Congressional Research Service Reports - 107 Matching Results

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Issues Affecting Tidal, Wave, and In-Stream Generation Projects
This report provides an overview of developments and considerations regarding wave, tidal, and in-stream energy generation technology. It summarizes federal involvement in the regulation of this new industry and highlights current issues in the field.
Wave, Tidal, and In-Stream Energy Projects: Which Federal Agency Has the Lead?
This report describes wave, tidal, and in-stream energy generation technologies -- also referred to as hydrokinetic or marine energy. It discusses the recent changes in law aimed to clarify the federal role in ocean wave and renewable energy.
Wave, Tidal, and In-Stream Energy Projects: Which Federal Agency Has the Lead?
This report describes wave, tidal, and in-stream energy generation technologies -- also referred to as hydrokinetic or marine energy. It discusses the recent changes in law aimed to clarify the federal role in ocean wave and renewable energy.
Greenhouse Gas Emission Drivers: Population, Economic Development and Growth, and Energy Use
The interactions of three variables underlie debates on the issue of climate change and what responses might be justified: the magnitude and rates of change of (1) population growth, (2) incomes, and (3) intensity of greenhouse gas emissions relative to economic activities. This report examines the interrelationships of the variables to explore their implications for policies that address climate change.
Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Perspective on the Top 20 Emitters and Developed Versus Developing Nations
This report uses the data compiled by World Resources Institute (WRI) to examine a pivotal and long-running issue surrounding U.S. climate change policy: the appropriate roles of developed and developing countries in addressing climate change.
Latin America: Energy Supply, Political Developments, and U.S. Policy Approaches
This report examines Latin America’s current political environment and its apparent effect on energy production in the region. It also discusses efforts to help many Latin American and Caribbean countries dependent on energy imports, including Venezuela’s preferential oil programs, the Mexico-led Meso-American Energy Integration Program, and U.S.-Brazilian cooperation on biofuels. The report also examines policy approaches that have been proposed for increased hemispheric energy cooperation, congressional interest in the topic of hemispheric energy security, and related legislative initiatives.
Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Legislation in the 110th Congress
This report reviews the status of energy efficiency and renewable energy legislation introduced during the 110th Congress. Most action in the second session is focused on the FY2009 budget request, the Farm Bill (H.R. 2419), and three bills (H.R. 6049, H.R. 5984/H.R. 3221 [S. 2821], and S. 2886) that would extend or modify selected renewable energy and energy efficiency tax incentives.
Extending NASA's Exemption from the Iran, North Korea, and Syria Nonproliferation Act
This report discusses the Iran Nonproliferation Act of 2000 (INA), which was enacted to help stop foreign transfers to Iran of weapons of mass destruction, missile technology, and advanced conventional weapons technology, particularly from Russia.
Iran's Nuclear Program: Status
This report examines the background of Iran's nuclear policy, the current status of Iran's nuclear facilities, the effects of international sanctions on Iran, recent sabotages on the Iran Enrichment Program, an estimated timeline of Iran's nuclear weapon capabilities, and whether or not Iran even has a nuclear weapons program.
The Manhattan Project, the Apollo Program, and Federal Energy Technology R&D Programs: A Comparative Analysis
This report compares and contrasts the goals of, and the investments in, three research and development (R&D) initiatives, which may provide useful insights for Congress as it assesses and debates the nation's energy policy.
Cellulosic Biofuels: Analysis of Policy Issues for Congress
This report discusses Cellulosic biofuels, which are produced from cellulose derived from renewable biomass. They are thought by many to hold the key to increased benefits from renewable biofuels because they are made from low-cost, diverse, non-food feedstocks, and could also potentially decrease the fossil energy required to produce ethanol, resulting in lower greenhouse gas emissions.
The Global Nuclear Detection Architecture: Issues for Congress
This report discusses the global nuclear detection architecture which is a complicated system of systems. This report addresses only the global nuclear detection architecture, not programs focusing on events prior or subsequent to the detection opportunity.
Renewable Energy Policy in the 2008 Farm Bill
This report discusses the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 (P.L. 110-246, the 2008 farm bill) which extends and expands many of the renewable energy programs originally authorized in the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (P.L. 107-171, 2002 farm bill).
Extending NASA's Exemption from the Iran, North Korea, and Syria Nonproliferation Act
This report discusses NASA's exemptions from the Iran Nonproliferation Act of 2000 (INA) as it relates to the International Space Station (ISS). It provides background information on the ISS and nonproliferation as well as INA origins and relation to the ISS. It also discusses amendments to the INA, current plans for the ISS, and related issues.
Renewable Energy Policy in the 2007 Farm Bill
This report discusses the renewable energy policy initiatives that have been included in almost every 2007 farm bill proposal in both the House and Senate.
Iran's Nuclear Program: Status
This report looks at the background of Iran's nuclear policy. It covers the current status of Iran's nuclear facilities and current controversy surrounding them, as well as the effects of international sanctions on Iran, recent sabotages on the Iran Enrichment Program, an estimated timeline of Iran's nuclear weapon capabilities, and whether or not Iran even has a nuclear weapons program.
The Global Nuclear Detection Architecture: Issues for Congress
This report discusses the global nuclear detection architecture: a multi-layered system of detection technologies, programs, and guidelines designed to enhance the nation's ability to detect and prevent a radiological or nuclear attack.
Speculation and Energy Prices: Legislative Responses
This report provides basic information and analysis on the issue of commodity speculation and summarizes the numerous legislative proposals for controlling excessive speculation.
The Alaska Natural Gas Pipeline: Status and Current Policy Issues
This report provides a brief review of efforts to develop and construct a natural gas pipeline from Prudhoe Bay, a status report on recent efforts to proceed, and an analysis of major relevant policy issues.
Intelligence Reform at the Department of Energy: Policy Issues and Organizational Alternatives
This report analyzes the temporary consolidations of the separate counterintelligence (CI) offices at the Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Security Administration (NSA) into a single CI office under DOE control — the first authorized by Congress at Department of Energy request; the second initiated by DOE — and examines the impact of each on the effectiveness of the Department's CI program.
Drilling in the Great Lakes: Background and Issues
This report provides background information on historical and current drilling practices in the Great Lakes, and statistics on oil and natural gas production, where data are available. It describes state laws regarding drilling in the Great Lakes and analyzes the environmental, socioeconomic, and legal aspects of drilling in or under the Great Lakes.
Wind Energy: Offshore Permitting
This report discusses the disputes over Corps jurisdiction prior to enactment of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 as well as the current law applicable to siting offshore wind facilities.
Wind Energy: Offshore Permitting
This report will discuss the disputes over the Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) jurisdiction prior to enactment of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 as well as the current law applicable to siting offshore wind facilities.
Nuclear Energy Policy
This report discusses the nuclear energy policy issues facing Congress that include the implementation of federal incentives for new commercial reactors, radioactive waste management policy, research and development priorities, power plant safety and regulation, nuclear weapons proliferation, and security against terrorist attacks.
The U.S. Trade Deficit, The Dollar, and The Price of Oil
This report analyzes the relationship between the dollar and the price of oil and how the two might interact. This report provides an assessment of the impact a range of prices of imported oil could have on the U.S. trade deficit.
Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Import Terminals: Siting, Safety, and Regulation
This report provides an overview of recent industry proposals for new liquefied natural gas (LNG) import terminals. The report summarizes LNG hazards and the industry's safety record. It discusses federal laws and regulations related to LNG terminal siting with a focus on the authorities of key federal agencies and safety provisions in the permitting of onshore facilities. The report reviews controversial safety issues in recent LNG siting proceedings, such as safety zones, marine hazards, hazard modeling, and remote siting. The report outlines policy issues related to LNG terminal safety, including the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's (FERC's) LNG siting authority, regional LNG siting, "remote" siting requirements in federal regulations, state permitting requirements, terrorism, and other issues.
U.S.-Russian Civilian Nuclear Cooperation Agreement: Issues for Congress
This report discusses key policy issues related to the civilian nuclear cooperation agreement signed by the United States and Russia on May 6, 2008, including future nuclear energy cooperation with Russia, U.S.-Russian bilateral relations, nonproliferation cooperation, and Russia's policies toward Iran. These issues were relevant to the debate when the agreement was being considered in the 110th Congress.
The Manhattan Project, the Apollo Program, and Federal Energy Technology R&D Programs: A Comparative Analysis
This report compares and contrasts the goals of, and the investments in, three research and development (R&D) initiatives, which may provide useful insights for Congress as it assesses and debates the nation's energy policy.
Biofuels Provisions in the 2007 Energy Bill and the 2008 Farm Bill: A Side-by-Side Comparison
The report discusses the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 (EISA, P.L. 110-140), also known as the 2007 energy bill. It also describes the key elements of EISA and the 2008 Farm Bill. The report provides a table with comparison of current or prior law with biofuels provisions in EISA and the enacted Farm Bill.
Rising Energy Competition and Energy Security in Northeast Asia: Issues for U.S. Policy
This report analyzes how China, Japan, and South Korea's pursuits to bolster their energy security impacts U.S. interests. It also examines decisions being made by Asian states now that will significantly shape global affairs in the future, how these decisions might play out, and how Congress and the executive branch might play a role in those decisions.
A Low Carbon Fuel Standard: State and Federal Legislation and Regulations
This report examines the merit and potential issues of adopting a Low Carbon Fuel Standard. The report uses California as a point of reference to compare to proposed federal standards.
Biofuels Incentives: A Summary of Federal Programs
This report outlines federal programs that provide direct or indirect incentives for biofuels. For each program described, the report provides details including administering agency, authorizing statute(s), annual funding, and expiration date.
Energy: Selected Facts and Numbers
This report discusses the energy policy that has been a recurring issue for Congress since the first major crisis in the 1970s. The report offers a general view of energy consumption trends, and Table 1 shows consumption by economic sector — residential, commercial, transportation, and industry — from 1950 to the present.
Administering Green Programs in Congress: Issues and Options
This report discusses "green" programs and the higher profile they have gained in the 110th Congress. "Green" programs are those designed to create an environmentally friendly work environment and conserve energy. This report discusses initiatives and policy options that would improve the "greening" process on Capitol Hill.
Petroleum Refining: Economic Performance and Challenges for the Future
This report discusses the petroleum refining industry and its relation to the economy. Along with volatile changes in crude oil prices, the industry has faced evolving health, safety, and environmental requirements which have changed and multiplied product specifications and required capital investment in refineries. This report also seeks to describe the recent performance of the refining industry, to evaluate the structural changes that are occurring in the industry, and to analyze the nature and effects of the challenges confronting the industry.
Power Plants: Characteristics and Costs
This report analyzes the factors that determine the cost of electricity from new power plants. These factors — including construction costs, fuel expense, environmental regulations, and financing costs — can all be affected by government energy, environmental, and economic policies. The report provides projections of the possible cost of power from new fossil, nuclear, and renewable plants built in 2015, illustrating how different assumptions, such as for the availability of federal incentives, change the cost rankings of the technologies.
Gasoline and Oil Prices
This report examines the extent of price increases in gasoline and oil, focuses on the linkage between the two, and analyzes the causes of the price increases, and the likelihood that they might be reversed through market responses, or policy measures.
Energy Tax Policy: History and Current Issues
This report discusses the history, current posture, and outlook for federal energy tax policy. It also discusses current energy tax proposals and major energy tax provisions enacted in the 109th Congress.
Transportation Fuel Taxes: Impacts of a Repeal or Moratorium
The report includes an introduction regarding the increase in crude oil and refined product prices and discusses the proposals to offset effects of higher crude oil prices and the impact on markets and prices.
Federal Pollution Control Laws: How Are They Enforced?
This report provides an overview of the statutory framework, key players, infrastructure, resources, tools, and operations associated with enforcement and compliance of the major pollution control laws and regulations administered by EPA. It also outlines the roles of federal (including regional offices) and state regulators, as well as the regulated community.
Energy Tax Policy: History and Current Issues
This report discusses the history, current posture, and outlook for federal energy tax policy. It also discusses current energy tax proposals and major energy tax provisions enacted in the 109th Congress.
Advanced Nuclear Power and Fuel Cycle Technologies: Outlook and Policy Options
This report starts out with an overview of nuclear technology and then discusses the Department of Energy DOE advanced nuclear programs, global nuclear energy partnership, and different industry studies.
Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy (ARPA-E): Background, Status, and Selected Issues for Congress
This report provides an overview of Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy (ARPA-E) design. The report discusses the legislative origins and policy debates prior to ARPA-E authorization and Bush administration response to ARPA-E authorization.
Natural Gas Markets: Overview and Policy Issues
This report examines current conditions and trends in the U.S. natural gas markets. Key market elements examined include prices, consumption, production, imports, and infrastructure. Expectations about the future, as reflected in recent official forecasts, are also incorporated here. Furthermore, the report reviews key factors likely to affect market outcomes. These factors include weather, the economy, oil prices, and infrastructure development.
Energy Tax Policy: History and Current Issues
This report discusses the history, current posture, and outlook for federal energy tax policy. It also discusses current energy tax proposals and major energy tax provisions enacted in the 109th Congress.
Energy Tax Policy: History and Current Issues
This report discusses the history, current posture, and outlook for federal energy tax policy. It also discusses current energy tax proposals and major energy tax provisions enacted in the 109th Congress.
Wind Power in the United States: Technology, Economic, and Policy Issues
This report describes utility-scale wind power issues in the United States. The report is divided into the following sections: background on wind energy; wind resources and technology; industry composition and trends; wind power economics; and policy issues.
Gasoline Prices: Legislation in the 110th Congress
This report, after analyzing factors that have contributed to high gasoline prices, describes the major legislative initiatives and discusses the issues involved in energy policy proposals, including reducing impacts on consumers and supply and demand.
Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Legislation in the 110th Congress
This report summarizes action on more than 360 energy efficiency and renewable energy bills introduced during the 110th Congress.1 These bills cover a wide range of policy and issue areas that include appropriations, authorizations, budget, research and development (R&D), grants, loans, financing, regulation (including a renewable fuel standard), tax incentives, goals, plans, impacts, and the environment/climate change.2 Most of these bills have focused on grants and tax incentives. The bills also cover a range of sectors and topics that include buildings, defense, education, federal lands and energy management, farms, American Indians, and international activities. Thus far, the sector of international activities has generated the greatest number of bills. For each bill listed in this report, a brief description and a summary of action are given, including references to committee hearings and reports.
Energy Policy Reform and Revitalization Act of 2007, Title VII of H.R. 3221: Summary and Discussion of Oil and Gas Provisions
This report discusses the energy development reform and energy production from public lands.