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Electricity Restructuring Background: Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935 (PUHCA)

Description: This report provides background information on PUHCA, including its history and impact. It also discusses how PUHCA reform fits into the current electric utility industry restructuring debate. This report will be updated as events warrant. For related information on electricity restructuring, see the CRS Electronic Briefing Book.
Date: January 7, 1999
Creator: Abel, Amy
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electricity: The Road Toward Restructuring

Description: The Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935 (PUHCA) and the Federal Power Act (FPA) were enacted to eliminate unfair practices and other abuses by electricity and gas holding companies by requiring federal control and regulation of interstate public utility holding companies. Comprehensive energy legislation has passed the House and Senate. The House passed H.R. 6 on April 11, 2003. On July 31, 2003, the Senate suspended debate on S. 14, inserted the text of H.R. 4 (107th Congress) as a substitute, and passed H.R. 6. A conference agreement was reached November 17, 2003, and passed by the House the next day. H.R. 6 includes an electricity title that would, in part, repeal PUHCA, would prospectively repeal the mandatory purchase requirement under PURPA, and would create an electric reliability organization. On June 15, 2004, H.R. 4503, a comprehensive energy policy bill, passed the House.
Date: September 7, 2001
Creator: Abel, Amy & Parker, Larry
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Iran: Regional Perspectives and U.S. Policy

Description: This report provides a description of Iran's neighbors' policies and interests, options for Congressional consideration, and an analysis of potential regional implications
Date: October 7, 2009
Creator: Addis, Casey L.; Blanchard, Christopher M.; Katzman, Kenneth; Migdalovitz, Carol; Nichol, Jim; Sharp, Jeremy M. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Transatlantic Regulatory Cooperation: Background and Analysis

Description: This report discusses commercial ties between the United States and the 27-member European Union. These ties are substantial, growing, and mutually beneficial, but differences in regulatory approaches limit an even more integrated marketplace from developing. This report is intended to serve as an introduction and primer on this complicated, broad, and often highly technical set of issues.
Date: March 7, 2011
Creator: Ahearn, Raymond J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

European Union Enlargement

Description: On May 1, 2004, 10 states joined the European Union (EU), enlarging the Union to 25 members. The EU views the enlargement process as an historic opportunity to promote stability in Europe and further the integration of the continent by peaceful means. In addition to the 10 new members (Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia, and Slovenia), three other states — Bulgaria, Romania, and Croatia — hope to accede to the EU by 2007. Turkey is also a candidate and is expected to begin accession negotiations in 2005. Macedonia has also applied for EU membership.
Date: March 7, 2005
Creator: Archick, Kristin
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The European Union in 2005 and Beyond

Description: The European Union (EU) experienced significant changes in 2004 as it enlarged from 15 to 25 members and continued work on a new constitutional treaty to institute internal reforms and further EU political integration. In 2005, the EU is expected to build on these efforts and seek to implement several recent foreign policy and defense initiatives. This report describes the current status of the EU’s “constitution,” EU enlargement, the EU’s evolving foreign and defense policies, and possible implications for U.S.-EU relations.
Date: March 7, 2005
Creator: Archick, Kristin
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The European Union: Questions and Answers

Description: This report provides answers to key questions related to the European Union (EU). It describes the EU’s evolution, its governing institutions, trade policy, and efforts to forge common foreign and defense policies. The report also addresses the EU-U.S. and EU-NATO relationships.
Date: March 7, 2005
Creator: Archick, Kristin
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The European Union's "Constitution"

Description: In June 2004, the European Union (EU) concluded work on a constitutional treaty that contains changes to the EU’s governing institutions and decision-making processes. This new “constitution” grew out of the 2002-2003 Convention on the Future of Europe and previous EU efforts to institute internal reforms ahead of the Union’s expansion from 15 members to 25 in May 2004. The “constitution” aims to enable a larger EU to operate effectively and prevent gridlock, but it must still be ratified by all member states before it enters into force. This report provides background information on the Convention and describes the EU “constitution,” its key provisions, next steps, and possible implications for the U.S.-EU relationship.
Date: March 7, 2005
Creator: Archick, Kristin
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.S.-EU Cooperation on Ukraine and Russia

Description: This report examines the U.S. and EU reactions to the crisis in Ukraine, focusing on the EU's hesitation to issue severe sanctions on par with the U.S. prior to the crash of Malaysia Airlines Flight MH17. The report discusses the EU's new, wider-ranging sanctions in the wake of MH17 and its implications on U.S.-EU relations.
Date: August 7, 2014
Creator: Archick, Kristin & Mix, Derek E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Muslims in Europe: Promoting Integration and Countering Extremism

Description: This report examines policies aimed at promoting integration, combating terrorism, and countering violent extremism in five European countries with significant Muslim populations: France, Germany, the Netherlands, Spain, and the United Kingdom. The report also evaluates the role of the 27-member European Union (EU) in shaping European laws and policies related to integration and counter-radicalization.
Date: September 7, 2011
Creator: Archick, Kristin; Belkin, Paul; Blanchard, Christopher M.; Ek, Carl & Mix, Derek E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Rwanda: In Brief

Description: This report describes Rwanda's political and governmental structure, economy, regional security policies, relations with the U.S., and human rights concerns.
Date: February 7, 2018
Creator: Arieff, Alexis & Terrell, Katherine Z.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

International Criminal Court Cases in Africa: Status and Policy Issues

Description: The International Criminal Court (ICC) has, to date, opened cases exclusively in Sub-Saharan Africa. The Statute of the ICC, also known as the Rome Statute, entered into force on July 1, 2002, and established a permanent, independent Court to investigate and bring to justice individuals who commit war crimes, crimes against humanity, and genocide. As of October 2010, 114 countries-including 31 African countries, the largest regional block-were parties to the Statute. The United States is not a party. This report provides background on current ICC cases and examines issues raised by the ICC's actions in Africa.
Date: March 7, 2011
Creator: Arieff, Alexis; Margesson, Rhoda; Browne, Marjorie Ann & Weed, Matthew C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Puerto Rico's Current Fiscal Challenges: In Brief

Description: This report discusses the current state of Puerto Rico's public finances. Puerto Rico faces several fiscal hurdles in 2015. Concerns regarding the sustainability of Puerto Rico's public finances have intensified over the past year, despite several measures taken by the island's government to reduce spending, increase revenues, and restructure its obligations.
Date: July 7, 2015
Creator: Austin, D. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Debt Limit: History and Recent Increases

Description: This report gives an historical overview of debt limits, discusses how the total debt of the federal government can increase and how the current economic slowdown has led to higher deficits and thereby a series of debt limit increases, as well as legislation related to these increases.
Date: February 7, 2013
Creator: Austin, D. Andrew & Levit, Mindy R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Debt Limit: History and Recent Increases

Description: This report discusses how the total debt of the federal government can increase, an historical overview of debt limits, and how the current economic slowdown has led to higher deficits and thereby a series of debt limit increases, as well as legislation related to these increases.
Date: March 7, 2011
Creator: Austin, D. Andrew & Levit, Mindy R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy Policy: Setting the Stage for the Current Debate

Description: The Bush Administration issued its plan for a national energy policy on May 16, 2001. The plan was controversial, characterized by some as leaner on conservation and renewables than Democratic proposals, and predisposed to trade off environmental considerations to increase supply. Comprehensive energy legislation was introduced in the Senate by both parties by late March (S. 388, S. 389, S. 596, S. 597). Bills reported by several House committees (H.R. 2436, H.R. 2460, H.R. 2511, and H.R. 2587) were combined in a single bill, H.R. 4, passed by the House, August 1, 2001. The House version of H.R. 4 would require a 5 billion gallon reduction in light-duty truck and SUV fuel consumption and would open the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) to leasing.
Date: May 7, 2002
Creator: Bamberger, Robert L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department