financial performance targets that triggered the payment of bonuses to company executives. On November 15, 2004, Fannie Mae reported that it was unable to file a third-quarter earnings statement because its auditor, KPMG, refused to sign off on the accounting results. On December 15, 2004, the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), after finding inadequacies in Fannie’s accounting policies and methodologies, directed Fannie Mae to restate its accounting results since 2001. Shortly thereafter, the company’s CEO and CFO resigned. It is estimated that earnings since 2001 will be revised downwards by as much as $12 billion, but the formal restatement of earnings is not expected before late 2006.
Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia: Political Developments and Implications for U.S. Interests
No Description Available.
Assignments to Senate Subcommittees
This report discusses the rules and process for establishing subcommittees. One of the first orders of business for Senate committees is deciding whether to establish subcommittees, and if so, determining their number, sizes, party ratios, chairs, ranking minority members, and other members. There are no direct limits on the number of subcommittees that may be created.
Federal Deductibility of State and Local Taxes
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Federal Financial Services Regulatory Consolidation: An Overview
No Description Available.
H.R. 2830: The Pension Protection Act of 2005
No Description Available.
House Rules Governing Committee Markup Procedures
This report provides general guidance to committees for conducting meetings to mark up legislation.
The Impact of Hurricane Katrina on the State Budgets of Alabama, Louisiana, and Mississippi
No Description Available.
Iran's Influence in Iraq
No Description Available.
The Middle East Peace Talks
No Description Available.