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The House Amendment Tree
This report discusses the House amendment tree, a chart that depicts the maximum number and types of amendments.
Congressional Budget Act Points of Order
Title III of the Congressional Budget Act (CBA) of 1974 (P.L. 93-344), as amended, establishes the points of order that are used to enforce congressional budget procedures and substantive provisions of a budget resolution. These points of order prohibit certain congressional actions and consideration of certain legislation.
Clean Water Act Reauthorization in the 105th Congress
In the 105th Congress, legislation to reauthorize the Clean Water Act was not been introduced, and no major House or Senate committee activity occurred. EPA and states' water quality inventories have identified wet weather flows (including agricultural runoff, urban storm water, and sewer overflows) as the largest remaining threat to water quality. EPA's clean water programs are now focusing to a large extent on solving wet weather pollution problems. These issues may be addressed legislatively, as well. At issue is whether and how to detail wet weather programs in the Act versus allowing flexibility that recognizes the site-specific nature of intermittent wet weather pollution.
The New Vacancies Act: Congress Acts to Protect the Senate's Confirmation Prerogative
No Description Available.
Environmental Protection Legislation in the 105th Congress
The 105th Congress enacted tax provisions relating to Superfund brownfields sites, transportation- and defense-related environmental provisions, a border smog bill, EPA funding as well as reinstating the tax that supports the Leaking Underground Storage Trust Fund. There were various actions on regulatory reform, the budget resolution, appropriations, highway- and defense-related environmental provisions, Superfund reform bills and underground storage tanks. It is too early to tell if these will be issues for the 106th Congress.
Clean Water Act Issues in the 106th Congress
In the 106th Congress, no comprehensive activity on reauthorizing the Clean Water Act occurred, although a number of individual clean water bills were enacted. Other issues have been debated recently, such as reforming the law to provide regulatory relief for industry, states and cities, and individual landowners. The debate over many of these issues highlights differing views of the Act and its implementation by some who seek to strengthen existing requirements and others who believe that costs and benefits should be more carefully weighed before additional control programs are mandated.
Solid Waste Issues in the 105th Congress
No Description Available.
House Committee Markup: Amendment Procedure
This report briefly discusses committee markups in the House of Representatives. The essential purpose of a committee markup is to determine whether a measure pending before a committee should be altered, or amended, in any substantive way. Of course, committees do not actually amend measures; instead a committee votes on which amendments it wishes to recommend to the House.
House Committee Markup: Preparation
Markups provide Members on a committee an opportunity to change parts of a bill prior to its consideration by the full House. A number of administrative, procedural, and substantive steps must be undertaken in preparation for a markup, and other steps could or should be undertaken. Generally, the markup should be strategically planned to minimize controversy, provide Members with political dividends, and position the committee for future action. This report is intended as a guide for various tasks that could be accomplished by committee staff in order to prepare a smooth committee markup.
House Committee Markup: Reporting
At the end of the amendment process, the chair normally entertains a motion to report a measure favorably to the House. This report addresses the procedural options committees have regarding the form of reporting, such as what happens to amendments adopted in markup, as well as other considerations at the time of reporting.
Restructuring DOE and Its Laboratories: Issues in the 105th Congress
No Description Available.
House Committee Reports: Required Contents
This report discusses house rules and statutes that detail several substantive requirements for items to be included in reports accompanying bills reported from committees. It provides a table that lists each rule with the requirement and applications.
House Committees: Categories and Rules for Committee Assignments
This report briefly discusses the rules and procedure regarding House committee assignments, and outlines the various categories of committees.
House Committee Jurisdiction and Referral: Rules and Practice
This report briefly discusses the factors that determine House committee jurisdiction and more specifically House Rule X.
House Committees: Assignment Process?
This report briefly discusses House Committee assignments, examining the process and assessing its effects.
Sponsorship and Cosponsorship of House Bills
No Description Available.
Bills, Resolutions, Nominations, and Treaties: Origins, Deadlines, Requirements, and Uses
In addition to bill and/or joint resolution this report presents two other acts of congress; 1) nominations and 2) treaties. It also discusses the characteristics and uses of six different kind of business before Congress, such as designation, origin, deadline for action, requirements for approval, and use.
Committee System Rules Changes in the House, 106th Congress
This fact sheet details changes in the committee system contained in H. Res. 5, the rules of the House for the 106th Congress
Bills and Resolutions: Examples of How Each Kind is Used
This report provides background information regarding the bill and joint resolution, which must be passed by both houses in identical form, then presented to the President for his approval or disapproval.
House Rules Governing Committee Markup Procedures
This report provides general guidance to committees for conducting meetings to mark up legislation.
Instructing House Conferees
This report describes the process of reaching the final agreement between house and senate over the final version of a bill that the two houses have passes in different forms.
Proposed Budget Process Reforms in the Senate: A Brief Analysis of Senate Resolutions 4, 5, 6, and 8
No Description Available.
Amendments Between the Houses
This report briefly summarizes the process of amendments between the House of Representatives and the Senate, which occurs if the House and Senate approve differing versions of a measure. An exchange of amendments between the houses resolves these differences.
Floor Consideration of Conference Reports in the House
This report explains the steps in the legislative process of the conference reports.
House Rules Affecting Committees
House Rules, especially Rules X-XIII, govern the authority and operations of its committees and subcommittees. This report identifies and summarizes these and other rules and directives affecting committee powers, authority, activities, and operations.
The Congressional Budget Process Timetable
The Congressional Budget Act (CBA) of 1974 (P.L. 93-344), as amended, establishes the congressional budget process, which coordinates the legislative activities on the budget resolution, appropriations bills, reconciliation legislation, revenue measures, and other budgetary legislation. Section 300 of this act provides a timetable (see Table 1) so that Congress may complete its work on the budget by the start of the fiscal year on October 1.
Debt-Limit Legislation in the Congressional Budget Process
The gross federal debt consists of the debt held by the public plus the debt held by government accounts. Almost all of the gross federal debt is subject to a public debt limit, as set forth in statute (31 U.S.C. 3101).This report considers legislation needed to change the public debt limit.
Messages, Petitions, Communications, and Memorials to Congress
No Description Available.
Engrossment, Enrollment, and Presentation of Legislation
Engrossment, enrollment, and presentation of legislation are technical components of the legislative process. They attest to the accuracy of bill texts, confirm passage by the House and Senate, and confirm delivery of the bills to the President for his review.
Clean Air Act Issues in the 105th Congress
This Issue Brief discusses clean air issues that arose in the 105th Congress. CRS Issue Brief IB10004 addresses the 106th Congress.
House Committee Hearings: Scheduling and Notification
Each House committee has authority to hold hearings whether the House is in session, has recessed, or has adjourned (Rule XI, clause 2(m)(1)(A)). Regardless of the type of hearing, or whether a hearing is held in or outside of Washington, hearings share common aspects of planning and preparation. this report discusses the issues a committee faces in deciding whether to schedule a hearing.
Appropriations for FY1999: Legislative Branch
Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Appropriations Subcommittees on Legislative Branch Appropriations.
Committee Funding Resolutions and Processes, 106th Congress
This report describes the procedures under which committee funding resolutions are considered in the two chambers. A table at the end of the report shows funds approved for the 105th Congress, and the funds requested, recommended, and approved for the 106th Congress for each House committee. The Senate agreed to temporary funding extensions for its committees pending a decision to shift to a fiscal year-based funding process.
Allocations and Subdivisions in the Congressional Budget Process
This report briefly explains how the annual budget resolution sets forth total spending and revenue levels, which are then allocated to the appropriate House and Senate committees, which in turn help Congress determine how best to enforce spending once a budget resolution is adopted.
Secret Sessions of Congress: A Brief Historical Overview
No Description Available.
House and Senate Rules of Procedure: A Comparison
This report compares selected House and Senate rules of procedure governing various stages of the legislative process: referral of legislation to committees; scheduling and calling up measures; and floor consideration. The appendices provide sources of additional information about House and Senate rules of procedure.
One-Minute Speeches: Current House Practices
No Description Available.
Points of Order in the Congressional Budget Process
No Description Available.
Congressional Budget Act Points of Order
Title III of the Congressional Budget Act (CBA) of 1974 (P.L. 93-344), as amended, establishes the points of order that are used to enforce congressional budget procedures and substantive provisions of a budget resolution. These points of order prohibit certain congressional actions and consideration of certain legislation.
Kosovo's Future Status: Alternative Models
No Description Available.
Foreign Policy Roles of the President and Congress
he United States Constitution divides foreign policy powers between the President and the Congress so that both share in the making of foreign policy. The executive and legislative branches each play important roles that are different but that often overlap. Both branches have continuing opportunities to initiate and change foreign policy, and the interaction between them continues indefinitely throughout the life of a policy. This report reviews and illustrates 12 basic ways that the United States can make foreign policy.
The Congressional Appropriations Process: An Introduction
This report describes the annual appropriations cycle from the President’s submission of his annual budget through enactment of the appropriations measures. It describes the three types of appropriations measures—regular appropriations bills, continuing resolutions, and supplemental bills. It explains the spending ceilings for appropriations bills that are associated with the budget resolution and the sequestration process, including a description of the mechanisms used to enforce the ceilings. It also explains the authorization appropriations process, which prohibits certain provisions in some of the appropriations bills.
Introducing a House Bill or Resolution
This report discusses the primary steps for drafting a bill in the House. Ideas and recommendations for legislation may come from private sources, such as ordinary citizens or interest groups; executive branch agencies and the White House; state and local initiatives; and, of course, individual Members, committees and other work groups, and party and chamber leaders. Any or all of these entities may also participate in drafting legislation (resolutions as well as bills).
Congressional Gold Medals 1776-1999
Since the American Revolution, Congress has commissioned gold medals as its highest expression of national appreciation for distinguished achievements and contributions. These medals should not be confused with the Medal of Honor, which is presented “in the name of the Congress of the United States,” and is often referred to as the Congressional Medal of Honor. Regulations for the Medal of Honor are established by the armed services. Congressional Gold Medals, conversely, can only be approved by Congress. This report provides a response to such inquiries and includes a historical examination and chronological list of these awards intended to assist Members of Congress in their consideration of future proposals to award Congressional Gold Medals. It will be updated annually.
Election of the President and Vice President by Congress: Contingent Election
The 12th Amendment to the Constitution requires that candidates for President and Vice President receive a majority of electoral votes (currently 270 or more of a total of 538) to be elected. If no candidate receives a majority, the President is elected by the House of Representatives, and the Vice President is elected by the Senate. This process is referred to as contingent election and is the topic of discussion in this report.
Presidential Claims of Executive Privilege: History, Law, Practice and Recent Developments
No Description Available.
Preventing Federal Government Shutdowns: Proposals for an Automatic Continuing Resolution
No Description Available.
Overview of the Congressional Budget Process
No Description Available.
Overview of the Authorization-Appropriation Process
No Description Available.
Disaster Mitigation Bills in the 106th Congress: H.R. 707, S. 1691 Compared
The Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act authorizes the President to declare that an emergency or major disaster exists that overwhelms state and local resources. Legislation before the 106th Congress (H.R. 707 and S. 1691) would, among other matters, amend the Act to: (1) fund hazard mitigation projects designed to reduce future disaster losses; (2) add conditions to assistance; and (3) consolidate provisions governing the distribution of aid to disaster victims. This report compares provisions of the two bills, and will be updated as legislative action occurs.