Congressional Research Service Reports - 13,440 Matching Results

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National Health Service Corps: Background, Funding, and Programs

Description: This report discusses the National Health Service Corps (NHSC) a federal program which offers loan repayment and scholarships to physicians and other health professionals who agree to work at an approved clinic in a under-served area for at least two years. The report summarizes the National Health Service Corps's (NHSC) recruitment and retention programs, and the NHSC's funding trends from FY2010 through FY2017.
Date: April 18, 2017
Creator: Reyes-Akinbileje, Bernice
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Navy Irregular Warfare and Counterterrorism Operations: Background and Issues for Congress

Description: This report provides background information and potential issues for Congress on the Navy's irregular warfare (IW) and counterterrorism (CT) operations. The Navy's IW and CT activities pose a number of potential oversight issues for Congress, including how much emphasis to place on IW and CT activities in Navy budgets, particularly in a context of constraints on Navy budgets and Navy desires to devote resources to developing "high end" combat capabilities for countering improved conventional military capabilities of countries such as China and Russia.
Date: October 2, 2017
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Airline Passenger Denied Boarding: Rules and Regulations

Description: This report discusses regulations regarding an airline's responsibilities when a passenger with a confirmed ticket is denied boarding on a flight due to lack of seats (known as overselling). The various updates to the original regulation from 1967 are discussed with the latest modifications occurring in 2015.
Date: April 21, 2017
Creator: Tang, Rachel Y.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reconsidering the Clean Power Plan

Description: This report provides background on the Clean Power Plan (CPP) and its proposed repeal, describes the administrative steps that are required to repeal or amend a rule, and discusses how the CPP and its proposed repeal fit into the context of recent and projected power sector evolution.
Date: October 25, 2017
Creator: McCarthy, James E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Trespassing: The Leading Cause of Rail-Related Fatalities

Description: This report discusses rail-related fatalities and the problem of trespassing by pedestrians on the railroad tracks which is the leading cause of fatalities in rail incidents. Statistics on fatalities, known causes of trespassing, and initiatives to reduce trespassing incidents such as Operation Lifesaver are discussed.
Date: August 15, 2017
Creator: Frittelli, John
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Senate Proceedings Establishing Majority Cloture for Supreme Court Nominations: In Brief

Description: This report explains the actions taken on April 6, 2017, by which the Senate effectively extended to Supreme Court nominations its November 2013 reinterpretation of Rule XXII regarding how many Senators are needed to invoke cloture for nominations being debated by the Senate. It concludes with a list of related CRS products that provide more history and context regarding the method used to reinterpret the Senate Rule, the nominations process, and cloture and filibusters.
Date: April 14, 2017
Creator: Heitshusen, Valerie
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ongoing Section 232 Steel and Aluminium Investigations

Description: This report discuses two investigations by the Department of Commerce related to Section 232 of the Trade Expansion Act of 1962 which allows the President to impose tariffs or quotas on imported goods if it is in the interest of national security. These investigations are being conducted on the steel and aluminium industries to determine whether the President can and whether he should impose import restrictions. Mixed reactions to the investigations and proposals are also discussed.
Date: July 28, 2017
Creator: Fefer, Rachel F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Unfunded Mandates Reform Act: History, Impact, and Issues

Description: This report examines debates over what constitutes an unfunded federal mandate and the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act's (UMRA) implementation. It focuses on UMRA's requirement that CBO issue written cost estimate statements for federal mandates in legislation, its procedures for raising points of order in the House and Senate concerning unfunded federal mandates in legislation, and its requirement that federal agencies prepare written cost estimate statements for federal mandates in rules. It also assesses UMRA's impact on federal mandates and arguments concerning UMRA's future, focusing on UMRA's definitions, exclusions, and exceptions that currently exempt many federal actions with potentially significant financial impacts on nonfederal entities. An examination of the rise of unfunded federal mandates as a national issue and a summary of UMRA's legislative history are provided in Appendix A. Citations to UMRA points of order raised in the House and Senate are provided in Appendix B.
Date: August 7, 2017
Creator: Dilger, Robert Jay
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Presidential Appointee Positions Requiring Senate Confirmation and Committees Handling Nominations

Description: This report identifies, by Senate committee, presidentially appointed positions requiring Senate confirmation as of June 30, 2016. For each committee list, positions are categorized as full- or part-time and then grouped by department or agency. Where nominations have been referred to more than one committee, they are noted under each of the committees to which the nominations were referred. The lists also include the lengths of fixed terms, where applicable.
Date: May 3, 2017
Creator: Davis, Christopher M. & Greene, Michael
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Financial Services and General Government (FSGG) Fiscal Year 2018 Appropriations: Overview

Description: This report outlines the Financial Services and General Government (FSGG) appropriations bill for the 2018 fiscal year. This bill includes funding for the Department of the Treasury (Title I), the Executive Office of the President (EOP; Title II), the judiciary (Title III), the District of Columbia (Title IV), and more than two dozen independent agencies (Title V). The bill typically funds mandatory retirement accounts in Title VI, which also contains additional general provisions applying to the funding provided agencies through the FSGG bill. Title VII contains general provisions applying government-wide. The FSGG bills have often also contained provisions relating to U.S. policy toward Cuba
Date: September 1, 2017
Creator: Webel, Baird
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Congressional News Media and the House and Senate Press Galleries

Description: This report provides information about the rules and authorities that affect media coverage of Congress, current practices among the press galleries, and selected data on gallery membership since the 94th Congress. It also provides a brief discussion of considerations that commonly underlie the galleries' practices or may affect gallery operations and congressional media rules.
Date: April 13, 2017
Creator: Eckman, Sarah J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Direct Overt U.S. Aid Appropriations for and Military Reimbursements to Pakistan, FY2002-FY2018

Description: Table of data outlining direct overt U.S. aid appropriations and military reimbursements to Pakistan including number for fiscal years 2002-2011 (combined), fiscal years 2012-2016 (individually) and estimates for 2017 and 2018.
Date: September 6, 2017
Creator: Library of Congress. Congressional Research Service.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Taylor Force Act: Palestinian Terrorism-Related Payments and U.S. Aid

Description: This report discusses the proposed Taylor Force Act in Congress which relates to the amount of foreign aid sent to the Palestinian Authority and reductions and further requirements being implemented due to Palestinian payments to families of those killed in the Palestinian-Israeli conflict whether as combatants or civilians and Palestinian prisoners in Israeli prisons that have been convicted of terrorism related offenses.
Date: September 12, 2017
Creator: Zanotti, Jim & Sharp, Jeremy M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Methane and Other Air Pollution Issues in Natural Gas Systems

Description: This report provides information on the natural gas industry and the types and sources of air pollutants in the sector. It examines the role of the federal government in regulating these emissions, including the provisions in the Clean Air Act and other statutes, and EPA's and other agencies' regulatory activities. It concludes with a brief discussion of a number of issues under debate, including: defining the roles of industry and local, state, and federal governments; establishing comprehensive emissions data; determining the proper control of pollutants and sources; understanding the human health and environmental impacts of emissions; and estimating the costs of pollution abatement. Recent action by President Trump and the courts regarding EPA and BLM air pollution rules are also discussed.
Date: October 6, 2017
Creator: Lattanzio, Richard K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Supreme Court October Term 2017: A Preview of Select Cases

Description: This report highlights four of the notable cases of the new term that could impact the work of Congress: (1) Carpenter v. United States, which examines the limits the Fourth Amendment imposes on the warrantless collection of the historical cell phone location records of a criminal suspect; (2) Christie v. National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), a case exploring whether Congress, by prohibiting a state from partially repealing a state law, impermissibly commandeers the powers of the state; (3) Gill v. Whitford, which considers when a state's redistricting plan amounts to impermissible partisan gerrymandering; and (4) Masterpiece Cakeshop v. Colorado Civil Rights Commission, which asks whether a baker has a First Amendment right to decline to make cakes for same-sex weddings. Each case is addressed in a separate section that provides background information on the case; summarizes the arguments that were or are likely to be presented to the Court in each case; and examines the implications that the Court's ruling could have for Congress, including broader ramifications for the jurisprudence in a given area of law.
Date: September 19, 2017
Creator: Nolan, Andrew; Brannon, Valerie C.; Garcia, Michael John; Harrington, Ben; Sykes, Jay B. & Whitaker, L. Paige
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Budget Control Act and the Defense Budget: Frequently Asked Questions

Description: This report addresses several frequently asked questions related to the Budget Control Act (BCA) and the defense budget. The BCA limits discretionary spending on defense through the process of sequestration and was enacted in 2011. Recent proposals to remove the restrictions of the BCA on defense or raise the spending limits are also discussed.
Date: April 21, 2017
Creator: Williams, Lynn M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Farm Safety-Net Payments Under the 2014 Farm Bill: Comparison by Program Crop

Description: This report looks at available Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) and Federal Crop Insurance Act (FCIC) data for the major program crops and compares relative support using several different measures: absolute payments, payments per acre, payments as a share of the value of production, and payments as a share of the cost of production. In addition, price and income support levels are compared to market prices.
Date: August 11, 2017
Creator: Schnepf, Randy
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Libya: Transition and U.S. Policy

Description: This report discusses Libya's political situation of local politicians and armed militias controlling power and attempts to establish a stable central government since the 2011 uprising that overthrew Muammar al Qadhafi. U.S. relations and economic and security assistance to efforts to form a representative central government in Libya and combat Islamic extremism are also discussed.
Date: October 2, 2017
Creator: Blanchard, Christopher M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Patent Boxes: A Primer

Description: This report looks at several aspects of patent boxes, including their general purpose. In addition, the report looks at the key considerations in designing a patent box, identifies the countries that currently have a patent box, describes the main elements of those boxes, and sheds light on the U.S. industries that would be likely to benefit the most from such a tax subsidy if the United States were to adopt one. The final two sections discuss what is known about the effectiveness of patent boxes and several other policy issues raised by patent boxes. The report is intended to complement a 2016 CRS report on the "expected effectiveness" of patent boxes.
Date: May 1, 2017
Creator: Guenther, Gary
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Individual Mandate for Health Insurance Coverage: In Brief

Description: This report provides an overview of the individual mandate, its associated penalty, and the exemptions from the mandate. It discusses the ACA reporting requirements designed, in part, to assist individuals in providing evidence of having met the mandate. The report includes some national- and state-level data on the application of the mandate's penalty in tax year (TY) 2014 and TY2015.
Date: October 11, 2017
Creator: Mach, Annie L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Civilian Nuclear Waste Disposal

Description: This report discusses disposal of nuclear waste, primarily highly radioactive spent fuel from nuclear power plants. Presidential and Congressional actions regarding nuclear waste disposal sites and the Yucca Mountain Project, other alternatives previously proposed by the Obama Administration, and temporary solutions are discussed.
Date: October 23, 2017
Creator: Holt, Mark
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department