Congressional Research Service Reports - 112 Matching Results

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Efforts to Address Seasonal Agricultural Import Competition in the NAFTA Renegotiation

Description: This report discusses a proposal by the U.S. in the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) renegotiations that would allow U.S. agricultural producers of certain fruits and vegetables to more easily file an injury claim regarding imports from Mexico. It includes details regarding the proposal, Mexican produce imports statistics, and arguments for and against the proposal.
Date: December 7, 2017
Creator: Johnson, Renée
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Potential Effects of a U.S. NAFTA Withdrawal: Agricultural Markets

Description: This report examines some of the potential consequences to U.S. agricultural markets of a U.S. withdrawal from NAFTA, focusing on the possibility that higher tariffs could be imposed on U.S. imports and exports. In particular, under a NAFTA withdrawal, it is likely that most-favored nation (MFN) tariffs would be imposed on agricultural products traded among the NAFTA countries instead of the current zero tariff (i.e., duty-free trade) for most agricultural products. In general, MFN tariffs on U.S. agricultural imports would likely raise prices both to U.S. consumers and other end users, such as manufacturers of value-added food products.
Date: November 13, 2017
Creator: Johnson, Renée
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Farm Safety-Net Payments Under the 2014 Farm Bill: Comparison by Program Crop

Description: This report looks at available Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) and Federal Crop Insurance Act (FCIC) data for the major program crops and compares relative support using several different measures: absolute payments, payments per acre, payments as a share of the value of production, and payments as a share of the cost of production. In addition, price and income support levels are compared to market prices.
Date: August 11, 2017
Creator: Schnepf, Randy
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy Provisions in the 2014 Farm Bill (P.L. 113-79): Status and Funding

Description: This report focuses on those policies contained in the 2014 farm bill that support agriculture-based renewable energy, especially biofuels. The introductory sections of this report briefly describe how USDA bioenergy policies evolved and how they fit into the larger context of U.S. biofuels policy. Then, each of the bioenergy provisions of the 2014 farm bill are defined in terms of their function, goals, administration, funding, and implementation status. In an appendix at the end of this report, Table A-1 presents data on 2014 farm bill budgetary authority for energy provisions, while Table A-2 presents the original budget authority for Title IX programs under the previous 2008 farm bill. A third table (Table A-3) provides a side-by-side comparison of Title IX energy-related provisions for current versus previous law.
Date: September 21, 2017
Creator: Bracmort, Kelsi
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Federal Agricultural Recovery Resources for Hurricane-Related Losses

Description: This report provides a short overview of select agricultural recovery resources related to hurricanes such as Harvey and Irma. It is not a comprehensive list (see "CRS Resources" below for more information about programs) and is not intended to provide up-to-date information on unfolding events. For additional support, please contact available CRS experts in hurricane-related issue areas.
Date: September 8, 2017
Creator: Stubbs, Megan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hemp as an Agricultural Commodity

Description: This report discusses the various industrial uses for hemp, a variety of Cannabis sativa that is of the same plant species as marijuana. It compares hemp with marijuana and discusses global production, legal status, and recent legislative activity.
Date: March 10, 2017
Creator: Johnson, Renée
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Federal Food Safety System: A Primer

Description: This report discusses concerns about food safety, the resources required to ensure food safety, and whether federal food safety laws themselves, first enacted in the early 1900s, have kept pace with the significant changes that have occurred in the food production, processing, and marketing sectors since then.
Date: December 16, 2016
Creator: Johnson, Renée
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Revisiting U.S.-Mexico Sugar Agreements

Description: This report discusses negotiations of the U.S. Department of Commerce (DOC) with the government of Mexico regarding consideration of changes to two sugar suspension agreements made in December 2014.
Date: August 12, 2016
Creator: McMinimy, Mark A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Financing U.S. Agricultural Exports to Cuba

Description: This report discusses a new policy approach toward Cuba that, in part, seeks to reduce the role of long-standing U.S. sanctions on commercial relations with Cuba while also promoting greater engagement and normal relations with the island nation.
Date: June 24, 2016
Creator: McMinimy, Mark A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.S. Agricultural Trade with Cuba: Current Limitations and Future Prospects

Description: This report reviews the current state of agricultural trade between the United States and Cuba, identifies key impediments to expanding bilateral trade in agricultural products and key provisions in the law to which these obstacles are anchored. It also summarizes several of the bills introduced in the 114th Congress that propose to remove specific restrictions that impede trade in agricultural goods or that seek to lift the embargo on Cuba entirely.
Date: October 1, 2015
Creator: McMinimy, Mark A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.S. Sugar Program Fundamentals

Description: This report discusses the U.S. sugar program, which is singular among major agricultural commodity programs in that it combines a floor price guarantee with a supply management structure that encompasses both domestic production for human use and sugar imports.
Date: April 6, 2016
Creator: McMinimy, Mark A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Role of Local and Regional Food Systems in U.S. Farm Policy

Description: This report provides background information on many of the type of operations engaged in the U.S. local and regional food system. A wide range of farm businesses are involved in local foods, such as direct-to-consumer marketing, farmers' markets, farm-to-school programs, community-supported agriculture,6 community gardens, school gardens, food hubs and market aggregators, kitchen incubators, and mobile slaughter units. This report also highlights some of the available resources within existing federal programs administered by USDA and other agencies.
Date: February 18, 2016
Creator: Johnson, Renée
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.S. Farm Income Outlook for 2016

Description: This report discusses this the U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA's) farm income outlook and its implications. According to USDA's Economic Research Service (ERS), national net farm income--a key indicator of U.S. farm well-being--is forecast at $54.8 billion in 2016, down 3% from last year. The 2016 forecast represents the third consecutive year of decline and would be the lowest since 2002 in both nominal and inflation-adjusted dollars.
Date: February 16, 2016
Creator: Schnepf, Randy
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.S.-Russia Meat and Poultry Trade Issues

Description: In December 2008, the United States and Russia signed a protocol aimed at resolving various emerging trade issues between the two countries in order to continue U.S. livestock and poultry exports to Russia through the end of 2009. This report examines the current trade relationship between the U.S. and Russia in regards to meat and poultry.
Date: April 2, 2010
Creator: Johnson, Renée & Becker, Geoffrey S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A New Farm Program Option: Average Crop Revenue Election (ACRE)

Description: Farm commodity programs over the decades have focused on protecting farmers against declines in farm prices and not declines in revenue (price times production). Traditional programs for field crops provide benefits to producers when farm prices drop below specified levels. This report discusses the Average Crop Revenue Election (ACRE) program which Congress included in the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 (P.L. 110-246) as a revenue based program option for farmers who enroll in traditional farm commodity programs. Unlike revenue protection provided by some crop insurance products, ACRE is designed to protect against losses from multi-year price declines.
Date: December 10, 2010
Creator: Shields, Dennis A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Agriculture in the WTO: Limits on Domestic Support

Description: A potential major constraint affecting U.S. agricultural policy choices is the set of commitments made as part of membership in the World Trade Organization (WTO), with its various agreements governing agriculture and trade, including dispute settlement. This report provides a brief overview of the WTO commitments most relevant for U.S. domestic farm policy. A key question that policymakers ask of virtually every new farm proposal is, how will it affect U.S. commitments under the WTO?
Date: December 4, 2012
Creator: Schnepf, Randy
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Air Quality Issues and Animal Agriculture: EPA’s Air Compliance Agreement

Description: This report discusses a plan announced by EPA in January 2005, called the Air Compliance Agreement, that would produce air quality monitoring data on animal agriculture emissions from a small number of farms, while at the same time protecting all participants (including farms where no monitoring takes place) through a “safe harbor” from liability under certain provisions of federal environmental laws.
Date: August 18, 2014
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Air Quality Issues and Animal Agriculture: EPA’s Air Compliance Agreement

Description: From an environmental quality standpoint, much of the interest in animal agriculture has focused on impacts on water resources, because animal waste, if not properly managed, can harm water quality through surface runoff, direct discharges, spills, and leaching into soil and groundwater. A more recent issue is the contribution of emissions from animal feeding operations (AFO), enterprises where animals are raised in confinement, to air pollution. AFOs can affect air quality through emissions of gases such as ammonia and hydrogen sulfide, particulate matter, volatile organic compounds, hazardous air pollutants, and odor. These pollutants and compounds have a number of environmental and human health effects. This report reviews key issues associated with the Air Compliance Agreement.
Date: July 20, 2012
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental Regulation and Agriculture

Description: This report provides the background, status, and issues related to selected environmental regulations or initiatives possibly affecting agriculture that have drawn attention in and beyond Congress.
Date: June 16, 2014
Creator: Stubbs, Megan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

What Is the Farm Bill?

Description: This report discusses the farm bill, which is an omnibus, multi-year piece of authorizing legislation that governs an array of agricultural and food programs.
Date: October 11, 2013
Creator: Johnson, Renée & Monke, Jim
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Agriculture and Related Agencies: FY2013 Appropriations

Description: This report discusses the Agriculture appropriations bill—formally known as the Agriculture, Rural Development, Food and Drug Administration, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, which provides funding for the following agencies: the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC).
Date: January 17, 2013
Creator: Monke, Jim
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Farm Safety Net Programs: Background and Issues

Description: This report discusses several programs operated by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) that supplement the income of farmers and ranchers in times of low farm prices and natural disasters. Federal crop insurance, farm programs, and disaster assistance are collectively called the farm safety net.
Date: February 6, 2015
Creator: Shields, Dennis A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

WTO Doha Round: Implications for U.S. Agriculture

Description: The Doha Round of multilateral trade negotiations began in November 2001. From an agricultural viewpoint, the goal of the negotiations was to make progress simultaneously across the three pillars of the World Trade Organization’s (WTO’s) Agricultural Agreement—domestic support, market access, and export competition—by building on the specific terms and conditions established during the previous Uruguay Round of negotiations. This report reviews the current status of agricultural negotiations for domestic support, market access, and export subsidies, and their potential implications for U.S. agriculture.
Date: January 4, 2010
Creator: Schnepf, Randy & Hanrahan, Charles E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department