Congressional Research Service Reports - 806 Matching Results

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Small Business Mentor-Protégé Programs
This report provides an overview of the various small business mentor-protégé programs of the federal government. As is discussed below, while all these programs are intended to assist small businesses in performing as contractors, subcontractors, or suppliers on federal or federally funded contracts, the programs differ significantly in their scope and operations. Table A-1 in the Appendix provides an overview of key differences among the programs.
Small Business Administration and Job Creation
This report discusses the Small Business Administration's programs and their impact on job creation. It examines the economic research on net job creation to identify the types of businesses that appear to create the most jobs, examines the possible implications this research might have for Congress and the SBA, and examines the arguments for providing federal assistance to small businesses.
Should Federal Law Restrict Where a Company May File Bankruptcy?
This report discusses laws and regulations regarding where a company may file for bankruptcy and a recently proposed bill which would restrict the locations where companies could file for bankruptcy.
SBA's Office of Inspector General: Overview, Impact, and Relationship with Congress
This report examines the Small Business Administration(SBA), Office of the Inspector General (OIG's) statutory authorities; reporting requirements; funding ($26.9 million in FY2018, including $7 million in supplemental appropriations for overseeing SBA disaster assistance); staffing and organizational structure; and recent activities (audits, investigations, etc.). It also examines the SBA OIG's impact on monetary savings, SBA programs and operations, and legislation affecting the agency. The report concludes with observations concerning the SBA OIG's relationship with Congress.
U.S. Manufacturing in International Perspective
This report is designed to inform the debate over the health of U.S. manufacturing through a series of charts and tables that depict the position of the United States relative to other countries according to various metrics. This report does not describe or discuss specific policy options.
NAFTA Renegotiation and Modernization
This report discusses the NAFTA renegotiation process and major topics of interest in the agreement as well as Congress's role in the negotiation and approval process.
What Causes a Recession?
This report discusses causes of recessions and provides data on the length of time economic expansions of the past have lasted.
Small Business Administration Microloan Program
This report discusses the Small Business Administration's (SBA) microloan program. It describes the Microloan program's eligibility standards and operating requirements for lenders and borrowers and examines the arguments presented by the program's critics and advocates. It also examines changes to the program authorized by P.L. 111-240, the Small Business Jobs Act of 2010 and several bills introduced during the 114th and 115th Congresses.
Business Investment Spending Slowdown
This report discusses the slowdown in business investment spending over the last decade and various reasons why the slowdown may have occurred.
SBA's 8(a) Program: Overview, History, and Current Issues
This report examines the Minority Small Business and Capital Ownership Development Program's (8(a) Program) historical development, key requirements, administrative structures and operations, and the SBA's oversight of 8(a) firms. It also discusses two SBA programs designed to support 8(a) firms, the 7(j) Management and Technical Assistance Program and the 8(a) Mentor-Protégé Program, and provides various program statistics. It concludes with an analysis of current Program 8(a) issues.
Domestic Solar Manufacturing and New U.S. Tariffs
This report discusses solar energy panel manufacturing and the effects new U.S. tariffs on imports of solar energy materials may have on the industry.
The Small Business Lending Fund
This report discusses the Small Business Lending Fund (SBLF). The report concludes with an examination of the program's implementation and a discussion of bills introduced during recent Congresses to amend the SBLF.
The Latest on the SEC's Consideration of the Proposed Acquisition of Chicago Stock Exchange
This report is an update of an earlier report regarding the SEC's consideration of a rule change regarding the proposed acquisition of the Chicago Stock Exchange by a group of Chinese investors with ties to the Chinese government. The SEC disapproved the rule change due to a lack of documentation on the funding sources of some investors and the deal was called off on March 5, 2018.
Small Business Administration: A Primer on Programs and Funding
This report describes the Small Business Administration's programs and funding sources.
SBA Small Business Investment Company Program
This report describes the Small Business Investment Company (SBIC) program's structure and operations, focusing on SBIC eligibility requirements, investment activity, and program statistics. It also includes information concerning the SBIC program's debenture SBIC program, participating securities SBIC program, impact investment SBIC debenture program (targeting underserved markets and communities facing barriers to access to credit and capital), and the now-sunset early stage debenture SBIC initiative.
Updated: Will the Supreme Court Address State's Power to Require that Retailers Tax Internet Sales?
This report is an update of an earlier report regarding a state's power to require retailers to tax internet sales in the purchasers state of residence. A case was brought by the state of South Dakota against Wayfair.com (South Dakota v. Wayfair) which was accepted to be heard by the Supreme Court on January 12, 2018.
Small Business Administration 7(a) Loan Guaranty Program
This report discusses the rationale provided for the Small Business Administration's 7(a) loan guaranty program. It also examines issues raised concerning the SBA's administration of the 7(a) program, including the oversight of 7(a) lenders and the program's lack of outcome-based performance measures. The report also surveys congressional and presidential actions taken in recent years to enhance small businesses' access to capital.
SBA Office of the National Ombudsman: Overview, History, and Current Issues
This report examines the Office of the National Ombudsman's origin and history; describes its organizational structure, funding, functions, and current activities; and discusses a recent legislative effort to enhance its authority. S. 1146, the Small Business Regulatory Relief Act of 2017. This report also discusses some challenges facing the Office of the National Ombudsman.
Small Business Size Standards: A Historical Analysis of Contemporary Issues
This report provides a historical examination of the Small Business Administration's (SBA) size standards and assesses competing views concerning how to define a small business. It also discusses recent legislation related to small business size standards and regulation.
Community Development Financial Institutions (CDFI) Fund: Programs and Policy Issues
This report discusses the Community Development Financial Institutions (CDFI) Fund which assists CDFI's which are business that provide financial products and services.
Paid Family Leave in the United States
This report discusses paid family leave's availability in the United States and recent legislation and proposals related to it.
Pass-Throughs, Corporations, and Small Businesses, A Look at Firm Size
This report discusses the definition of small businesses and what types of companies they are (corporatiom, pass-through, sole proprietorship etc.) along with information on the relation between firm size and company type.
Small Business Administration (SBA) Funding: Overview and Recent Trends
This report examines the Small Business Administration's (SBA's) appropriations (new budget authority, minus rescissions and sequestration) over time, focusing on developments and trends since FY2000.
Business Tax Provisions that Expired in 2017 (Tax Extenders")
This report discusses twelve temporary business tax extenders which expired at the end of 2017.
Small Business Administration Microloan Program
This report provides an overview of the Small Business Administration's microloan program and its funding sources.
SBA Veterans Assistance Programs :An Analysis of Contemporary Issues
This report opens with an examination of the economic circumstances of veteran-owned businesses drawn from the Bureau of the Census's 2012 Survey of Business Owners (SBO). It then provides a brief overview of veterans' employment experiences. The report also describes the employment assistance programs offered by several federal agencies to assist veterans in their transition from the military to the civilian labor force. It also discusses the SBA's Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loan program and P.L. 114-38, the Veterans Entrepreneurship Act of 2015.
Small Business Afministration 504/CDC Loan Guaranty Program
This report examines the rationale provided for the Small Business Administration's 504/CDC program, its borrower and lender eligibility standards, operating requirements, and performance statistics, including loan volume, loss rates, proceeds usage, borrower satisfaction, and borrower demographics. This report also discusses congressional action taken to help small businesses gain greater access to capital, including enactment of P.L. 111-5, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA); P.L. 111-240; and P.L. 114-113, and issues related to the SBA's oversight of 504/CDC lenders.
Venezuela's Economic Crisis: Issues for Congress
This report discusses the economic crisis in Venezuela including its origins of the crisis and current attempts at debt restructuring by the Venezuelan government. The report also outlines U.S. interests in the Venezuelan economy and trade, the outlook for U.S. holders of Venezuelan oil company bonds, ownership of CITGO (the biggest shareholder is the Venezuelan state-oil company), and the prospects of U.S. support of economic recovery in the future.
Small Business Administration HUBZone Program
This report discusses the Historically Underutilized Business Zone Empowerment Contracting (HUBZone) program, which provides participating small businesses located in areas with low income, high poverty, or high unemployment with contracting opportunities in the form of set-asides, sole-source awards, and price-evaluation preferences. It provides information about the program and it's structure; outlines arguments for an against targeting assistance and the continuation of the program; analyzes the program's administration; and examines related legislation.
Systemically Important or "Too Big to Fail" Financial Institution.
This report discusses the "To Big To Fail" (TBTF) system of the government intervening and bailing out certain companies whose collapse is deemed too disruptive to the American financial market to let occur. This report discusses the economic issues raised by TBTF, broad policy options, and policy changes made by the relevant Dodd-Frank provisions.
U.S. Beef: It's What's for China
This report discusses the opening of the Chinese market to U.S. beef imports under certain restrictions. The negotiation process and conditions of the agreement and China's current largest beef import partners are also discussed.
U.S. Direct Investment Abroad: Trends and Current Issues
This report discusses the United States direct investment in other countries through many multinational corporations. Tables showing the rates of investment in various countries by U.S. companies and discussion of the economic effects of the practice on the U.S. job market are included.
The Federal Assets Sale and Transfer Act of 2016: Background and Key Provisions
This report discuses Federal real property holdings and the disposition process for unneeded space. A new law called the Federal Assets Sale and Transfer Act of 2016 (FASTA) now governs the process of disposal through a newly created Public Buildings Reform Board that reviews requests and provides funding for needed repairs before sale or lease of property. Various challenges addressed by the new system and those that remain are discussed.
Small Business Administration: A Primer on Programs and Funding
This report discusses the Small Business Administration (SBA) and their various programs along with various programmatic changes resulting from the enactment of P.L. 111-5, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, P.L. 111-240, the Small Business Jobs Act of 2010, P.L. 112-239, the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2013, P.L. 114-38, the Veterans Entrepreneurship Act of 2015, P.L. 114-88, the Recovery Improvements for Small Entities After Disaster Act of 2015 (RISE After Disaster Act of 2015), P.L. 114-92, the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2016, and P.L. 114-328, the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2017. In addition, it provides an overview of the SBA's budget and references other CRS reports that examine these programs in greater detail.
The Small Business Lending Fund
This report discusses on the Small Business Lending Fund (SBLF). It begins with a discussion of the supply and demand for small business loans. The SBLF's advocates argued that the fund was an important part of a larger effort to enhance the supply of small business loans. After describing the program's structure, the report then examines other arguments that were presented both for and against the program's enactment. Advocates claimed the SBLF would increase lending to small businesses and, in turn, create jobs. Opponents contended that the SBLF could lose money, lacked sufficient oversight provisions, did not require lenders to increase their lending to small businesses, could serve as a vehicle for the Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP) recipients to effectively refinance their TARP loans on more favorable terms with little or no resulting benefit for small businesses, and could encourage a failing lender to make even riskier loans to avoid higher dividend payments. The report concludes with an examination of the SBLF's implementation by the Department of the Treasury and a discussion of bills introduced during recent Congresses to amend the SBLF.
Minority Business Development Agency: An Overview of Its History and Current Issues
This report discusses the Department of Commerce's Minority Business Development Agency (MBDA) which is the lead federal agency dedicated to supporting the development and expansion of the minority business community. Currently, the MBDA provides a number of services principally through a network of business centers located in areas with the largest concentration of minority populations and the largest number of minority businesses. The Trump Administration's budget request for FY2018 proposes to reduce the agency's appropriation from $34 million appropriated for FY2017 to $6 million for FY2018. The proposed funds would be used to cover the cost of terminating the agency and its activities. Contrary to the Administration's request, the House Committee on Appropriations approved a Commerce, Justice, Science and Related Agencies Appropriations bill (H.R. 3267), which was later incorporated into H.R. 3357 that the House passed on September 14, 2017, and would provide $34 million for MBDA. On July 27, 2017, the Senate Committee on Appropriations approved S. 1662, its version of the Commerce, Justice, Science and Related Appropriations bill for FY2018. The bill also recommended an appropriation of $34 million for MBDA.
Small Business Administration Microloan Program
This report opens with a discussion of the rationale provided for having a Microloan program, describes the program's eligibility standards and operating requirements for lenders and borrowers, and examines the arguments presented by the program's critics and advocates. It then discusses P.L. 111-240, the Small Business Jobs Act of 2010, which increased the Microloan program's loan limit for borrowers from $35,000 to $50,000, and the aggregate loan limit for intermediaries after their first year of participation in the program from $3.5 million to $5 million. It also discusses H.R. 2056, the Microloan Modernization Act of 2017, and S. 526, its companion bill in the Senate. The bill, as amended, was favorably reported by the House Committee on Small Business on July 12, 2017, and agreed to by the House on July 24, 2017, by voice vote.
Section 471 of H.R. 10, H.R. 1219, S. 444, and Section 914 of H.R. 3280: Supporting America's Innovators
This report discusses various current bills in Congress that are related to to increasing business innovation and easing regulation on securities and venture-capitol firms. Brief outlines of the goals of each bill and their current progress along with arguments for and against them are presented.
Business Tax Provisions That Expired in 2016 ("Tax Extenders")
This report briefly summarizes and discusses the economic impact of selected business-related tax provisions that expired at the end of 2016. Types of business provisions covered are special business investment (cost recovery), economic development, and other miscellaneous business-related matters.
The Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States (CFIUS)
This report discusses the Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States (CFIUS) which is a presidential advisory body consisting of nine cabinet members, two ex officio members, and other members appointed by the President to oversee direct investments by foreign countries in the United States. The President has the power to block a direct investment by another country if such an acquisition would pose a threat to U.S. national security. The basics of the committee's operations and laws governing their conduct and power, presidential blocks of investment, previous reforms to the original law governing the committee and its actions and current propositions in Congress to further amend the laws regarding the committee are discussed.
Small Business Administration HUBZone Program
This report discusses the Historically Underutilized Business Zone Empowerment Contracting (HUBZone), program and examines arguments both for and against targeting assistance to geographic areas with specified characteristics as opposed to providing assistance to people or businesses with specified characteristics. It then assesses the arguments both for and against the continuation of the HUBZone program. The report also discusses the HUBZone program's structure and operation, focusing on the definition of HUBZone areas and HUBZone small businesses and the program's performance relative to federal contracting goals. It includes an analysis of the SBA's administration of the program and the SBA's performance measures.
Who Earns Pass-Through Business Income? An Analysis of Individual Tax Return Data
This report analyzes individual tax return data to determine who earns pass-through business income which is from sole proprietorships, partnerships, and S corporations. The analysis finds that in 2011 over 82% of net pass-through income was earned by individuals with an adjusted gross income (AGI) over $100,000, although these taxpayers accounted for just 23% of individual returns with pass-through income. Who earns pass-through income may have important implications for tax reform.
Small Business Administration 7(a) Loan Guaranty Program
This report discusses the rationale provided for the 7(a) program; the program's borrower and lender eligibility standards and program requirements; and program statistics, including loan volume, loss rates, use of proceeds, borrower satisfaction, and borrower demographics. It also examines issues raised concerning the SBA's administration of the 7(a) program, including the oversight of 7(a) lenders and the program's lack of outcome-based performance measures. The report also surveys congressional and presidential actions taken in recent years to enhance small businesses' access to capital. The Appendix to this report provides a brief description of the 7(a) program's SBAExpress, Export Express, and Community Advantage programs.
Small Business Size Standards: A Historical Analysis of Contemporary Issues
This report provides a historical examination of the SBA's size standards and assesses competing views concerning how to define a small business. It also discusses P.L. 112-239, the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2013, which requires the SBA to make available a justification when establishing or approving a size standard that the size standard is appropriate for each individual industry classification. It addresses the SBA's recent practice of combining size standards within industrial groups as a means to reduce the complexity of its size standards and to provide greater consistency for industrial classifications that have similar economic characteristics; P.L. 114-328, the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2017, which authorizes the SBA to establish different size standards for agricultural enterprises using existing methods and appeal processes.
Multinational Corporations 1968-70: Selected References
This report provides a bibliography of resources related to multinational corporations which were published from 1968 to 1970.
Reform of U.S. International Taxation: Alternatives
This report describes and assesses the principal prescriptions that have been offered for broad reform of the international system. It begins with an overview of current law and possible revisions. It then sets the framework for considering economic efficiency as well as tax shelter activities. Finally, it reviews alternative approaches to revision in light of those issues.
The Franchise System of Distribution
This report discusses the franchising system of distribution and its growing popularity among small business owners. Legal challenges to franchising under anti-trust laws are also discussed.
Alaskan Oil, Environment vs. Economy: A Compilation of Selected Writings
This report provides a selection of news articles and government publications weighing the economic advantages of tapping Alaskan oil versus the environmental effects and hazards of oil drilling and transport.
Emergency Federal Financial Assistance to Private Enterprise: A Selective Examination of Past Loan and Loan Guarantee Programs of the Federal Government
This report discusses instances where federal emergency assistance through loan and guarantee programs was offered to private enterprises.
Digital Trade and U.S. Trade Policy
This report discusses the role of digital trade in the U.S. economy, barriers to digital trade, digital trade agreement provisions, and other selected policy issues.