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Education Vouchers: The Constitutional Standards

Description: The Court’s decisions permit a limited degree of public aid to be provided directly and a broader range of assistance indirectly. This report sketches the constitutional standards that apply to public aid to sectarian schools and especially to programs of indirect assistance such as education vouchers. It also summarizes recent significant state court decisions involving vouchers.
Date: June 11, 1998
Creator: Ackerman, David M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

International Trade and Finance: Key Policy Issues for the 112th Congress

Description: The 112th Congress, in both its legislative and oversight capacities, faces numerous international trade and finance issues. In addition to the broader congressional oversight of the economic and political context of the current U.S. participation in the global economy, this report highlights major international trade and finance issues Congress may address this year and next.
Date: January 11, 2011
Creator: Ahearn, Raymond J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Strategic Petroleum Reserve and Refined Product Reserves: Authorization and Drawdown Policy

Description: This report discusses the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) in the Energy Policy and Consevation Act, which was authorized to help prevent a repetition of the economic dislocation caused by the 1973-1974 Arab oil embargo. The Government Accountability Office recently observed that the proportion of crude oil grades in the SPR has been growing less compatible with the heavier grades of crude oil that U.S. refineries have been upgrading to handle. This finding has raised questions about the SPR's effectiveness during a long-term oil disruption involving heavy oil.
Date: March 11, 2011
Creator: Andrews, Anthony & Pirog, Robert
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA): Overview of Major Provisions

Description: The Individuals with DisabilitiesEducation Act (IDEA) providesfundsto statesfor the education of children with disabilities. It contains detailed requirements for the receipt of these funds, including the core requirement of the provision of a free appropriate public education (FAPE). IDEA was comprehensively revised in 1997 by P.L. 105-17, but Congress has continued to grapple with issuesrelating to the Act. This report provides a brief overview of the Act with particular attention paid to issues of recent congressional concern, such as funding and the provision of FAPE for children with disabilities found to have brought a weapon to school.
Date: January 11, 2002
Creator: Apling, Richard N. & Jones, Nancy L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The European Union in 2005 and Beyond

Description: The European Union (EU) experienced significant changes in 2004 as it enlarged from 15 to 25 members and continued work on a new constitutional treaty to institute internal reforms and further EU political integration. In 2005, the EU is expected to build on these efforts and seek to implement several recent foreign policy and defense initiatives. This report describes the current status of the EU’s “constitution,” EU enlargement, the EU’s evolving foreign and defense policies, and possible implications for U.S.-EU relations.
Date: July 11, 2005
Creator: Archick, Kristin
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The European Union: Questions and Answers

Description: This report provides answers to key questions related to the European Union (EU). It describes the EU’s evolution, its governing institutions, trade policy, and efforts to forge common foreign and defense policies. The report also addresses the EU-U.S. and EU-NATO relationships.
Date: July 11, 2005
Creator: Archick, Kristin
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The European Union's Constitution

Description: In June 2004, the European Union (EU) concluded work on a constitutional treaty that contains changes to the EU’s governing institutions and decision-making processes. This new “constitution” grew out of the 2002-2003 Convention on the Future of Europe and previous EU efforts to institute internal reforms ahead of the Union’s expansion from 15 members to 25 in May 2004. The “constitution” aims to enable a larger EU to operate effectively and prevent gridlock, but it must still be ratified by all member states before it enters into force. This report provides background information on the Convention and describes the EU “constitution,” its key provisions, next steps, and possible implications for the U.S.-EU relationship.
Date: July 11, 2005
Creator: Archick, Kristin
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Northern Ireland: The Peace Process

Description: This report provides background information regarding political violence and the peace process in Northern Ireland. It includes further information about the devolved government and recurrent crises (1999-2002, 2003-2007 and 2008-2010), implementation of police reforms, recent events and ongoing challenges, relevant U.S. policy, and recent legislation.
Date: March 11, 2015
Creator: Archick, Kristin
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Morocco: Current Issues

Description: This report discusses the current political and foreign policy status of Morocco, especially with regard to its relationship with the United States and its struggles combating terrorism.
Date: July 11, 2011
Creator: Arieff, Alexis
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Debt Limit Since 2011

Description: This report discusses the federal debt increase. The accumulation of federal debt accelerated in the wake of the 2007-2008 financial crisis and subsequent recession.
Date: September 11, 2015
Creator: Austin, D. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Designation of Critical Habitat under the Endangered Species Act (ESA)

Description: The agencies that implement the Endangered Species Act (ESA) regard the designation of critical habitat (CH) as providing only very limited benefits beyond those achieved through the listing of species and the avoidance of jeopardy to them. Several courts have now held that the relevant regulation and interpretation that result in this conclusion are erroneous and do not carry out the intent of Congress.
Date: April 11, 2005
Creator: Baldwin, Pamela
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy Policy: Conceptual Framework and Continuing Issues

Description: In the spring of 2006, crude oil prices were exceeding $70/barrel (bbl) in response to tight markets and uncertainty over the security of world oil supply. A number of developments have placed additional pressure on world markets, including Hurricanes Katrina and Rita (in late August and late September 2005), the phaseout of the gasoline additive methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) and a renewable fuels mandate, and a continuing high and worldwide demand for oil. Energy policy issues for continuing interest include opening up the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) for leasing; Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards (CAFE) for passenger vehicles; improving U.S. energy infrastructure, including pipelines and refineries; seeking effective means to promote energy conservation using currently available technologies, and developing new technologies and alternative fuels.
Date: May 11, 2006
Creator: Bamberger, Robert
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Abortion at or Over 20 Weeks' Gestation: Frequently Asked Questions

Description: This report provides answers to frequently asked questions concerning abortions that are performed in the second trimester of a woman's pregnancy because Congress and many state legislatures are considering legislation that would limit or ban abortions in midpregnancy. This report does not discuss constitutional or legal questions nor does it discusses differing state regulations regarding such abortions.
Date: April 11, 2018
Creator: Barry, Matthew B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Exemptions from Environmental Law for the Department of Defense: An Overview of Congressional Action

Description: Several environmental statutes contain national security exemptions, which the Department of Defense (DOD) can obtain on a case-by-case basis. Since FY2003, DOD has sought broader exemptions that it argues are needed to preserve training capabilities and ensure military readiness. There has been disagreement in Congress over the need for broader exemptions in the absence of data on the overall impact of environmental requirements on training and readiness. There has also been disagreement over the potential impacts of broader exemptions on environmental quality. This report outlines this issue and relevant legislation in detail.
Date: July 11, 2006
Creator: Bearden, David M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department