Congressional Research Service Reports - 537 Matching Results

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Federal Funding for AIDS Research and Education
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Drug Control
How to prevent the non-medical use of dependency-producing drugs has been a public policy concern for at least a century. A large part of the responsibility for controlling such substances has been assumed by the Federal Government. Historically based on decision to restrict availability through a system of close regulation, including selective prohibition, the current Federal anti-drugs strategy lives on activities and programs in five major areas: 1) regulation and other “enforcement” efforts; 2) support for international control and for control efforts of individual drug-producing and drug-transiting countries; 3) education and other prevention activities; 4 ) treatment and rehabilitation for drug-dependent persons; and ( 5 ) research on drugs , drug dependency, and prevention and treatment methods.
Biotechnology, Indigenous Peoples, and Intellectual Property Rights
This report examines intellectual property right in pharmaceuticals in a particular context, namely, medicinal products and processes derived from the biodiversity resources of areas inhabited by indigenous peoples. This report discusses the international law regarding intellectual property rights in traditional knowledge and the American laws regarding traditional knowledge.
World Health Organization: A Fact Sheet
The World Health organization (WHO), established in 1948, is the United Nations system's authority on international public health issues. It assists governments in improving national health services and in establishing worldwide standards for foods, chemicals, and biological and pharmaceutical products. WHO concentrates on preventive rather than curative programs, including efforts to eradicate endemic and other widespread diseases, stabilize population growth, improve nutrition, sanitation, and maternal and child care. WHO is not an operational agency. It works through contracts with other agencies and private voluntary organizations.
Science, Technology, and Medicine: Issues Facing the 105th Congress, First Session
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Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses
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Tobacco Advertising: Whether the FDA's Restrictions Violate Freedom of Speech
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The Tobacco Settlement: An Overview
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Prescription Drug User Fee Act of 1992: Effects on Bringing New Drugs to Market
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Pfiesteria
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Pfiesteria
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Human Embryo Research
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Cancer Research: Selected Federal Spending and Morbidity and Mortality Statistics
This report shows federal spending at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) for research on selected cancer sites.
Tobacco Advertising: The Constitutionality of Limiting its Tax Deductibility
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AIDS Funding for Federal Government Programs: FY1981-FY1999
This report provides a synopsis of the budget activity related to AIDS from the discovery of the disease in 1981 through FY1999. Funding for AIDS research, prevention and treatment programs within the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) discretionary budget has increased from $200,000 in FY1981 to an estimated $3.85 billion in FY1999.
Tobacco Marketing and Advertising Restrictions in S. 1648, 105th Congress: First Amendment Issues
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Cloning: Where Do We Go From Here?
News in February 1997 that scientists in Scotland had succeeded in cloning an adult sheep ignited a worldwide debate. Of concern are the ethical and social implications of the potential application of cloning to produce human beings. In response to concerns about the potential application of cloning to produce humans, actions were taken by the Administration and Congress.
The Proposed Tobacco Settlement: Who Pays for the Health Costs of Smoking?
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The Proposed Tobacco Settlement: Effects on Prices, Smoking Behavior, and Income Distribution
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Tobacco Issues: National Public Opinion
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Tobacco Marketing and Advertising Restrictions in S. 1415, 105th Congress: First Amendment Issues
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Compensating Farmers for the Tobacco Settlement
The legislative proposals designed to reduce smoking, primarily by teenagers, are likely to have negative economic consequences for tobacco growers and tobacco-dependent communities. This report discusses the possibility of some kind of compensation to farmers as part of the settlement package legislation.
Summary and Comparison of the Major Agricultural Provisions of the Tobacco Settlement Policy Proposals
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Tobacco Price Support: An Overview of the Program
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Tobacco-Related Programs and Activities of the U.S. Department of Agriculture: Operation and Cost
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Veterans and Smoking-Related Illnesses: Congress Enacts Limits to Compensation
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Tobacco Control: Enforcement and Effectiveness of Federal and State Youth Access Laws
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Tobacco Legislation in the 105th Congress: Side-by-Side Comparison of S. 1415, S. 1530, S. 1638, S. 1889, H.R. 3474, and H.R. 3868
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Science, Technology, and Medicine: Issues Facing the 105th Congress, Second Session
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Disease Funding and NIH Priority Setting
Research at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) has strong political support, but a heated debate rages over the allocation of NIH funds among various diseases. NIH contends that decisions are made based on scientific opportunity while critics of the NIH process charge that spending often follows current politics and political correctness.
Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention: Federal Mandates for Local Government
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The Tobacco Settlement: Issues
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Tobacco-Related Activities and Programs in the Federal Government: A Summary
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Science, Technology, and Medicine: Issues Facing the 106th Congress, First Session
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Tobacco Master Settlement Agreement (1998): Overview, Implementation by States, and Congressional Issues
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Military Health Care: The Issue of “Promised” Benefits
In the debate over the Department of Defense policy on military health care benefits, many military personnel and retirees say that they were promised “free health care for life” when they entered the armed forces. What benefits are available and who is eligible to receive these benefits are matters determined by Congress. This report discusses the issue of “promises” of lifetime health care benefits made to military retirees.
Science, Technology, and Medicine: Issues Facing the 106th Congress, Second Session
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Labeling of Genetically Modified Foods
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Medicare: Prescription Drug Proposals
This report provides an overview of the President’s plan and the legislation introduced to date in the 106th Congress. It
Federal R&D, Drug Discovery, and Pricing: Insights from the NIH-University-Industry Relationship
Interest in methods to provide drugs at lower cost, particularly for the elderly, has rekindled discussion over the role the federal government plays in facilitating the creation of new pharmaceuticals for the marketplace. This report explores the issue of whether or not the substantial federal investment in health-related research and development (R&D) entitles the public to commensurate consideration in prices charged for any resulting drugs. It is intended to provide the reader with an understanding of the rationale for government support of R&D and subsequent efforts to facilitate private sector commercialization of new technologies generated from such work. Concerns surrounding innovation in pharmaceuticals and biotechnology are discussed within the broader context of the federal role in facilitating technological progress.
Medicare: Selected Prescription Drug Proposals
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The National Institutes of Health: An Overview
The National Institutes of Health is the focal point of federal health research. It uses its $17.8 billion budget to support more than 50,000 scientists working at 2,000 institutions across the United States, as well as to conduct biomedical and behavioral research and research training at its own facilities.
Stem Cell Research
No Description Available.
Medicare: Side-by-Side Comparison of Selected Prescription Drug Bills
No Description Available.
Pharmacy Benefit Managers
No Description Available.
Military Medical Care Services: Questions and Answers
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The Prescription Drug Import Provisions of the FY2001 Agriculture Appropriations Act, P.L. 106-387
No Description Available.
Stem Cell Research
No Description Available.
Endocrine Disruption: An Introduction
Exposure to certain chemicals in the environment could disrupt the hormone systems of animals and humans, according to some scientists who are concerned about potential risks to public health and ecosystems. Congress has mandated chemical screening to assess the potential of pesticides and drinking water contaminants to influence the normal functions of female, male and thyroid hormones. As conflicting scientific evidence accumluates on the hormone disruption hypothesis, legislators may consider proposals to increase or decrease funding for the endocrine disruption screening program, or to expand its requirements to include additional chemicals or hormone functions.
Assisted Suicide and the Controlled Substances Act: Legal Issues Associated with the Proposed Pain Relief Promotion Act
The Pain Relief Promotion Act, as proposed in the 106th Congress, provided that the Attorney General, in determining whether the registration of a doctor for the administration of controlled substances is in the public interest, should give no force and effect to state law authorizing or permitting assisted suicide or euthanasia. This language would appear to have been designed to abrogate the legal reasoning set forth by the Attorney General in a press release regarding the application of the Controlled Substances Act to acts of physician-assisted suicide. It would not, however, appear to have required the Attorney General to revoke such registrations; nor would it have criminalized assisted suicide or euthanasia. This report will be updated as congressional action warrants.