Congressional Research Service Reports - 95 Matching Results

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Crime Control Assistance Through the Byrne Programs
The statute provides that states receive and distribute block grant funds and that the Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA) of the U.S. Department of Justice awards discretionary grants for specified activities. Allocated largely on the basis of population, block grant funds are used for personnel, equipment, training, technical assistance, and information systems to improve criminal justice systems.
Child Pornography: Constitutional Principles and Federal Statutes
The Child Pornography Prevention Act of 1996, P.L. 104-208, 110 Stat. 3009- 26, added a definition of “child pornography” that include visual depictions of what appears to be a minor engaging in explicit sexual conduct, even if no actual minor was used in producing the depiction. On April 16, 2002, in Ashcroft v. Free Speech Coalition, the Supreme Court held this provision unconstitutional to the extent that it prohibited pictures that were not produced with actual minors. (This case is discussed under “Section 2256,” below.) In response to Ashcroft, bills were introduced in the House and Senate that would continue to ban some child pornography that was produced without an actual minor; on June 25, 2002, the House passed one such bill: H.R. 4623, 107th Congress.
Juveniles in the Adult Criminal Justice System: An Overview
No Description Available.
Missing and Exploited Children: Overview and Policy Concerns
This report presents an overview of two national incidence studies prepared by Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) to determine annually the number of reported missing and recovered children in the nation. It also discusses the AMBER Alert System created to help recover reported missing children, legislation introduced in the 108th Congresses to address the missing children issue, and questions that remain regarding concerns about missing children. S. 151, the Prosecutorial Remedies and Other Tools to End the Exploitation of Children Today (PROTECT) Act, which was signed into law (P.L. 108-21) by the President on April 30, 2003, contains provisions related to missing and exploited children.
Obscenity and Indecency: Constitutional Principles and Federal Statutes
No Description Available.
Air Quality: EPA's Proposed Ozone Transport Rule, OTAG, and Section 216 Petitions - A Hazy Situation?
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is currently engaged in a series of regulatory actions to address the transport of ozone pollution in the eastern United States. This report reviews this situation with respect to an EPA-proposed Ozone Transport Rule and other activities.
Obscenity, Child Pornography, and Indecency: Recent Developments and Pending Issues
No Description Available.
Crime Control: The Federal Response
Under the federal system in the United States, the states and localities traditionally have held the major responsibility for prevention and control of crime and maintenance of order. For most of the Republic’s history, “police powers” in the broad sense were reserved to the states under the Tenth Amendment to the Constitution. Many still hold that view, but others see a string of court decisions in recent decades as providing the basis for a far more active federal role. Several bills are discussed in this report that address issues related to crime, juvenile justice, and Congress’ evolving role in crime legislation.
Gun Control Legislation in the 108th Congress
No Description Available.
War on Drugs: Legislation in the 108th Congress and Related Developments
No Description Available.
Terrorism and National Security: Issues and Trends
No Description Available.
Drug Control: International Policy and Options
Over the past decade, worldwide production of illicit drugs has risen dramatically: opium and marijuana production has roughly doubled and coca production tripled. Street prices of cocaine and heroin have fallen significantly in the past 20 years, reflecting increased availability. Despite apparent national political resolve to deal with the drug problem, inherent contradictions regularly appear between U.S. anti-drug policy and other national policy goals and concerns. The mix of competing domestic and international pressures and priorities has produced an ongoing series of disputes within and between the legislative and executive branches concerning U.S. international drug policy. One contentious issue has been the Congressionally-mandated certification process, an instrument designed to induce specified drug-exporting countries to prioritize or pay more attention to the fight against narcotics businesses.
Water Quality: Implementing the Clean Water Act
No Description Available.
Terrorism, the Future, and U.S. Foreign Policy
No Description Available.
Victims' Rights Amendment: Proposals to Amend the United States Constitution in the 106th Congress
No Description Available.
Supplemental Appropriations for FY2002: Combating Terrorism and Other Issues
No Description Available.
Mexico's Counter-Narcotics Efforts under Fox, December 2000 to April 2002
No Description Available.
Remedies Available to Victims of Identity Theft
No Description Available.
Hate Crimes: Sketch of Selected Proposals and Congressional Authority
No Description Available.
Environmental Streamlining Provisions in the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century: Status of Implementation
At the state and local level, many observers have expressed long-standing concerns over delays, duplication of effort, and additional costs frequently associated with the environmental review process for highway projects that must be completed under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA, P.L. 91-190). To address these concerns, the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA21, P.L. 105-178), enacted in 1998, requires the Federal Highway Administration(FHWA) to streamline the environmental review process for highway projects.
Internet: Status Report on Legislative Attempts to Protect Children from Unsuitable Material on the Web
No Description Available.
Military Courts-Martial: An Overview
No Description Available.
U.S. Treatment of Prisoners in Iraq: Selected Legal Issues
No Description Available.
Proposed Change to the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) under S. 113
No Description Available.
NASA's Space Shuttle Columbia: Quick Facts and Issues for Congress
No Description Available.
NASA's Space Shuttle Columbia: Quick Facts and Issues for Congress
No Description Available.
Small-scale Terrorist Attacks Using Chemical and Biological Agents: An Assessment Framework and Preliminary Comparisons
No Description Available.
Welfare Law and Domestic Violence
No Description Available.
Federal Crime Control Assistance to State and Local Governments
No Description Available.
U.S. Treatment of Prisoners in Iraq: Selected Legal Issues
No Description Available.
Federal Crime Control: Background, Legislation, and Issues
No Description Available.
Gangs in Central America
No Description Available.
Sexual Harassment and Violence Against Women: Developments in Federal Law
No Description Available.
Foreign Support of the U.S. War on Terrorism
No Description Available.
Gun Legislation in the 109th Congress
No Description Available.
Terrorism: Some Legal Restrictions on Military Assistance to Domestic Authorities Following a Terrorist Attack
No Description Available.
Bioterrorism: Legislation to Improve Public Health Preparedness and Response Capacity
While lawmakers work towards final passage of new authorizing legislation, Congress has appropriated $3 billion to the Dept. of Health and Human Services (HHS) for FY2002 to increase bio-terrorism preparedness at the federal, state, and local levels. HHS anti bio-terrorism funding was included in theFY2002Labor-HHS-Education appropriations bill (P.L. 107-116, H.R. 3061) and in the $20 billion emergency spending package (P.L. 107- 117, H.R. 3338). HHS is dispersing the funds according to existing authorities and the broad spending parameters set out in the appropriations bills.
The SAFE Acts of 2005: H.R. 1526 and S. 737--A Sketch
No Description Available.
Protecting Our Perimeter: “Border Searches” under the Fourth Amendment
No Description Available.
Amber Alert Program Technology
This report discusses provisions in the National Intelligence Reform Act of 2004 to test Amber Alert network technology for use in expanding the Emergency Alert System (EAS). The Amber Alert network utilizes a combination of technologies, such as highway messages boards, the Internet, and text messaging, to ensure the swift recovery of abducted children.
Long-Range Fifty Caliber Rifles: Should They Be More Strictly Regulated?
No Description Available.
Security and Freedom Ensured Act (SAFE Act)(H.R. 1526) and Security and Freedom Enhancement Act (SAFE Act)(S. 737): Section by Section Analysis
No Description Available.
Digital Surveillance: The Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act
The Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act (CALEA, P.L. 103- 414, 47 USC 1001-1010), enacted October 25, 1994, is intended to preserve the ability of law enforcement officials to conduct electronic surveillance effectively and efficiently despite the deployment of new digital technologies and wireless services that have altered the character of electronic surveillance. CALEA requires telecommunications carriers to modify their equipment, facilities, and services, wherever reasonably achievable, to ensure that they are able to comply with authorized electronic surveillance actions.
Iraqi Civilian, Police, and Security Forces Casualty Estimates
This report presents various estimates of Iraqi civilian, police, and security forces casualties. The Department of Defense (DOD) regularly updates total U.S. military deaths and wounded statistics from Operation Iraqi Freedom, as reflected in CRS Report RS21578, Iraq: Summary of U.S. Casualties. However, no Iraqi or U.S. government office regularly releases statistics on Iraqi civilian deaths, Iraqi police deaths, or Iraqi security forces deaths. Statistics on these topics are sometimes available through alternative sources, such as nonprofit organizations, or through statements made by officials to the press.
Morocco: Current Issues
This report discusses the current political, social and economical issues in Morocco. In addition the report discuses human rights violations and terrorism.
Privacy: An Abbreviated Outline of Federal Statutes Governing Wiretapping and Electronic Eavesdropping
No Description Available.
Administrative Separations for Misconduct: An Alternative or Companion to Military Courts-Martial
The recent reports of abuse of prisoners held by U.S. military personnel have raised questions about how the armed forces control servicemembers. Congress, under the authorities vested in it by the U.S. Constitution, has enacted procedures for addressing misconduct by servicemembers. One such procedure is an administrative separation under which a member’s continued suitability for service is determined. Administrative separations are non-punitive and can be initiated for a number of reasons, including misconduct or criminal offenses. They may be used in place of or after the servicemember has been subject to a court-martial or nonjudicial punishment. This report provides an overview of administrative separations as an alternative or companion to courts-martial.
Enforcing Immigration Law: The Role of State and Local Law Enforcement
This report examines the role of state and local law enforcement in enforcing immigration law. The discussion is limited to the role of state and local law enforcement in the investigation, arrest, and detention of all immigration violators. The report does not discuss the prosecution, adjudication, or removal of aliens who violate the law. The report opens with a brief discussion of the types of immigration interior enforcement activities that the former Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) pursued and the current immigration activities that are now the focus of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). A discussion of the legal authority that permits state and local law enforcement to enforce immigration law under certain circumstances follows. Current administrative efforts to involve state and local law enforcement in enforcing immigration law as well as selected issues are discussed. The report concludes with a discussion of the pros and cons of such a policy and an analysis of policy options for Congress.
U.S. Public Diplomacy: Background on the 9/11 Commission Recommendations
No Description Available.
U.S. Public Diplomacy: Background on the 9/11 Commission Recommendations
No Description Available.