Congressional Research Service Reports - Browse

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Iraq: Politics, Governance, and Human Rights
This report discusses the state of Iraqi politics, governance, and human rights, including the worsening relations between local Sunni and Shiite populations.
The Iran-Iraq War: Implications for U.S. Policy
This report discusses the Iran-Iraq conflict at its present state, which has become a war of attrition with neither side capable of achieving a decisive military victory over the other in the short term. U.S. policy concerns currently are threefold: first, that Iraq, despite moves to sustain its economic and military capacities, ultimately might suffer a destabilizing defeat to the detriment of U.S. interests in the Persian Gulf region; second, that future instability in Iran could open opportunities for Soviet exploitation; and third, that the conflict might expand beyond its present confines to threaten friendly regional states and the availability of their vast petroleum resources.
Iraq-Kuwait: U.N. Security Council Resolutions -- Texts and Votes
The Iraqi invasion of Kuwait on August 1-2, 1990, set into motion a series of actions by the United Nations Security Council. Between August 2 and December 4, 1990, the Council adopted 12 resolutions. The numbers and votes of those resolutions are listed and the full text of each resolution is included in the this report.
Japan's Response to the Persian Gulf Crisis: Implications for U.S. -Japan Relations
This report provides information and analysis for use by Members of Congress as they deliberate on the Japanese response to the Gulf crisis and, perhaps more important, what it may mean for future U.S.-Japanese relations. The first chapter briefly reviews Japanese government actions in response to the crisis, from August 1990 to February 1991. A second section examines in detail the various factors and constraints that affected Japanese policy. The final section offers conclusions and examines implications of the episode for future U.S.-Japanese relations. Published sources for the report are cited in footnotes.
Iraq-Kuwait: United Nations Security Council Resolutions Test and Votes -- 1991
This report lists the 12 adopted United Nations Security Council resolutions relating to the Iraq-Kuwait situation through October 1991. The texts of these resolutions, along with the votes by members of the Council, are included in this report.
Women in the Armed Forces
Women have become an integral part of the armed forces, but they are excluded from most combat jobs. Several issues remain. One is whether to reduce, maintain, or expand the number of women in the services as the total forces are being reduced. A second question is to what extent women should continue to be excluded from some combat positions by policy. Would national security be jeopardized or enhanced by increasing reliance on women in the armed forces? Should women have equal opportunities and responsibilities in national defense? Or do role and physical differences between the sexes, the protection of future generations, and other social norms require limiting the assignments of women in the armed forces? Opinion in the United States is deeply divided on the fundamental issues involved.
World Oil Production After Year 2000: Business As Usual or Crises?
Deficient productive capacity has not yet caused an oil crisis, but that does not mean it never will. Significant increases in world oil demand will have to be met primarily from Persian Gulf supplies. This is a region with a history of wars, illegal occupations, soups, revolutions, sabotage, terrorism, and oil embargoes. To these possibilities may be added growing Islamist movements with various antipathies to the West. If oil production were constrained, oil prices could rise abruptly along with adverse world economic repercussions. If the IEA and EIA are correct on the demand side, deficient world oil productive capacity could cause an oil crisis within 15 years and political disruptions in Saudi Arabia could cause one sooner. However, if the increases in world oil demand were more moderate, and there is long-term relative peace in the Middle East, with increasing foreign participation in upstream oil activities, a business as usual world oil demand and supply situation would be a likely scenario for much of the next century.
Iraqi Chemical and Biological Weapons (CBW) Capabilities
No Description Available.
Iraqi Chemical and Biological Weapons (CBW) Capabilities
No Description Available.
Iraq: Compliance, Sanctions, and U.S. Policy
No Description Available.
Iraq: Compliance, Sanctions, and U.S. Policy
No Description Available.
Iraq: Compliance, Sanctions, and U.S. Policy
No Description Available.
Iraq: Compliance, Sanctions, and U.S. Policy
No Description Available.
Iraq: Compliance, Sanctions, and U.S. Policy
No Description Available.
Iraq: Oil-for-Food Program, International Sanctions, and Illicit Trade
No Description Available.
Iraq: Weapons Threat, Compliance, Sanctions, and U.S. Policy
No Description Available.
Iraq: Differing Views in the Domestic Policy Debate
No Description Available.
Iraq: Weapons Threat, Compliance, Sanctions, and U.S. Policy
No Description Available.
Iraqi Challenges and U.S. Responses: March 1991 through October 2002
This report is designed as a source of ready reference for congressional offices interested in instances of use of force by the United States against Iraq from the end of the 1990-1991 Gulf war until October 11, 2002.
Iraq: Potential U.S. Military Operations
No Description Available.
Iraq: Map Sources
This report identifies selected Web sites for maps of Iraq. Selected government, library, and organizational Web site addresses are provided. Maps of the Middle East, Iraq, and the No-Fly Zone are also provided.
Iraq: Map Sources
This report identifies selected Web sites for maps of Iraq. Selected government, library, and organizational Web site addresses are provided. Maps of the Middle East, Iraq, the No-Fly Zone, and Facilities Used by U.S. Forces in the Gulf are also provided.
Iraq: Oil-for-Food Program, International Sanctions, and Illicit Trade
No Description Available.
Iraq: United Nations and Humanitarian Aid Organizations
No Description Available.
Iraq: Potential U.S. Military Operations
No Description Available.
Iraq: U.N. Inspections for Weapons of Mass Destruction
No Description Available.
Iraq: U.S. Regime Change Efforts, the Iraqi Opposition, and Post-War Iraq
No Description Available.
Iraq: Map Sources
This report identifies selected Web sites for maps of Iraq. Selected government, library, and organizational Web site addresses are provided. Maps of the Middle East, Iraq, the No-Fly Zone, and Facilities Used by U.S. Forces in the Gulf are also provided.
Iraq War: Background and Issues Overview
No Description Available.
Iraq: U.N. Inspections for Weapons of Mass Destruction
No Description Available.
Iraq: U.S. Regime Change Efforts and Post-War Iraq
No Description Available.
Iraq War: Background and Issues Overview
No Description Available.
Iraq: Oil-for-Food Program, International Sanctions, and Illicit Trade
No Description Available.
Iraq: United Nations and Humanitarian Aid Organizations
No Description Available.
Iraq War: Background and Issues Overview
No Description Available.
Iraq: Map Sources
This report identifies selected Web sites for maps of Iraq. Selected government, library, and organizational Web site addresses are provided. Maps of the Middle East, Iraq, Facilities Used by U.S. Forces in the Gulf, and USG Humanitarian Assistance and Reconstruction Activities in Iraq are also provided.
Iraq: Oil-for-Food Program, International Sanctions, and Illicit Trade
No Description Available.
Iraq: United Nations and Humanitarian Aid Organizations
No Description Available.
Iraq's Economy: Past, Present, Future
This report discusses the government of Iraq and its active role in stimulating and directing the Iraqi economy.This report identifies issues to be addressed before Iraq can participate normally in the world economy.
Iraq: United Nations and Humanitarian Aid Organizations
No Description Available.
Iraq: Summary of U.S. Casualties
This report presents casualty data compiled by the Department of Defense (DOD), as tallied from the agency’s press releases.
Iraq: United Nations and Humanitarian Aid Organizations
No Description Available.
Iraq: U.S. Regime Change Efforts and Post-War Governance
No Description Available.
The Middle East and North Africa: Political Succession and Regime Stability
This report discusses the political future of various countries in the Middle East-North Africa (MENA) region. A change in the leadership in these countries could significantly affect their policies toward the United States and their willingness to cooperate with the United States in achieving the stability needed to advance U.S. interests in this important region.
Iraq: Summary of U.S. Casualties
This report presents casualty data compiled by the Department of Defense (DOD), as tallied from the agency’s press releases.
Iraq: U.S. Regime Change Efforts and Post-War Governance
No Description Available.
Iraq Oil: Reserves, Production, and Potential Revenues
No Description Available.
Iraq: Recent Developments in Reconstruction Assistance
No Description Available.
Iraq: U.N. Inspections for Weapons of Mass Destruction
No Description Available.
Iraq: Summary of U.S. Casualties
This report presents casualty data compiled by the Department of Defense (DOD), as tallied from the agency’s press releases.