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Changes in the Arctic: Background and Issues for Congress

Description: This report provides an overview of Arctic-related issues for Congress, and refers readers to more in-depth CRS reports on specific Arctic-related issues. Some general issues include Arctic territorial disputes; commercial shipping through the Arctic; Arctic oil, gas, and mineral exploration; endangered Arctic species; and increased military operations in the Arctic, which could cause the region in coming years to become an arena of international cooperation or competition. 2018 fiscal year funding requests are included.
Date: November 2, 2017
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Federal Grants to State and Local Governments: A Historical Perspective on Contemporary Issues

Description: This report provides a historical synopsis of the evolving nature of the federal grants-in-aid system, focusing on the role Congress has played in defining the system's scope and nature. It begins with an overview of the contemporary federal grants-in-aid system and then examines its evolution over time, focusing on the internal and external factors that have influenced congressional decisions concerning the system's development. It concludes with an assessment of the scope and nature of the contemporary federal grants-in-aid system and raises several issues for congressional consideration, including possible ways to augment congressional capacity to provide effective oversight of this system.
Date: June 22, 2017
Creator: Dilger, Robert Jay
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hindu Holidays: Fact Sheet

Description: This report discusses major Hindu holidays and their significance as well as how American Hindus celebrate them. This fact sheet is designed to assist congressional offices with work related to Hindu holidays. It contains sample speeches and remarks from the Congressional Record, presidential proclamations and remarks, and selected historical and cultural resources.
Date: October 31, 2017
Creator: Mahendra, Sundeep
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

VA Housing: Guaranteed Loans, Direct Loans, and Specially Adapted Housing Grants

Description: This report discusses the three types of housing assistance offered by the Veterans Administration (VA): the loan guaranty program, direct loan programs, and Specially Adapted Housing program. Each ones origins, operations, and funding methods are included. The report also has a section that discusses the default and foreclosure of VA-guaranteed loans.
Date: May 26, 2017
Creator: Perl, Libby
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Navy Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) Program: Background and Issues for Congress

Description: This report provides background information and issues for Congress on the Aegis ballistic missile defense (BMD) program, which is carried out by the Missile Defense Agency (MDA) and the Navy, and gives Navy Aegis cruisers and destroyers a capability for conducting BMD operations. The issue for Congress is whether to approve, reject, or modify Department of Defense (DOD) acquisition strategies and proposed funding levels for the Aegis BMD program. Congress's decisions on the Aegis BMD program could significantly affect U.S. BMD capabilities and funding requirements, and the BMD-related industrial base.
Date: November 9, 2017
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Broadband Data Privacy and Security: What's Net Neutrality Got to Do With It?

Description: This report is the third in a series discussing the potential impact of the Federal Communications Commission's proposal to reclassify broadband Internet access services (BIAS). This report focuses on the proposal's possible effect on the regulation of BIAS providers' privacy practices.
Date: June 8, 2017
Creator: Library of Congress. Congressional Research Service.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Legislative Branch: Fiscal Year 2017 Appropriations

Description: This report discuses the legislative branch appropriations for fiscal year 2017. It first provides an overview of the consideration of FY2017 legislative branch appropriations, with subsections covering each action followed by a section on prior year actions and funding, which contains historical tables. The report then addresses the FY2017 budget requests, requested administrative language, and selected funding issues for individual legislative branch agencies and entities. Finally, Table 5 through Table 9 list enacted funding levels for FY2016 and FY2017, while the Appendix lists House, Senate, and conference bills and reports; public law numbers; and enactment dates since FY1998.
Date: June 13, 2017
Creator: Brudnick, Ida A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

El Salvador: Background and U.S. Relations

Description: This report describes El Salvador's political and governmental structure, major security challenges, and economy. U.S. relations with El Salvador, immigration policy, human rights concerns, and U.S. assistance are also discussed.
Date: November 3, 2017
Creator: Seelke, Clare Ribando
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The U.S. Science and Engineering Workforce: Recent, Current, and Projected Employment, Wages, and Unemployment

Description: This report provides employment, wage, and unemployment information for the computer occupations, mathematical occupations, engineers, life scientists, physical scientists, and science and engineering (S&E) management occupations, as follows: The section on "Current Employment, Wages, and Unemployment" provides a statistical snapshot of occupational employment, wage, and unemployment data for the S&E workforce in 2016 (the latest year for which data are available). The section on "Recent Trends in Employment, Wages, and Unemployment" provides a perspective on how S&E employment, wages, and unemployment changed during the period 2012-2016. The section on "Employment Projections, 2016-2026" provides an analysis of projections by the Bureau of Labor Statistics for how the number employed in S&E occupations is expected to change during the 2016-2026 period, as well as how many openings will be created by growth, labor force exits, and occupational transfers. A final section, "Concluding Observations," provides stakeholder perspectives that Congress may consider as it seeks to ensure that the United States has an adequate S&E workforce to meet the demands of the 21st century.
Date: November 2, 2017
Creator: Sargent, John F., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Renegotiating NAFTA and U.S. Textile Manufacturing

Description: This report discuses the renegotiation of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and its effects on the textile and apparel industry. Various provisions of NAFTA regarding textiles and apparel are discussed along with a general discussion of the U.S textile industry.
Date: October 30, 2017
Creator: Platzer, Michaela D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Iran: Politics, Human Rights, and U.S. Policy

Description: This report discusses Iran's politics and governmental structure, human rights concerns related to Iran, and relations between the U.S. and Iran including President Trump's October 13, 2017 policy statement on Iran.
Date: November 1, 2017
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The President's Fiscal Year 2018 Budget Request for the Department of Energy

Description: This report discusses President's Trump's 2018 fiscal year budget request for the Department of Energy. The FY2018 request is $28.0 billion which is $2.7 billion (8.8%) less than the FY2017 enacted appropriations of $30.7 billion. While this request would reduce the total budget for DOE, it would increase overall funding for the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and increase funding for cleanup programs within the Office of Environmental Management. The request would reduce funding for the Offices of Science, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Nuclear Energy (NE), Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE), and Fossil Energy (including the Fossil Energy Research and Development [R&D] program). It would also reduce funding for the Advanced Research Projects AgencyEnergy (ARPA-E) to wind down operations in FY2018 for cessation of its functions in FY2019, and would eliminate funding for two programs within EERE--the Weatherization Assistance Program and State Energy Program--and two programs within the Loan Program Office--Title XVII Innovative Technology Loan Guarantee Program (Title XVII Loan Program) and Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing (ATVM) Loan Program in FY2018.
Date: June 5, 2017
Creator: Clark, Corrie E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Memorandum: Legislation Limiting the President's Power to Use Nuclear Weapons: Separation of Powers Implications

Description: This report examines the constitutional separation of powers principles implicated by legislative proposals that restrict the President's authority to launch nuclear weapons. recent legislation regarding restricting the President's power to use nuclear weapons and historical and legal analysis of the separation of powers principle and its relation to the matter is discussed.
Date: November 3, 2017
Creator: Mulligan, Stephen P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tax Reform: The Child Credit and the Child Care Credit

Description: This report discusses the child credit and the child care credit and what changes are being made to them in the new tax reform plan currently being debated. This report provides background to help assess who would be assisted by potential changes to either credit. It shows what types of families with children receive both credits and how the credits are distributed across the income distribution.
Date: November 13, 2017
Creator: Crandall-Hollick, Margot L. & Falk, Gene
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Navy Frigate (FFG[X]) Program: Background and Issues for Congress

Description: This report provides background information and discusses potential issues for Congress regarding the Navy's FFG(X) program, a program to procure a new class of guided-missile frigates. The FFG(X) program was initiated as part of the Navy's FY2018 budget submission. The Navy wants to procure the first FFG(X) in FY2020. The Navy's proposed FY2018 budget requests $143.5 million in research and development funding for the program. The FFG(X) program presents several potential oversight issues for Congress. Congress's decisions on the program could affect Navy capabilities and funding requirements and the shipbuilding industrial base.
Date: October 26, 2017
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Department of Health and Human Services Halts Cost-Sharing Reduction (CSR) Payments

Description: This report discusses the the case "House of Representatives v. Hargan" which was a case by the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) appealing the House's decision to end cost-sharing reduction (CSR) payments. Questions regarding the status of the case and possible legal and legislative methods of restoring CSR payments are addressed.
Date: October 26, 2017
Creator: Liu, Edward C. & Staman, Jennifer A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The National Science Foundation: Fiscal Year 2018 Appropriations and Funding History

Description: This report outlines the National Science Foundation's 2017 fiscal year appropriations request and compares it with past years.The Trump Administration is seeking $6.653 billion for NSF in FY2018, an $819 million decrease (-11%) from the FY2017 enacted level of $7.472 billion.
Date: November 2, 2017
Creator: Harris, Laurie A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Banking Policy Issues in the 115th Congress

Description: This report provides a broad overview of selected banking-related issues, including prudential regulation, consumer protection, "too big to fail" (TBTF) banks, community banking, regulatory agency structures and independence, and recent market and economic trends. It is not an exhaustive look at all bank policy issues, nor is it a detailed examination of any one issue. Rather, it provides concise background and analyses of certain prominent issues that have been the subject of recent discussion and debate. In addition, this report provides a list of Congressional Research Service reports that examine specific bills, including the Financial CHOICE Act (H.R. 10) and bills proposing to provide regulatory relief for banks.
Date: May 26, 2017
Creator: Perkins, David W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The United Arab Emirates (UAE): Issues for U.S. Policy

Description: This report discusses the United Arab Emirates's (UAE) politics and governmental structure, economy, regional foreign policies including their part in the June 2017 isolation of Qatar due to their support for the Muslim Brotherhood, human rights concerns related to the UAE, and U.S. relations with the UAE.
Date: November 2, 2017
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department