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Declarations of War and Authorizations for the Use of Military Force: Historical Background and Legal Implications

Description: This report provides historical background on the enactment of declarations of war and authorizations for the use of force and analyzes their legal effects under international and domestic law. It also sets forth their texts in two appendices. Because the statutes that confer standby authority on the President and the executive branch potentially play such a large role in an armed conflict to which the United States is a party, the report includes an extensive listing and summary of the statutes that are triggered by a declaration of war, a declaration of national emergency, and/or the existence of a state of war. The report concludes with a summary of the Congressional procedures applicable to the enactment of a declaration of war or authorization for the use of force and to measures under the War Powers Resolution.
Date: January 14, 2003
Creator: Ackerman, David M. & Grimmett, Richard F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Export-Import Bank Reauthorization Debate

Description: This report discusses the ongoing debate regarding the Export-Import Bank of the United States, a federal government corporation which is the the official export credit agency (ECA) of the U.S. Government. The bank's statutory charter expires on September 30, 2014, meaning that its authority to obligations generally would cease and a wind-down of operations would be required. The report gives four possible scenarios for approaches Congress could take in regards to approaching the bank's future authorization status.
Date: August 18, 2014
Creator: Akhtar, Shayerah Ilias
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Export-Import Bank Reauthorization: Frequently Asked Questions

Description: This report addresses frequently asked questions about Ex-Im Bank, grouped in the following categories: congressional interest and the Ex-Im Bank reauthorization debate; market context; international context; organizational structure and management; programs; statutory requirements and policies; risk management; budget and appropriations; implications of a sunset in authority; and historical and current approaches to reauthorization.
Date: August 1, 2014
Creator: Akhtar, Shayerah Ilias; Carpenter, David H.; Levit, Mindy R. & Taylor, Julia
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Export-Import Bank Reauthorization: Frequently Asked Questions

Description: This report addresses frequently asked questions about Ex-Im Bank, grouped in the following categories: congressional interest and the Ex-Im Bank reauthorization debate; market context; international context; organizational structure and management; programs; statutory requirements and policies; risk management; budget and appropriations; implications of a sunset in authority; and historical and current approaches to reauthorization.
Date: November 26, 2014
Creator: Akhtar, Shayerah Ilias; Carpenter, David H.; Levit, Mindy R. & Taylor, Julia
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Export-Import Bank Reauthorization: Frequently Asked Questions

Description: This report addresses frequently asked questions about Ex-Im Bank, grouped in the following categories: congressional interest and the Ex-Im Bank reauthorization debate; market context; international context; organizational structure and management; programs; statutory requirements and policies; risk management; budget and appropriations; implications of a sunset in authority; and historical and current approaches to reauthorization.
Date: August 1, 2014
Creator: Akhtar, Shayerah Ilias; Levit, Mindy R. & Taylor, Julia
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Congressional Record: Its Production, Distribution, and Accessibility

Description: This report briefly discusses how the Congressional Record is created and distributed. The Congressional Record is the most widely recognized published account of the debates and activities in Congress and it often reflects the intent of Congress in enacting legislation.
Date: October 27, 2006
Creator: Amer, Mildred
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Guide to Individuals Seated on the Senate Dais

Description: This report briefly discusses where various individuals are seated in the Senate chamber.
Date: October 20, 2004
Creator: Amer, Mildred
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

House and Senate Chaplains

Description: This report discusses the two chaplains, one in the House, the other in the Senate, who are the official clergy of Congress. At the beginning of each Congress, the House chaplain is elected for a 2-year term. The Senate chaplain does not have to be reelected at the beginning of a new Congress. There have been 61 Senate chaplains and 59 House chaplains.
Date: October 9, 2001
Creator: Amer, Mildred
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Major Leadership Election Contests in the House of Representatives, 94th-111th Congresses

Description: This report contains data on votes for Speaker of the House for the 94th through 110th Congresses and elections in party conferences or caucuses for major leaders within each party for the 94th through 111th Congresses. It reflects actual balloting on the House floor for Speaker and in the Democratic Caucus and Republican Conference for other positions.
Date: December 31, 2008
Creator: Amer, Mildred
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Members Who Have Served in the U.S. Congress 30 Years or More

Description: This report identifies those 224 Members of Congress whose service in the House or Senate, or both, has been 30 years or more. The information provided is current through January 3, 2006.
Date: January 20, 2006
Creator: Amer, Mildred
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Membership of the 109th Congress: A Profile

Description: This report presents a profile of the membership of the 109th Congress. Statistical information is included on selected characteristics of Members, including data on party affiliation, average age and length of service, occupation, religious affiliation, female and minority Members, foreign-born Members, and military service.
Date: November 29, 2006
Creator: Amer, Mildred
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Membership of the 111th Congress: A Profile

Description: This report presents a profile of the membership of the 111th Congress. Statistical information is included on selected characteristics of Members, including data on party affiliation, average age and length of service, occupation, religious affiliation, gender, ethnicity, foreign births, and military service.
Date: December 31, 2008
Creator: Amer, Mildred
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Secret Sessions of Congress: A Brief Historical Overview

Description: "Secret" or "closed door" sessions of the House of Representatives and Seante are held periodically to discuss business, including impeachment deliberations, deemed to require confidentiality and secrecy. Authority for the two chambers to hold these sessions is implied by Article I, Section 5, of the Constitution. National Security is the principal reason for such sessions in recent years. This report provides a historical background of such sessions, as well as relevant regulations and expectations for Members of Congress during such sessions.
Date: September 27, 2006
Creator: Amer, Mildred
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Secret Sessions of the House and Senate

Description: This report discusses the “Secret,” or “closed,” sessions of the House and Senate that exclude the press and the public.
Date: May 25, 2007
Creator: Amer, Mildred
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Selected Privileges and Courtesies Extended to Departing and Former Senators

Description: This report provides information on selected privileges and courtesies (with the exception of federal health insurance, life insurance, and retirement benefits) extended to departing and former Senators. Some are derived from law and Senate Rules, but most are courtesies that have been extended as a matter of custom.
Date: September 14, 2004
Creator: Amer, Mildred
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A User's Guide to the Congressional Record

Description: This report discusses use of the Congressional Record, which is a substantially verbatim account of remarks made during the proceedings of the House and Senate, subject only to technical, grammatical, and typographical corrections. It consists of four main sections: the proceedings of the House and Senate, the Extensions of Remarks, and the Daily Digest.
Date: October 27, 2005
Creator: Amer, Mildred
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A User’s Guide to the Congressional Record

Description: This report provides a user's guide to the proceedings of the House and Senate, the proceedings of the House and Senate.
Date: February 7, 2001
Creator: Amer, Mildred
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Black Members of the United States Congress: 1789-2001

Description: Thirty-nine black Members serve in the 107th Congress, all in the House of Representatives. In 210 years of congressional history, there have been 107 black Members of Congress: 103 elected to the House and four to the Senate. This report includes alphabetical listing of black members, selected biographical information, and committee assignments during their tenure in office.
Date: July 12, 2001
Creator: Amer, Mildred L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Black Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2004

Description: Thirty-nine black Members serve in the 107th Congress, all in the House of Representatives. In 210 years of congressional history, there have been 107 black Members of Congress: 103 elected to the House and four to the Senate. This report includes alphabetical listing of black members, selected biographical information, and committee assignments during their tenure in office.
Date: March 4, 2004
Creator: Amer, Mildred L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Black Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2005

Description: Forty three black or African-American Members serve in the 109th Congress; 42 in the House of Representatives, one in the Senate. There have been 117 black Members of Congress: 112 elected to the House and five to the Senate. The majority of the black Members (90) have been Democrats; the rest (27) have been Republicans. This report includes alphabetical listing of black members, selected biographical information, and committee assignments during their tenure in office.
Date: August 4, 2005
Creator: Amer, Mildred L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Colleges and Universities Attended by Senators of the 107th Congress

Description: This report identifies the colleges and universities attended by Senators serving in the 107th Congress. Where available in published sources, the degrees earned are also listed.
Date: January 2, 2002
Creator: Amer, Mildred L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department