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Energy Tax Policy

Description: Omnibus energy legislation (H.R. 4) that is now in conference would expand energy tax incentives significantly. The House passed the bill on August 2, 2001, and the Senate approved its version April 25, 2002. Several energy tax issues are addressed in these bills: 1) tax incentives to increase the supply of oil and gas, and the demand for coal; 2) energy tax issues relating to energy conservation and energy efficiency; 3) energy tax issues relating to alternative fuels; 4) selected issues relating to electricity restructuring; and 5) expiring energy tax provisions.
Date: January 2, 2003
Creator: Lazzari, Salvatore
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Charitable Choice, Faith-Based Initiatives, and TANF

Description: The 107th Congress did not pass tax incentives for private giving or legislation intended to assure equal treatment of religious organizations as providers of social services (provisions in S. 1924, the original CARE bill). The House voted to extend charitable choice rules to numerous new programs (H.R. 7), as the President urged, but the Senate refused. However, in an Executive Order, President Bush on December 12, 2002, directed six cabinet-level departments and the Agency for International Development (AID) to bring policies concerning social service programs into line with charitable choice principles set forth in the Order.
Date: January 3, 2003
Creator: Burke, Vee
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Economic and Revenue Effects of Permanent and Temporary Capital Gains Tax Cuts

Description: Recent proposals have been made to enact either a temporary or a permanent capital gains tax cut. The former would probably gain revenue in the first 2 years but lose that revenue and more, most likely within the following 3 years. H.R. 3090, passed by the House, would lower the top tax rate from 20% to 18% for assets held at least a year. The Senate Finance Committee version of H.R. 3090, does not reduce capital gains taxes. A capital gains tax cut appears the least likely of any permanent tax cut to stimulate the economy in the short run; a temporary capital gains tax cut is unlikely to provide any stimulus. Permanently lower capital gains taxes can contribute to economic efficiency in some ways and detract from it in others. Capital gains tax cuts would favor high income individuals, with about 80% of the benefit going to the top 2% of taxpayers.
Date: January 29, 2003
Creator: Gravelle, Jane G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Economic Issues Surrounding the Estate and Gift Tax: A Brief Summary

Description: Supporters of the estate and gift tax argue that it provides progressivity in the federal tax system, provides a backstop to the individual income tax and appropriately targets assets that are bestowed on heirs rather than assets earned through their hard work and effort. However, progressivity can be obtained through the income tax and the estate and gift tax is an imperfect backstop to the income tax. Critics argue that the tax discourages savings, harms small businesses and farms, taxes resources already subject to income taxes, and adds to the complexity of the tax system.
Date: January 29, 2003
Creator: Gravelle, Jane G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Federal Estate, Gift, and Generation-Skipping Taxes: A Description of Current Law

Description: This report contains an explanation of the major provisions of the Federal estate, gift, and generation-skipping transfer taxes. The discussion divides the Federal estate tax into three components: the gross estate, deductions from the gross estate, and computation of the tax, including allowable tax credits.
Date: January 29, 2003
Creator: Luckey, John R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Federal Estate, Gift, and Generation-skipping Taxes: A Description of Current Law

Description: This report contains an explanation of the major provisions of the Federal estate, gift, and generation-skipping transfer taxes. The discussion divides the Federal estate tax into three components: the gross estate, deductions from the gross estate, and computation of the tax, including allowable tax credits.
Date: January 29, 2003
Creator: Luckey, John R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Value-Added Tax Contrasted with a National Sales Tax

Description: Proposals to replace all or part of the income tax, proposals for national health care, and a proposal to finance America’s war effort have sparked congressional interest in the possibility of a broad-based consumption tax as a new source of revenue. A value-added tax (VAT) or a national sales tax (NST) have been frequently discussed as possible new tax sources. Both the VAT and the NST are taxes on the consumption of goods and services and are conceptually similar. Yet, these taxes also have significant differences. This issue brief discusses some of the potential policy implications associated with these differences.
Date: January 29, 2003
Creator: Bickley, James M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Alternative Minimum Tax for Individuals

Description: This report provides a brief overview of the alternative minimum tax (AMT) for individuals, discusses the issues associated with the current system, and describes current legislation to amend the AMT. The report will be updated as legislative action warrants.
Date: January 30, 2003
Creator: Esenwein, Gregg A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Export Tax Benefits and the WTO: Foreign Sales Corporations and the Extraterritorial Replacement Provisions

Description: The U.S. tax code’s Foreign Sales Corporation (FSC) provisions provided a tax benefit for U.S. exporters. However, the European Union (EU) in 1997 charged that the provision was an export subsidy and thus contravened the World Trade Organization (WTO) agreements. A WTO ruling upheld the EU complaint, and to avoid WTO sanctioned retaliatory tariffs, U.S. legislation in November 2000 replaced FSC with the “extraterritorial income” (ETI) provisions, consisting of a redesigned export tax benefit of the same magnitude as FSC. The EU maintained that the new provisions are also not WTO-compliant and asked the WTO to rule on the matter.
Date: January 30, 2003
Creator: Brumbaugh, David L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department