Congressional Research Service Reports - 31 Matching Results

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DNA Databanking: Selected Fourth Amendment Issues and Analysis

Description: This report looks at how the practice of DNA database programs, which have been looked at favorably by Congress, are in possible violation of the Fourth Amendment's prohibition on unreasonable searches and seizures. It looks at how the databases' legality has currently been holding up in court, as well as how new advances and revelations in the science of forensic analysis and databanking may have potentially significant legal implications.
Date: June 6, 2011
Creator: Barbour, Emily C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sifting Domestic Terrorism from Hate Crime and Homegrown Violent Extremism

Description: This report examines the differences between domestic terrorism, hate crime, and homegrown violent extremism. Federal law enforcement agencies use these three distinct concepts to categorize key types of criminals whose illegal activities are at least partly ideologically motivated.
Date: June 13, 2016
Creator: Bjelopera, Jerome P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sifting Domestic Terrorism from Other Illegal Activity

Description: This report briefly discusses key differences between domestic terrorism and ordinary criminal activity. Unlike ordinary criminals--who are often driven by self-centered motives such as profit and tend to opportunistically seek easy prey--domestic terrorists are driven by a cause or ideology.
Date: June 24, 2015
Creator: Bjelopera, Jerome P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Special Counsels, Independent Counsels, and Special Prosecutors: Options for Independent Executive Investigations

Description: This report analyzes the use of special prosecutors and independent counsels that were authorized under now-expired provisions of the Ethics in Government Act of 1978, as well as the use of special counsels that are currently authorized by Department of Justice (DOJ) regulations. It also addresses constitutional considerations in establishing independent inquiries to address perceived conflicts of interest between investigating officials and the officials being investigated.
Date: June 1, 2017
Creator: Brown, Cynthia
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

D.C. Gun Laws and Proposed Amendments

Description: In the wake of the Supreme Court's decision in District of Columbia v. Heller, which declared three firearms provisions of the D.C. Code unconstitutional, a flurry of legislation was introduced both in Congress and in the District of Columbia Council. This report provides an analysis of the District's firearms laws and congressional proposals.
Date: June 28, 2010
Creator: Chu, Vivian S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

FBI Directorship: History and Congressional Action

Description: This report first provides some legislative history surrounding the enactment of the 1968 and 1976 amendments to the appointment of the FBI Director, as well as information on the nominees to the FBI Directorship since 1972. The report then discusses precedent for lengthening the tenure of an office and the constitutionality of extending the tenure of the Directorship for the current incumbent, and addresses whether it would be necessary for Mr. Mueller to be appointed a second time.
Date: June 7, 2011
Creator: Chu, Vivian S. & Hogue, Henry B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sex Trafficking: An Overview of Federal Criminal Law

Description: This report discusses federal laws on sex trafficking. Sex trafficking is a state crime. Federal law, however, makes it a federal crime to conduct the activities of a sex trafficking enterprise in a way that affects interstate or foreign commerce or that involves travel in interstate or foreign commerce.
Date: June 25, 2015
Creator: Doyle, Charles
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Organized Retail Crime

Description: This report provides an overview of organized retail crime rings, their operations, and goods targeted. It then examines the domestic impact of organized retail crime (ORC) in the arenas of the economy, public health and safety, and domestic security. The report also outlines current efforts by retailers, resale markets, and the federal government to combat ORC. It then analyzes various policy issues that the 111th Congress may wish to consider, including whether current federal resources provided for the investigation of ORC are adequate, whether to amend the U.S. Code to criminalize ORC, and whether to regulate resale marketplaces that may be utilized as fences for criminals to sell stolen goods.
Date: June 16, 2010
Creator: Finklea, Kristin M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Southwest Border Violence: Issues in Identifying and Measuring Spillover Violence

Description: There has been an increase in the level of drug trafficking-related violence within and between the drug trafficking organizations in Mexico. This violence has generated concern among U.S. policy makers that the violence in Mexico might spill over into the United States. This report looks at the nature of the drug trafficking conflict and assessments of how the conflict could spill across the border.
Date: June 9, 2011
Creator: Finklea, Kristin M.; Krouse, William J. & Rosenblum, Marc R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Guantanamo Detention Center: Legislative Activity in the 111th Congress

Description: The detention of alleged enemy combatants at the U.S. Naval Station in Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, together with proposals to transfer some such individuals to the United States for prosecution or continued detention, has been a subject of considerable interest for Congress. Several authorization and appropriations measures enacted during the 111th Congress, and various pending bills, address the disposition and treatment of Guantanamo detainees. This report analyzes relevant provisions in enacted legislation and selected pending bills.
Date: June 17, 2010
Creator: Henning, Anna C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Jurisprudence of Justice John Paul Stevens: Selected Opinions on the Jury's Role in Criminal Sentencing

Description: This report discusses Justice John Paul Stevens' opinions on the Jury's role in criminal sentencing. Justice Stevens has played a critical role in the Supreme Court's interpretation of a jury's role in criminal sentencing. In 2000, he wrote the majority opinion for the Court in Apprendi v. New Jersey, a landmark case in which the Court held that a judge typically may not increase a sentence beyond the range prescribed by statute unless the increase is based on facts determined by a jury "beyond a reasonable doubt." In 2005, he wrote one of two majority opinions in United States v. Booker, in which the Court applied the Apprendi rule to the Federal Sentencing Guidelines. In those two cases and in several other cases on this issue during the past few decades, Justice Stevens has been a leading voice, articulating a broad interpretation of the jury trial and due process rights at issue.
Date: June 7, 2010
Creator: Henning, Anna C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS): Background and Funding

Description: The Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS) program was created by Title I of the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994 (P.L. 103-322). The mission of the COPS program is to advance community policing in all jurisdictions across the United States. Legislation introduced in the 111th Congress would reauthorize the COPS program through FY2014 and reestablish COPS as a multi-grant program. This report provides an overview and analysis of issues Congress might choose to consider when taking up legislation to reauthorize the COPS program.
Date: June 2, 2011
Creator: James, Nathan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

FY2017 Appropriations for the Department of Justice

Description: This report discusses appropriations for the Department of Justice (DOJ) for fiscal year 2017. It includes an overview of the DOJ's accounts, broken down by department and program; an comparison of appropriations for fiscal years 2016 and 2017; and select legislative proposals.
Date: June 9, 2016
Creator: James, Nathan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Offender Reentry: Correctional Statistics, Reintegration into the Community, and Recidivism

Description: This report provides background information regarding the prison population in the United States that has been growing steadily for more than 30 years. The report presents correctional system statistics and discusses the federal government's involvement in offender reentry programs and the Second Chance Act (P.L. 110-199) that was enacted on April 9, 2008.
Date: June 12, 2014
Creator: James, Nathan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Offender Reentry: Correctional Statistics, Reintegration into the Community, and Recidivism

Description: Report that provides background information regarding the prison population in the United States that has been growing steadily for more than 30 years. The report presents correctional system statistics and discusses the federal government's involvement in offender reentry programs and the Second Chance Act (P.L. 110-199) that was enacted on April 9, 2008.
Date: June 3, 2013
Creator: James, Nathan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Risk and Needs Assessment in the Criminal Justice System

Description: This report provides information on the use of risk and needs assessment in the criminal justice system. It starts with an overview of risk and needs assessment and a discussion of some of the critiques of it. The report concludes with a discussion of the issues policymakers might consider if they debate legislation to expand the use of risk and needs assessment in the federal prison system.
Date: June 22, 2015
Creator: James, Nathan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Gun Control Legislation

Description: This report looks at past gun control legislation and also how recent events (such as the shooting in Tucson, AZ on January 8, 2011 which notably wounded Rep. Gabrielle Giffords) have influenced current legislation. This report concludes with discussion of other salient and recurring gun control issues that have generated past congressional interest.
Date: June 11, 2012
Creator: Krouse, William J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Gun Control Legislation

Description: This report provides basic firearms-related statistics, an overview of federal firearms law, and a summary of legislative action in the 111th Congress. The report concludes with salient issues that have generated significant congressional interest, including the 1994-2004 LCAFD ban.
Date: June 9, 2011
Creator: Krouse, William J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mass Shootings and Terrorism: CRS Products

Description: This document provides a list of CRS reports on issues relevant to the mass shooting incident in Florida, including mass murder with firearms, firearms regulation, domestic terrorism, and hate crime.
Date: June 13, 2016
Creator: Lake, Jennifer E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Trade-Based Money Laundering: Overview and Policy Issues

Description: This report discusses the scope of the trade-based money laundering (TBML) problem and analyzes selected U.S. government policy responses to address TBML. It includes a listing of hearings in the 114th Congress that addressed TBML.
Date: June 22, 2016
Creator: Miller, Rena S.; Rosen, Liana W. & Jackson, James K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.S.-Mexican Security Cooperation: The Mérida Initiative and Beyond

Description: This report provides a framework for examining the current status and future prospects for U.S.- Mexican security cooperation. It begins with a brief discussion of the threat that drug trafficking and related crime and violence pose to both nations, followed by an analysis of the evolution of the Mérida Initiative. The report then provides an overview of the Peña Nieto government's security strategy and how it is affecting the Mérida Initiative. The report then examines key aspects of the current U.S.-Mexican security strategy and concludes by raising policy issues that may affect bilateral efforts.
Date: June 12, 2013
Creator: Ribando Seelke, Clare & Finklea, Kristin M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department