Congressional Research Service Reports - 72 Matching Results

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Legal Implications of the Contagious Disease or Infections Amendment to the Civil Rights Restoration Act, S.557

Description: This report discusses the civil rights restoration act, S. 557, as it passed the House and Senate. This provision would most likely be interpreted as codifying the existing standards relating to section 504 interpretation concerning discrimination against individuals with handicaps.
Date: March 14, 1988
Creator: Jones, Nancy Lee
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Title IX and Sex Discrimination in Education: An Overview

Description: This report provides an overview of Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, and the various aspects of education affected by this law. Although Title IX has been only partially successful in eliminating sex discrimination in education, the effects of this legislation have been far-reaching.
Date: March 4, 2004
Creator: Galemore, Gary L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Title IX, Sex Discrimination, and Intercollegiate Athletics: A Legal Overview

Description: This report provides an overview of Title IX in general and of the intercollegiate athletics regulations in particular. It includes a summary of the report issued by the Commission on Opportunity in Athletics and the Department of Education's (ED's) response with a discussion of recent legal challenges to the regulations and to the three-part test.
Date: May 24, 2004
Creator: Feder, Jody
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Homosexuals and U.S. Military Policy: Current Issues

Description: This report discusses policy towards homosexuals in the U.S. military service. In 1993, new laws and regulations pertaining to homosexuals and U.S. military service came into effect reflecting a compromise in policy. This compromise, colloquially referred to as “don’t ask, don’t tell,” holds that the presence in the armed forces of persons who demonstrate a propensity or intent to engage in homosexual acts would create an unacceptable risk to the high standards of morale, good order and discipline, and unit cohesion which are the essence of military capability. Service members are not to be asked about nor allowed to discuss their homosexuality. This compromise notwithstanding, the issue has remained politically contentious.
Date: February 10, 2005
Creator: Burrelli, David F & Dale, Charles V
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.N. Convention Against Torture (CAT): Overview and Application to Interrogation Techniques

Description: This report discusses the United Nations Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CAT) requires signatory parties to take measures to end torture within their territorial jurisdiction and to criminalize all acts of torture.
Date: November 7, 2005
Creator: Garcia, Michael J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Homosexuals and U.S. Military Policy: Current Issues

Description: This report discusses policy towards homosexuals in the U.S. military service. In 1993, new laws and regulations pertaining to homosexuals and U.S. military service came into effect reflecting a compromise in policy. This compromise, colloquially referred to as “don’t ask, don’t tell,” holds that the presence in the armed forces of persons who demonstrate a propensity or intent to engage in homosexual acts would create an unacceptable risk to the high standards of morale, good order and discipline, and unit cohesion which are the essence of military capability. Service members are not to be asked about nor allowed to discuss their homosexuality. This compromise notwithstanding, the issue has remained politically contentious.
Date: March 13, 2006
Creator: Burrelli, David F. & Dale, Charles V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The War Crimes Act: Current Issues

Description: This report discusses current issues related to the War Crimes Act of 1996 and Common Article 3 of the 1949 Geneva Conventions, which sets out minimum standards for the treatment of detainees in armed conflicts "not of an international character (e.g., civil wars, rebellions, and other conflicts between State and non-State actors).
Date: January 28, 2008
Creator: Garcia, Michael J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Afro-Latinos in Latin America and Considerations for U.S. Policy

Description: This report reviews and analyzes the situation, concerns, and activities of Afro-descendants in the Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking nations of Latin America. It then discusses current U.S. foreign aid programs, as well as multilateral initiatives, that have directly or indirectly assisted Afro-Latinos. The report concludes with a discussion of potential policy options that have been proposed should the United States elect to provide further support for Afro-Latinos.
Date: July 7, 2008
Creator: Seelke, Claire Ribando
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Homosexuals and the U.S. Military: Current Issues

Description: This report examines "don't ask, don't tell," policy in the U.S. military. "Don't ask, don't tell," holds that the presence in the armed forces of persons who demonstrate a propensity or intent to engage in homosexual acts would create an unacceptable risk to the high standards of morale, good order and discipline, and unit cohesion which are the essence of military capability. Service members are not to be asked about nor allowed to discuss their homosexuality.
Date: July 18, 2008
Creator: Burrelli, David F. & Feder, Jody
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Privacy and Civil Liberties Oversight Board: New Independent Agency Status

Description: This report examines initial responses to the 9/11 Commission's call for a board to oversee adherence to presidential guidelines on information sharing that safeguard the privacy of individuals about whom information is shared, and the implementation of this board.
Date: July 21, 2008
Creator: Relyea, Harold C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW): Congressional Issues

Description: This report provides an overview of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) and describes its background, objectives, and structure, including the role of the Convention's monitoring body, the CEDAW Committee. It examines U.S. policy and issues in the U.S. ratification debate, including the Convention's possible impact on U.S. sovereignty, its effectiveness in combating discrimination, and its role as an instrument of U.S. foreign policy.
Date: August 5, 2008
Creator: Blanchfield, Luisa
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The U.S. Commission on Civil Rights: History, Funding, and Current Issues

Description: This report provides a history of the establishment of the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights (Commission), including its funding, legislation expanding its authorities, and the philosophical differences concerning civil rights that have evolved during the past few decades that affect the agency's independence and effectiveness.
Date: October 3, 2008
Creator: Laney, Garrine P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Federal Civil Rights Statutes: A Primer

Description: This report provides a brief overview of selected federal civil rights statutes. This report is intended to provide an introductory overview and comparison of the selected statutes and therefore does not address additional civil rights protections that may be available under state or local statutes or federal or state constitutional law.
Date: October 24, 2008
Creator: Feder, Jody
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW): Congressional Issues

Description: This report provides an overview of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) and describes its background, objectives, and structure, including the role of the Convention's monitoring body, the CEDAW Committee. It examines U.S. policy and issues in the U.S. ratification debate, including the Convention's possible impact on U.S. sovereignty, its effectiveness in combating discrimination, and its role as an instrument of U.S. foreign policy.
Date: October 28, 2008
Creator: Blanchfield, Luisa
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The War Crimes Act: Current Issues

Description: This report discusses current issues related to the War Crimes Act of 1996 and Common Article 3 of the 1949 Geneva Conventions, which sets out minimum standards for the treatment of detainees in armed conflicts "not of an international character (e.g., civil wars, rebellions, and other conflicts between State and non-State actors).
Date: January 22, 2009
Creator: Garcia, Michael J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.N. Convention Against Torture (CAT): Overview and Application to Interrogation Techniques

Description: This report discusses the United Nations Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CAT) requires signatory parties to take measures to end torture within their territorial jurisdiction and to criminalize all acts of torture.
Date: January 26, 2009
Creator: Garcia, Michael J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child: Background and Policy Issues

Description: This report provides an overview of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) and examines evolving U.S. policy toward the Convention, including past and current Administration positions and congressional perspectives. The report also highlights issues for the 111th Congress, including the Convention's possible impact on federal and state laws, U.S. sovereignty, parental rights, and U.S. family planning and abortion policy.
Date: April 1, 2009
Creator: Blanchfield, Luisa
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child: Background and Policy Issues

Description: This report provides an overview of the United Nations Convention of the Rights of the Child's (CRC) background and structure and examines evolving U.S. policy toward the Convention, including past and current Administration positions and congressional perspectives. It also highlights issues for the 112th Congress, including the Convention's possible impact on federal and state laws, U.S. sovereignty, parental rights, and U.S. family planning and abortion policy.
Date: May 12, 2009
Creator: Blanchfield, Luisa
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Homosexuals and the U.S. Military: Current Issues

Description: This report examines the "don't ask, don't tell," policy in the U.S. military. "Don't ask, don't tell," holds that the presence in the armed forces of persons who demonstrate a propensity or intent to engage in homosexual acts would create an unacceptable risk to the high standards of morale, good order and discipline, and unit cohesion which are the essence of military capability. Service members are not to be asked about nor allowed to discuss their homosexuality.
Date: July 22, 2009
Creator: Burrelli, David F. & Feder, Jody
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child: Background and Policy Issues

Description: This report provides an overview of the United Nations Convention of the Rights of the Child's (CRC) background and structure and examines evolving U.S. policy toward the Convention, including past and current Administration positions and congressional perspectives. It also highlights issues for the 112th Congress, including the Convention's possible impact on federal and state laws, U.S. sovereignty, parental rights, and U.S. family planning and abortion policy.
Date: August 5, 2009
Creator: Blanchfield, Luisa
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The U.N. Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW): Issues in the U.S. Ratification Debate

Description: This report provides an overview of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) and describes its background, objectives, and structure. It examines U.S. policy and issues in the U.S. ratification debate, including the Convention's possible impact on U.S. sovereignty, its effectiveness in combating discrimination, and its role as an instrument of U.S. foreign policy.
Date: August 7, 2009
Creator: Blanchfield, Luisa
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

"Don't Ask, Don't Tell": A Legal Analysis

Description: In 1993, after many months of study, debate, and political controversy, Congress passed and President Clinton signed legislation establishing a revised "[p]olicy concerning homosexuality in the armed forces." The new legislation reflected a compromise regarding the U.S. military's policy toward members of the armed forces who engage in homosexual conduct. This compromise, colloquially referred to as "Don't Ask, Don't Tell (DADT)," holds that "[t]he presence in the armed forces of persons who demonstrate a propensity or intent to engage in homosexual acts would create an unacceptable risk to the high standards of morale, good order and discipline, and unit cohesion which are the essence of military capability." Service members are not to be asked about, nor allowed to discuss, their sexual orientation. This compromise notwithstanding, the issue has remained both politically and legally contentious. This report provides a legal analysis of the various constitutional challenges that have been brought against DADT.
Date: September 2, 2009
Creator: Feder, Jody
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department