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Arms Sales: Congressional Review Process
This report reviews the process and procedures that currently apply to congressional consideration of foreign arms sales proposed by the President. This includes consideration of proposals to sell major defense equipment, defense articles and services, or the re-transfer to third party states of such military items.
Army Drawdown and Restructuring: Background and Issues for Congress
This report discusses the new defense strategy, which was unveiled by senior Department of Defense (DOD) leadership based on a review of potential future security challenges, current defense strategy, and budgetary constraints. This strategy will rebalance the Army's global posture and presence, emphasizing where potential problems are likely to arise, such as the Asia-Pacific region and the Middle East.
Bahrain: Reform, Security, and U.S. Policy
This report discusses the current state of Bahrain, which has undergone substantial political reforms since the late 1990s, but which still suffers from tension between the Shiite majority and the Sunni-led government. It focuses particularly on Bahrain's relationship with Iran and with the United States.
Central Asia's Security: Issues and Implications for U.S. Interests
This report discusses the internal and external security concerns of the Central Asian states. Security concerns faced by the states include mixes of social disorder, crime, corruption, terrorism, ethnic and civil conflict, border tensions, water and transport disputes, the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD), and trafficking in illegal narcotics and persons.
Comparing DHS Component Funding, FY2017: Fact Sheet
This report provides figures that show total net discretionary appropriations for Department of Homeland Security (DHS) broken down by component, and ordered from largest to smallest by FY2016 enacted funding level.
The Controlled Substances Act: Regulatory Requirements
This report highlights certain non-criminal regulatory requirements of the Controlled Substances Act (CSA). The CSA and its implementing regulations establish a framework through which the federal government regulates the use of controlled substances for legitimate medical, scientific, research, and industrial purposes, and prevents these substances from being diverted for illegal purposes.
The Debate Over Selected Presidential Assistants and Advisors: Appointment, Accountability, and Congressional Oversight
This report provides background information and selected views on the role of the appointments made by President Barack H. Obama to his Administration or by Cabinet secretaries to their departments. Additionally, it discusses some of the constitutional concerns that have been raised about presidential advisors.
Defense Surplus Equipment Disposal: Background Information
This report discusses the Department of Defense (DOD) policy for disposing of items via the Defense Utilization and Marketing Service (DRMS); this method is used for government equipment and supplies considered surplus or deemed unnecessary to the agency's currently designated mission. The report focuses on DRMS background, as well as the most recent DRMS policy modifications.
Encryption: Frequently Asked Questions
This report discusses encryption, which is a process to secure information from unwanted access or use. Encryption uses the art of cryptography to change information which can be read (plaintext) and make it so that it cannot be read (ciphertext).
Gangs in Central America
This report describes the gang problem in Central America, discusses country approaches to deal with the gangs, and analyzes U.S. policy with respect to gangs in Central America.
GAO Bid Protests: Trends, Analysis, and Options for Congress
This report provides an overview of the time frames and procedures in a Government Accountability Office (GAO) bid protest, including (1) what issues can be protested with GAO; (2) who can file or be a party to a GAO protest; (3) the procedures for bringing and resolving GAO protests; (4) the time frames involved in GAO protests; (5) the automatic stay of contract award or performance triggered by a GAO protest, as well as the basis for agency overrides of automatic stays and judicial review of agency override determinations; (6) the basis and effects of GAO decisions; and (7) reconsideration and "appeal" of GAO decisions.
The Help America Vote Act and Election Administration: Overview and Issues
This report discusses the Help America Vote Act (HAVA; P.L. 107-252) enacted in 2002. It provides background information about HAVA and its provisions, the Election Assistance Commission (EAC), funding for the agency and for state programs to improve elections, and a number of enduring election administration issues.
Housing Issues in the 113th Congress
This report begins by providing an overview of the current state of housing markets (both homeownership and rental) and the mortgage market in order to provide context for the policy issues that have been active during the 113th Congress. It then provides a brief description of issues that the 113th Congress has been considering. These issues are broadly divided into two categories: issues related to homeownership and housing finance, and issues related to housing assistance for low-income households
Individual Mandate Under ACA
Report describing the individual mandate requirements of the Afordable Care Act, as well as penalties for not meeting these requirements and exemptions granted for hardships.
Information Warfare: Russian Activities
This report discusses Russia's engagement in activities that some may describe as Information Warfare (IW): the range of military and government operations to protect and exploit the information environment.
Iraq: Politics, Governance, and Human Rights
This report discusses the state of Iraqi politics, governance, and human rights, including the worsening relations between local Sunni and Shiite populations.
Juvenile Justice: Legislative History and Current Legislative Issues
This report will analyze the current federal legislation that impacts the state juvenile justice systems. Although the report provides some background information on the evolution of juvenile justice in the United States, the main focus of the report is the major federal legislation that impacts the states juvenile justice systems, including the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act (JJDPA).
Millennium Challenge Corporation
The Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC) provides economic assistance through a competitive selection process to developing nations that demonstrate positive performance in three areas: ruling justly, investing in people, and fostering economic freedom. MCC issues include the level of funding to support MCC programs, the impact of budget reductions on MCC programs, the rate of program implementation, the results of MCC compacts, and procurement and corruption concerns.
Navy Force Structure and Shipbuilding Plans: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and presents potential issues (and costs) for Congress concerning the U.S. Navy's ship force-structure goals and shipbuilding plans.
Navy Irregular Warfare and Counterterrorism Operations: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and potential issues for Congress on the Navy's irregular warfare (IW) and counterterrorism (CT) operations. The Navy's IW and CT activities pose a number of potential oversight issues for Congress, including the definition of Navy IW activities and how much emphasis to place on IW and CT activities in future Navy budgets.
Navy Ohio Replacement (SSBN[X]) Ballistic Missile Submarine Program: Background and Issues for Congress
Report containing the information regarding the Navy's Ohio replacement program, including its budget and Congressional issues.
New U.S.-Japan Defense Guidelines Deepen Alliance Cooperation
This report discusses the U.S.-Japan alliance, which has evolved in response to changes in Japanese defense policies and the regional security environment in East Asia.
The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
This report provides an overview of North American trade liberalization before NAFTA, an overview of NAFTA provisions, the economic effects of NAFTA, and policy considerations.
Northern Ireland's Snap Assembly Elections: Outcome and Implications
This report discusses the snap elections for Northern Ireland's Assembly, its regional legislature.
Overseas Contingency Operations Funding: Background and Status
This report discusses funding for war-related activities, which has been largely provided through supplemental appropriation acts and/or designated as an "emergency" or "overseas contingency operation/global war on terror" (OCO/GWOT) requirement.
Qatar and its Neighbors: Disputes and Possible Implications
This report discusses Qatar disputes with the governments of Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates (UAE), Bahrain, and Egypt.
Recently Expired Charitable Tax Provisions ("Tax Extenders"): In Brief
This report briefly summarizes the temporary charitable tax provisions that expired at the end of 2013 and are being considered for extension. The report also discusses the economic impact of these charitable tax provisions.
Rejection of Collective Bargaining Agreements in Chapter 11 Bankruptcies: Legal Analysis of Changes to 11 U.S.C. Section 1113 Proposed in H.R. 3652 -- The Protecting Employees and Retirees in Business Bankruptcies Act of 2007
This report discusses the bill that prescribes the parameters of offers that may be made by the debtor in negotiations as well as the requirements that must be met before a court can approve rejection. The bill also provides an absolute right of all employees to strike if their collective bargaining agreements (CBA), is modified or rejected.
Russia's Parliamentary Elections
This report discusses Russia's last parliamentary elections. On September 18, 2016, Russians will go to the polls to elect the State Duma.
Senate Judiciary Committee Hearings for Supreme Court Nominations: Historical Overview and Data
This report discusses the Supreme Court nomination to the Senate, and the Judiciary Committee that assumes the principal responsibility for investigating the background and qualifications of each Supreme Court nominee.
State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs: FY2010 Budget and Appropriations
This report analyzes the FY2010 request, recent-year funding trends, and congressional action for FY2010, which includes the July 9 House approval of H.R. 3081, the State-Foreign Operations Appropriations bill for FY2010, July 9 Senate Appropriations Committee passage of its bill (S. 1434), and passage of H.R. 3288, the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2010, signed into law Dec. 16, 2009 (P.L. 111-117).
U.S. Direct Investment Abroad: Trends and Current Issues
This report discusses the United States as the direct investor abroad and the largest recipient of foreign direct investment in the world.
U.S. Trade Remedy Laws and Nonmarket Economies: A Legal Overview
Two major U.S. trade remedies are antidumping (AD) law, which combats the sale of imported products at less than their fair market value, and countervailing duty (CVD) law, which aims to offset foreign government subsidization of imported goods. This report discusses these two law's impact on U.S. foreign relations.
The U.S. Metric System
This report provides an overview to the metric system including origins and usage as well as a discussion of the pros and cons of "metrication" in the United States with a history of the movement and related legislation.
Development of National Urban Growth and Rural Development Policy: Legislative and Executive Actions in 1970 and 1971
The 1970 Acts require the executive branch to submit the reports on the further development of urban growth policy, the location of Federal facilities, acceleration of the availability of government services and financial assistance (among other subjects) in support of rural community development. This report should assist in the evaluation of these submissions received from the President and executive departments and agencies. The report's basic purpose is to place individual legislative actions in the larger context of interrelated national urban and rural development objectives set forth by the Congress. The basic content of this report consists of three major components. The first summarizes 1970 legislative developments at both the State and Federal levels of government concerning contributions being made toward the development of a balanced national growth policy for the United States. The second component describes the actions taken by Congressional committees and the Congress in the first session of the 92nd Congress (1971). The final component is a detailed annotated summary of the published literature of urban and rural development made available in 1971.
Nursing Homes and the Congress: A Brief History of Developments and Issues
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The Federal Budget Process
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Equal Rights Amendment (Proposed)
The proposed Equal Rights Amendment to the U.S. Constitution was first introduced in 1923, and was passed by the Congress in 1972. In 1978, Congress extended the original deadline for ratification of the ERA. Thus, if it receives approval in the form of ratification by 38 States before June 30, 1982, the measure will become the 27th Amendment to the Constitution, and will require equal treatment under Federal and State laws and practices for all persons, regardless of sex.
The National Debt: A Discussion of the Issues Involved
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China-U.S. Relations
This report discusses the background information and most recent development in U.S.-China relations since mid-1996. The relations also have been marred by continuing allegations of Chinese espionage, ongoing controversy over human rights, charges that China continues to violate its non-proliferation commitments, controversy over the accidental NATO bombing of the Chinese Embassy in Belgrade, and renewed tensions over Taiwan. The report describes current issues in U.S.-China relations such as; Human Rights Issues, Issues in U.S.-China Security Relations, Economic Issues, and Sovereignty Issues: Taiwan, Tibet, Hong Kong.
Abortion: Legal Control
The U.S. Supreme Court decisions in Roe v. Wade, 410 U.S. 112 (1973), and Doe v. Bolton, 410 U.S. 179, which held generally that a State could no longer prohibit abortions in the first 6 months of pregnancy, caused several House and Senate members to move for an abortion prohibition effectuated by congressional action. To this end, proposed bills and constitutional amendments have been introduced in both Houses. Rather than having settled the abortion question conclusively, the Supreme Court decisions have kindled a national protest movement.
Child Abuse: History, Legislation and Issues
This report discusses child abuse legislation in United States, child abuse prevention and treatment, incidence of child abuse and neglect. The report provides a summary of major legislation in the 1st session of the 95th congress.
Tax Return Confidentiality
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Seafarer: Extremely Low Frequency Naval Communications System
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Citizen Control Over Records Held by Third Parties
The United States has become an information society. Government at every level and private industry have been collecting and using more personal information about individuals in the last several years than ever before. The Congress has been aware of this trend, and of the potencia1 for misuse of the information so collected; it has enacted several laws that protect the personal privacy of individuals, and respect the confidentiality of the information maintained about individuals by third parties. In this report, several privacy laws are summarized, and key provisions of each are compared, in order to make individual citizens aware of their rights , responsibilities and remedies under the law.
Legislation to Limit Federal Expenditures: Past and Present
This report examines the history of legislation to limit Federal spending through the 94th Congress, and summarizes in detail the record of the 95th Congress on such bills and amendments.
The Constitutionality of the Withdrawal of All Federal Court Jurisdiction Over Questions Involving State-Sponsored Prayer in Public Schools and Public Buildings
This report discusses several court decisions regarding the constitutionality of the withdrawal of all Federal Court Jurisdiction over questions involving state-sponsored prayer in Public Schools and Public Buildings.
The American Electoral College: Origins, Development, Proposals for Reform or Abolition
This report is a comprehensive annotated bibliography of substantive books, monographs, articles, and documents treating the origins, evolution, and current operational characteristics of the U.S. electoral college system, as well as proposals for its reform or abolition. An explanatory introduction is provided for readers unfamiliar with the issue.
No-Fault Motor Vehicle Insurance
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Congressional Action to Overturn Agency Rules: Alternatives to the "Legislative Veto"
Congress has available a variety of statutory and non-statutory techniques, other than the "legislative veto," that have been used to overturn Federal agency rules, prevent their enforcement, limit their impact, or hinder their promulgation. This survey of the different statutory instruments of congressional control—direct overturn of rules, modification of agency jurisdiction, limitations in authorizing and appropriating statutes, requiring inter-agency consultation, and advance notification to the Congress—discusses a variety of mechanisms that vary in their use and their specificity, range of impact, and length of effect.