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Globalization, Worker Insecurity, and Policy Approaches

Description: This report discusses the global economy, or what many call globalization, which has a growing impact on the economic futures of American companies, workers, and families. Increasing integration with the world economy makes the U.S. and other economies more productive. For most Americans, this has translated into absolute increases in living standards and real disposable incomes.
Date: July 31, 2008
Creator: Ahearn, Raymond J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Globalization, Worker Insecurity, and Policy Approaches

Description: This report discusses the global economy, or what many call globalization, which has a growing impact on the economic futures of American companies, workers, and families. Increasing integration with the world economy makes the U.S. and other economies more productive. For most Americans, this has translated into absolute increases in living standards and real disposable incomes.
Date: July 31, 2008
Creator: Ahearn, Raymond J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Proposed Colombia Free Trade Agreement: Labor Issues

Description: This report examines three labor issues and arguments related to the pending U.S.-Colombia free trade agreement (CFTA): violence against trade unionists; impunity (accountability for or punishment of the perpetrators); and worker rights protections for Colombians. This report addresses this issue at length, including the arguments for and against the agreement, as well as general U.S.-Colombia economic relations.
Date: November 24, 2008
Creator: Bolle, Mary Jane
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Proposed Colombia Free Trade Agreement: Labor Issues

Description: This report examines three labor issues and arguments related to the pending U.S.-Colombia free trade agreement (CFTA): violence against trade unionists; impunity (accountability for or punishment of the perpetrators); and worker rights protections for Colombians. This report addresses this issue at length, including the arguments for and against the agreement, as well as general U.S.-Colombia economic relations.
Date: November 24, 2008
Creator: Bolle, Mary Jane
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Immigration-Related Worksite Enforcement: Performance Measures

Description: Over the past few years, the media have been filled with reports about worksite enforcement operations, commonly referred to as immigration raids. These operations represent the public face of efforts by the Department of Homeland Security to curtail the employment of unauthorized immigrants. According to 2006 estimates, there are some 7.8 million unauthorized workers in the U.S. civilian workforce. Enforcement activity by the Department of Labor (DOL) is also relevant to a discussion of federal efforts to curtail unauthorized employment.
Date: December 2, 2008
Creator: Bruno, Andorra
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Executive Schedule IV Pay Cap on General Schedule Compensation

Description: This report provides information on the effect of the Executive Schedule (EX-IV) pay cap on pay for General Schedule (GS) employees; and discusses the potential implications of the pay cap on salaries, pensions, and the ability of agencies to recruit and retain staff. The report also provides some background information on the GS and Executive Schedule pay systems and the annual pay adjustment processes in those systems.
Date: February 15, 2008
Creator: Copeland, Curtis W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Federal Workforce: Characteristics and Trends

Description: This report discusses the federal workforce, which is also expected by some to reflect the gender, racial, and ethnic diversity of the country as a whole. In addition, understanding recent changes in the overall size and composition of the federal workforce can indicate what changes may lie in the future.
Date: September 30, 2008
Creator: Copeland, Curtis W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Military Base Closures: Socioeconomic Impacts

Description: The most recent Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) Commission submitted its final report to the Administration on September 8, 2005. In the report, the commission rejected 13 of the initial Department of Defense recommendations, significantly modified the recommendations for 13 other installations, and approved 22 major closures. The loss of related jobs, and efforts to replace them and to implement a viable base reuse plan, can pose significant challenges for affected communities. This report explores the potential economic impact of military closures on communities, especially rural communities, which are more heavily affected by such closures and suffer from slower economic recovery times in such instances.
Date: September 19, 2008
Creator: Cowan, Tadlock & Webel, Baird
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

State and Local Restrictions on Employing, Renting Property to, or Providing Services for Unauthorized Aliens: Legal Issues and Recent Judicial Developments

Description: This report discusses the constitutional issues raised in relation to state and local laws intended to deter the presence of unauthorized aliens, along with the implications that federal civil rights statutes might have on the implementation and enforcement of measures restricting such persons' ability to obtain employment, housing, or other state and local benefits or services.
Date: January 28, 2008
Creator: Garcia, Michael John; Feder, Jody & Smith, Alison M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Haitian Economy and the HOPE Act

Description: This report discusses the HOPE Act as it relates to the Haitian economy and U.S. trade policy. In providing preferential access to Haitian apparel imports, the HOPE Act, as amended, gives Haitian firms a competitive (price) advantage over other foreign producers who must pay U.S. duties on apparel exports made from yarns and fabrics supplied by non-regional (e.g., Asian) producers.
Date: October 1, 2008
Creator: Hornbeck, J. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Government Spending on Health Care Benefits and Programs: A Data Brief

Description: In a country where health spending accounts for more than 16% of gross domestic product (GDP), health care costs and spending are often described as a problem for consumers and their families; for employers that provide (or seek to provide) health benefits; and for government, which finances a mix of health care services, health research and training, and health safety programs. To describe government spending on health care benefits and programs, this report presents data from the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), the Congressional Budget Office (CBO), and the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS).
Date: June 16, 2008
Creator: Jenson, Jennifer
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) Coverage of Contagious Diseases

Description: The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), provides broad nondiscrimination protection for individuals with disabilities in employment public services, public accommodations and services operated by private entities, transportation, and telecommunication. This report briefly discusses the Americans with Disabilities Act's statutory provisions relating to contagious diseases and relevant judicial interpretations.
Date: October 15, 2008
Creator: Jones, Nancy Lee
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Job Loss: Causes and Policy Implications

Description: Job loss is one of the most important macroeconomic problems facing policymakers, both in terms of its economic and social cost. This report discusses factors that cause job loss and the policy implications.
Date: August 1, 2008
Creator: Labonte, Marc
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Family and Medical Leave Act: Recent Legislative and Regulatory Activity

Description: This report begins with a brief overview of the major features of the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) and its regulations The various proposals that have been made to amend the act since its inception more than a decade ago are then categorized and discussed. It closes with a review of legislative and regulatory activity.
Date: January 3, 2008
Creator: Levine, Linda
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Immigration: The Effects on Low-Skilled and High-Skilled Native-Born Workers

Description: The report opens with a discussion of how to analyze the impact of immigrants on the pay and job opportunities of native-born workers. It then uses this framework to examine and interpret the empirical literature on the subject. The report concludes with a discussion of policy implications.
Date: January 24, 2008
Creator: Levine, Linda
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Job Loss and Infrastructure Job Creation During the Recession

Description: The report examines trends in employment and job loss since the start of the latest recession then focuses on job creation estimates associated with increased spending on infrastructure, placing a heavy emphasis on explaining the limitations with the methodology that is often utilized to develop the estimates.
Date: December 23, 2008
Creator: Levine, Linda
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Leave Benefits in the United States

Description: This report begins by reviewing federal statutes that pertain directly or indirectly to employer provision of leave benefits for any purpose, including the Pregnancy Discrimination Act and the Family and Medical Leave Act. It then examines the incidence of different types of paid leave that U.S. employers voluntarily provide as part of an employee's total compensation (wages and benefits). The report closes with results from a federal government survey of the average direct cost to businesses of different types of leave.
Date: May 7, 2008
Creator: Levine, Linda
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tax Treatment of Employer Educational Assistance for the Benefit of Employees

Description: Educational assistance offered by employers to their employees may be exempt from federal income tax under Section 127 and Section 132 of the Internal Revenue Code. Section 127 is the employer educational assistance exclusion; Section 132, the fringe benefit exclusion for working condition benefits (e.g., job-related eduction) among other benefits. Congress established the two tax provisions well before it enacted to her higher education tax benefits meant to assist taxpayers, their spouses, and dependents -- regardless of employment status -- pay current educational expenses incurred while obtaining postsecondary degrees and undertaking lifelong learning.
Date: July 3, 2008
Creator: Levine, Linda
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Worker Safety in the Construction Industry: The Crane and Derrick Standard

Description: This report first examines the incidence of fatal and nonfatal on-the-job injuries in the private sector. It next analyzes the causes of fatalities in the construction industry and the involvement of cranes in those deaths. The report then addresses the status of a proposed rule to update the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) crane and derrick standard. It closes with an overview of jurisdictions having safety regulations for cranes more stringent, in whole or part, than the existing federal standard.
Date: September 9, 2008
Creator: Levine, Linda
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Worker Safety in the Construction Industry: The Crane and Derrick Standard

Description: This report first examines the incidence of fatal and nonfatal on-the-job injuries in the private sector. It next analyzes the causes of fatalities in the construction industry and the involvement of cranes in those deaths. The report then addresses the status of a proposed rule to update the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) crane and derrick standard. It closes with an overview of jurisdictions having safety regulations for cranes more stringent, in whole or part, than the existing federal standard.
Date: November 21, 2008
Creator: Levine, Linda
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Coal Excise Tax Refunds: United States v. Clintwood Elkhorn Mining Co.

Description: In 1998, a U.S. district court held that the imposition of the coal excise tax, or black lung excise tax, on coal destined for export was unconstitutional. The process of refunding the tax has been controversial. This is because some coal producers and exporters have attempted to bypass the limitations in the Internal Revenue Code's refund scheme for bringing suit under the Export Clause in the Court of Federal Claims, seeking damages from the United States in the amount of coal excise taxes paid. The Federal Circuit Court of Appeals held the court had jurisdiction under the Tucker Act to hear the suits and allowed them as an alternative to the Code's refund process. However, in a 2008 decision, United States v. Clintwood Elkhorn Mining Co., the Supreme Court unanimously held that taxpayers must comply with the Code's administrative refund process before bringing suit. Meanwhile, H.R. 1762 and S. 373 would provide an alternative method for taxpayers to receive coal excise tax refunds.
Date: May 16, 2008
Creator: Lunder, Erika
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Foreign Science and Engineering Presence in U.S. Institutions and the Labor Force

Description: The increased presence of foreign students in graduate science and engineering programs and in the scientific workforce has been and continues to be of concern to some in the scientific community. Enrollment of U.S. citizens in graduate science and engineering programs has not kept pace with that of foreign students in those programs. Many in the scientific community maintain that in order to compete with countries that are rapidly expanding their scientific and technological capabilities, the country needs to bring to the United States those whose skills will benefit society and will enable us to compete in the new-technology based global economy. This report analyzes this issue in detail and includes discussion of related legislation.
Date: July 23, 2008
Creator: Matthews, Christine M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department