Congressional Research Service Reports - 57 Matching Results

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Energy Tax Policy
This report discusses the history, current posture, and outlook for federal energy tax policy. It also discusses recent energy tax proposals, focusing on the major energy tax provisions that were debated as part of omnibus energy legislation in the 108th Congress (e.g., H.R. 6), which may be reintroduced in the 109th Congress.
Postal Reform
This report examines the U.S. Postal Service's (USPS's) financial crisis and the resulting legislative action. Although its short-term financial performance has improved, the USPS faces severe long-term financial straits, largely due to digital alternatives. USPS has a negative net worth and mounting obligations for retiree health benefits.
Softwood Lumber Imports from Canada: Issues and Events
This report provides a concise historical account of the dispute over softwood lumber imports from Canada, summarizes the subsidy and injury evidence, and discusses current issues and events.
Dairy Policy Issues
Several dairy issues that were debated during the 108th Congress are expected to continue as issues of interest in the 109th Congress. Separate bills were introduced in the 108th Congress to extend authority for both the Milk Income Loss Contract (MILC) Program and the dairy forward pricing pilot program, and to address dairy producer concerns about the importation of milk protein concentrates.
Dairy Policy Issues
Several dairy issues that were debated during the 108th Congress are expected to continue as issues of interest in the 109th Congress. Separate bills were introduced in the 108th Congress to extend authority for both the Milk Income Loss Contract (MILC) Program and the dairy forward pricing pilot program, and to address dairy producer concerns about the importation of milk protein concentrates.
The Advanced Technology Program
The Advanced Technology Program (ATP) was created by P.L. 100-418, the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988, to encourage public-private cooperation in the development of pre-competitive technologies with broad application across industries. This activity has been targeted for elimination as a means to cut federal spending. Since FY2000, the original House-passed appropriation bills have not included funding for ATP. Many of the Administration’s budget requests have proposed termination of the program. However, ATP continues to be supported, although at levels below that achieved in FY1995 when the activity was expanded significantly. This report discusses funding (or lack thereof) appropriated for the ATP for FY2006.
Stormwater Permits: Status of EPA's Regulatory Program
No Description Available.
U.S.-Canada Wheat and Corn Trade Disputes
No Description Available.
Tobacco Farmer Assistance
No Description Available.
U.S.-Canada Wheat and Corn Trade Disputes
No Description Available.
Tobacco Farmer Assistance
No Description Available.
State Corporate Income Taxes: A Description and Analysis
No Description Available.
Tax Incentives for Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Vehicles
No Description Available.
Intercarrier Compensation: One Component of Telecom Reform
No Description Available.
Energy Tax Policy: An Economic Analysis
The report provides background on the theory and application of tax policy as it relates to the energy sector, particularly with respect to the theory of market failure in the energy sector and the suggested policy remedies. This background provides a context for understanding how current or proposed energy tax policy may affect other policy objectives or be affected by such objectives.
Charitable Contributions of Food Inventory: Proposals for Change
Early in the 109th Congress, both S. 6, the Family and Community Protection Act of 2005, and S. 94, the Good Samaritan Hunger Relief Tax Incentive Act, have been introduced to encourage gifts of food by businesses for charitable purposes. While current law provides a deduction only to C corporations, these bills would expand the tax break to all business entities. The value of the existing deduction is the corporation’s basis in the donated product plus one half of the amount of appreciation, as long as that amount is less than twice the corporation’s basis in the product.
Hurricanes Katrina and Rita: Fishing and Aquaculture Industries - Damage and Recovery
This report summarizes damage assessments and recovery efforts, and will be updated as warranted to incorporate new information.
Industrial Competitiveness and Technological Advancement: Debate Over Government Policy
No Description Available.
U.S. Agriculture After Hurricanes Katrina and Rita: Status and Issues
No Description Available.
Tobacco Quota Buyout
No Description Available.
Tobacco Quota Buyout
No Description Available.
Verizon Communications, Inc. v. Trinko: Telecommunications Consumers Cannot Use Antitrust Laws to Remedy Access Violations of Telecommunications Act
No Description Available.
Accounting Problems at Fannie Mae
On September 22, 2004, the Office of Federal Housing Enterprise Supervision (OFHEO) made public a report that was highly critical of accounting methods at Fannie Mae, the government-sponsored enterprise that plays a leading role in the secondary mortgage market. OFHEO charged Fannie Mae with not following generally accepted accounting practices in two critical areas: (1) amortization of discounts, premiums, and fees involved in the purchase of home mortgages and (2) accounting for financial derivatives contracts. According to OFHEO, these deviations from standard accounting rules allowed Fannie Mae to reduce volatility in reported earnings, present investors with an artificial picture of steadily growing profits, and, in at least one case, to meet financial performance targets that triggered the payment of bonuses to company executives. On November 15, 2004, Fannie Mae reported that it was unable to file a third-quarter earnings statement because its auditor, KPMG, refused to sign off on the accounting results. On December 15, 2004, the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), after finding inadequacies in Fannie’s accounting policies and methodologies, directed Fannie Mae to restate its accounting results since 2001. Shortly thereafter, the company’s CEO and CFO resigned. It is estimated that earnings since 2001 will be revised downwards by as much as $12 billion, but the formal restatement of earnings is not expected before late 2006.
China and the CNOOC Bid for Unocal: Issues for Congress
The bid by the China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC) to acquire the U.S. energy company Unocal for $18.5 billion raised many issues with U.S. policymakers. This report provides an overview and analysis of the CNOOC bid, U.S. interests, implications for U.S. energy security, U.S. investment in the PRC’s (People’s Republic of China’s) oil industry, the process for reviewing the security and other implications of foreign investment in the United States, Congressional activity, and a listing of unresolved issues.
Government-Sposored Enterprises (GSEs): Regulatory Reform Legislation
This report summarizes legislative proposals in the 109th Congress that aim to strengthen the regulation of the government-sponsored enterprises (GSEs), and will be updated as warranted.
Government-Sposored Enterprises (GSEs): Regulatory Reform Legislation
This report summarizes legislative proposals in the 109th Congress that aim to strengthen the regulation of the government-sponsored enterprises (GSEs), and will be updated as warranted.
"Bunker Busters": Sources of Confusion in the Robust Nuclear Earth Penetrator Debate
Earth penetrator weapons, often called “bunker busters,” burrow into the ground some tens of feet before detonating, greatly increasing their ability to destroy buried targets. The United States has several types of conventional earth penetrators. The Air Force and the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) are studying a more effective penetrator, the Robust Nuclear Earth Penetrator (RNEP). The FY2005 defense authorization act contained the full RNEP request, $27.6 million. This report explains the budget request and provides details on the RNEP plan.
Robust Nuclear Earth Penetrator Budget Request and Plan, FY2005-FY2009
No Description Available.
Industrial Competitiveness and Technological Advancement: Debate Over Government Policy
No Description Available.
U.S. Agriculture After Hurricane Katrina: Status and Issues
No Description Available.
Estate Taxes and Family Businesses: Economic Issues
The 2001 tax revision began a phaseout of the estate tax, by increasing exemptions and lowering rates. The estate tax is scheduled to be repealed in 2010 and a provision to tax appreciation on inherited assets (in excess of a limit) will be substituted. The 2001 tax provisions sunset, however, so that absent a change making them permanent the estate tax will revert, in 2011, to prior, pre-2001, law.
Congressional or Federal Charters: Overview and Current Issues
A congressional or federal charter is a federal statute that establishes a corporation. Congress has issued charters since 1791, although most charters were issued after the start of the 20th century. This report discusses the issues that recently, Congress has faced two issues involving its use of charters — confusion over who is responsible for the activities of chartered corporations and the challenges of managing them.
The Postal Revenue Forgone Appropriation: Overview and Current Issues
No Description Available.
Competitive Sourcing Legislation
Competitive sourcing is a government-wide initiative that subjects commercial activities performed by federal government employees to public-private competition. As a federal government policy, competitive sourcing debuted in 1966 with the publication of Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Circular A-76. Under the circular, commercial activities performed by federal employees are subjected to public-private competition.
DR-CAFTA, Textiles, and Apparel
The Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement (DR-CAFTA), signed on August 5, 2004, by the United States, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and the Dominican Republic is a comprehensive and reciprocal trade agreement that, if ratified by all parties, would govern market access of goods, services trade, investment, government procurement, intellectual property, labor, and the environment. With respect to textiles and apparel, DR-CAFTA is comparatively less restrictive than most other trade agreements and trade preference programs regarding what qualifies for duty-free access to the United States.
Hurricane Katrina: Fishing and Aquaculture Industries - Damage and Recovery
This report summarizes damage assessments and recovery efforts, with initial reports primarily anecdotal until more accurate assessments become available.
Hurricane Katrina: Fishing and Aquaculture Industries - Damage and Recovery
This report summarizes damage assessments and recovery efforts, with initial reports primarily anecdotal until more accurate assessments become available.
Foreign Outsourcing: Economic Implications and Policy Responses
No Description Available.
Oil and Gas: Supply Issues After Katrina
No Description Available.
Oil and Gas: Supply Issues After Katrina
No Description Available.
Postal Reform Bills: A Side-by-Side Comparison of H.R. 22 and S. 662
No Description Available.
Postal Reform Bills: A Side-by-Side Comparison of H.R. 22 and S. 662
No Description Available.
Postal Reform Bills: A Side-by-Side Comparison of H.R. 22 and S. 662
No Description Available.
Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation: A Fact Sheet
No Description Available.
Outsourcing and Insourcing Jobs in the U.S. Economy: An Overview of Evidence Based on Foreign Investment Data
No Description Available.
Textile and Apparel Quota Phaseout: Some Economic Implications
No Description Available.
Petroleum Refining: Economic Performance and Challenges for the Future
No Description Available.
"Bunker Busters": Robust Nuclear Earth Penetrator Issues, FY2005 and FY2006
The Robust Nuclear Earth Penetrator (RNEP) program has been the most controversial nuclear weapon program in Congress for the last several years. Supporters argue that it is needed to attack hard and deeply buried targets (such as leadership bunkers) in countries of concern, thereby deterring or defeating challenges from such nations; critics assert that RNEP would lower the threshold for use of nuclear weapons and prompt other nations to develop nuclear weapons to deter U.S. attack. This report presents a brief technical background on RNEP, then discusses the history of RNEP in Congress and the Administration for the FY2005 and FY2006 budget cycles.
"Bunker Busters": Robust Nuclear Earth Penetrator Issues, FY2005 and FY2006
The Robust Nuclear Earth Penetrator (RNEP) program has been the most controversial nuclear weapon program in Congress for the last several years. Supporters argue that it is needed to attack hard and deeply buried targets (such as leadership bunkers) in countries of concern, thereby deterring or defeating challenges from such nations; critics assert that RNEP would lower the threshold for use of nuclear weapons and prompt other nations to develop nuclear weapons to deter U.S. attack. This report presents a brief technical background on RNEP, then discusses the history of RNEP in Congress and the Administration for the FY2005 and FY2006 budget cycles.
"Bunker Busters": Robust Nuclear Earth Penetrator Issues, FY2005 and FY2006
The Robust Nuclear Earth Penetrator (RNEP) program has been the most controversial nuclear weapon program in Congress for the last several years. Supporters argue that it is needed to attack hard and deeply buried targets (such as leadership bunkers) in countries of concern, thereby deterring or defeating challenges from such nations; critics assert that RNEP would lower the threshold for use of nuclear weapons and prompt other nations to develop nuclear weapons to deter U.S. attack. This report presents a brief technical background on RNEP, then discusses the history of RNEP in Congress and the Administration for the FY2005 and FY2006 budget cycles.