Congressional Research Service Reports - 54 Matching Results

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Foreign Science and Engineering Presence in U.S. Institutions and the Labor Force

Description: The increased presence of foreign students in graduate science and engineering programs and in the scientific workforce has been and continues to be of concern to some in the scientific community. Enrollment of U.S. citizens in graduate science and engineering programs has not kept pace with that of foreign students in those programs. In addition to the number of foreign students in graduate science and engineering programs, a significant number of university faculty in the scientific disciplines are foreign, and foreign doctorates are employed in large numbers by industry. This report examines these issues and discusses their policy implications.
Date: January 3, 2006
Creator: Matthews, Christine M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Border Security: The Role of the U.S. Border Patrol

Description: This report includes some issues for Congress to consider which could include the slow rate of integration between the USBP’s biometric database of illegal aliens and the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s (FBI) biometric database of criminals and terrorists; the number of unauthorized aliens who die attempting to enter the country each year; the organized human smuggling rings that have proliferated as entering the country has become more difficult; and the threat posed by terrorists along the sparsely defended Northern border as well as the more porous Southwest border.
Date: January 25, 2006
Creator: Nuñez-Neto, Blas
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Farm Labor Shortages and Immigration Policy

Description: This report first explains the connection made over the past several years between farm labor and immigration policies. It next examines the composition of the seasonal agricultural labor force and presents the arguments of grower and farmworker advocates concerning its adequacy relative to employer demand. The report closes with an analysis of the trends in employment, unemployment, time worked and wages of authorized and unauthorized farmworkers to determine whether they are consistent with the existence of a nationwide shortage of domestically available farmworkers.
Date: January 25, 2006
Creator: Levine, Linda
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Farm Labor Shortages and Immigration Policy

Description: This report first explains the connection made over the past several years between farm labor and immigration policies. It next examines the composition of the seasonal agricultural labor force and presents the arguments of grower and farmworker advocates concerning its adequacy relative to employer demand. The report closes with an analysis of the trends in employment, unemployment, time worked and wages of authorized and unauthorized farmworkers to determine whether they are consistent with the existence of a nationwide shortage of domestically available farmworkers.
Date: March 29, 2006
Creator: Levine, Linda
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Immigration Policy on Expedited Removal of Aliens

Description: This report discusses immigration policy and expedited removal, an immigration enforcement strategy originally conceived to operate at the borders and ports of entry, recently has been expanded in certain border regions.
Date: January 18, 2006
Creator: Siskin, Alison & Wasem, Ruth Ellen
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Border Security and Military Support: Legal Authorizations and Restrictions

Description: The military generally provides support to law enforcement and immigration authorities along the southern border. Reported escalations in violence and illegal immigration, however, have prompted some lawmakers to reevaluate the extent and type of military support that occurs in the border region. President Bush has reportedly announced an interest in sending National Guard troops to support the Border Patrol. Addressing domestic laws and activities with the military, however, might run afoul of the Posse Comitatus Act, which prohibits use of the armed forces to perform the tasks of civilian law enforcement unless explicitly authorized. There are alternative legal authorities for deploying the National Guard, and the precise scope of permitted activities and funds may vary with the authority exercised. This report will be updated as warranted.
Date: May 15, 2006
Creator: Vina, Stephen R
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Border Security and Military Support: Legal Authorizations and Restrictions

Description: The military generally provides support to law enforcement and immigration authorities along the southern border. Reported escalations in violence and illegal immigration, however, have prompted some lawmakers to reevaluate the extent and type of military support that occurs in the border region. President Bush has reportedly announced an interest in sending National Guard troops to support the Border Patrol. Addressing domestic laws and activities with the military, however, might run afoul of the Posse Comitatus Act, which prohibits use of the armed forces to perform the tasks of civilian law enforcement unless explicitly authorized. There are alternative legal authorities for deploying the National Guard, and the precise scope of permitted activities and funds may vary with the authority exercised.
Date: May 23, 2006
Creator: Vina, Stephen R
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Immigration Legislation Issues in the 109th Congress

Description: While immigration reform proposals remain pending, Congress has enacted limited provisions on temporary and permanent employment-based immigration as part of P.L. 109-13. It also has enacted legislation concerning alien victims of domestic violence, trafficking in persons, and refugees. This report discusses these and other immigration-related issues that have seen legislative action or are of significant congressional interest. DHS appropriations and immigration legislation related to Hurricane Katrina are covered in other products and are not discussed here. The final section of the report lists enacted legislation and selected bills receiving action.
Date: May 12, 2006
Creator: Bruno, Andorra; Wasem, Ruth Ellen; Siskin, Alison; Nuñez-Neto, Blas; Garcia, Michael J.; Vina, Stephen R. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Immigration Policy on Expedited Removal of Aliens

Description: This report discusses immigration policy and expedited removal, an immigration enforcement strategy originally conceived to operate at the borders and ports of entry, recently has been expanded in certain border regions.
Date: May 15, 2006
Creator: Siskin, Alison & Wasem, Ruth Ellen
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Civilian Patrols Along the Border: Legal and Policy Issues

Description: This report opens with a discussion on the federal authority to enforce immigration law at the border and some U.S. Border Patrol operations that have affected illegal migration patterns along the southwest border. Next, the report provides a history of civilian border patrol groups, with a particular focus on the “Minuteman Project” and other groups operating along the southwest border. It then highlights issues of authority that might arise, and includes, as an appendix, a table that sets forth various state laws that may be useful to civilians performing immigration-related enforcement activities. The report also addresses some of the legal and policy issues, as mentioned above, that have surfaced from civilian involvement in immigration enforcement at the border. The report concludes with summaries of legislation introduced in the 109th Congress that address the use of civilian border patrols.
Date: April 7, 2006
Creator: Vina, Stephen R.; Nuñez-Neto, Blas & Weir, Alyssa Bartlett
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cuban Migration Policy and Issues

Description: Many of the issues surrounding Cuban migration are unique but not new. Normal immigration from Cuba has been elusive since Fidel Castro came to power. Over the past 40 years, the practice of Cubans fleeing by boat to the United States has become commonplace, and at some points reached the levels of a mass exodus. Since the last upsurge of “boat people” in the mid-1990s, the United States and Cuba worked toward establishing safe, legal immigration, which include returning migrants interdicted by the U.S. Coast Guard.
Date: January 19, 2006
Creator: Wasem, Ruth Ellen
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Immigration Enforcement within the United States

Description: This report provides an analysis of immigration enforcement within the United States. The report opens with a definition of immigration enforcement, a discussion of the statutory authority to conduct immigration enforcement, and an overview of immigration enforcement related legislation since 1986. It follows with an exposition on the dichotomy of interior and border enforcement. The report then details different aspects of immigration enforcement in the United States including detention and removal, alien smuggling and trafficking, document and benefit fraud, worksite enforcement, inspections at ports of entry, and patrolling the border between ports of entry. The report continues with a discussion of the role of state and local law enforcement in the enforcement of immigration laws. The report then presents a comparative analysis of the resources devoted to divergent immigration enforcement activities. It concludes with a discussion of crosscutting immigration enforcement issues related to the structure of the Department of Homeland Security.
Date: April 6, 2006
Creator: Siskin, Alison; Bruno, Andorra; Nuñez-Neto, Blas; Seghetti, Lisa M & Wasem, Ruth Ellen
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mexico-United States Dialogue on Migration and Border Issues, 2001-2006

Description: This report focuses on the interactions between Mexico and the United States on migration and border issues during the administrations of President George W. Bush and President Vicente Fox of Mexico. The discussions and agreements fall into four areas: (1) the bilateral migration talks, (2) the Partnership for Prosperity, (3) the Border Partnership Agreement, and (4) the trilateral “Security and Prosperity Partnership (SPP) of North America.
Date: February 16, 2006
Creator: Cook, Colleen W
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Foreign Science and Engineering Presence in U.S. Institutions and the Labor Force

Description: The increased presence of foreign students in graduate science and engineering programs and in the scientific workforce has been and continues to be of concern to some in the scientific community. Enrollment of U.S. citizens in graduate science and engineering programs has not kept pace with that of foreign students in those programs. In addition to the number of foreign students in graduate science and engineering programs, a significant number of university faculty in the scientific disciplines are foreign, and foreign doctorates are employed in large numbers by industry. This report examines these issues and discusses their policy implications.
Date: September 14, 2006
Creator: Matthews, Christine M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department