Congressional Research Service Reports - 15 Matching Results

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Critical Infrastructures: Background, Policy, and Implementation
The nation’s health, wealth, and security rely on the production and distribution of certain goods and services. The array of physical assets, processes and organizations across which these goods and services move are called critical infrastructures (e.g. electricity, the power plants that generate it, and the electric grid upon which it is distributed). Computers and communications, themselves critical infrastructures, are increasingly tying these infrastructures together. This report aims to address the concern that this reliance on computers and computer networks raises the vulnerability of the nation’s critical infrastructures to “cyber” attacks.
Critical Infrastructure: Control Systems and the Terrorist Threat
This report addresses the cyber-vulnerability of critical infrastructure industries which regularly use industrial control systems. Industrial control systems may be vulnerable to infiltration by different routes, including wireless transmission, direct access to control system computers, exploitation of dial-up modems used for maintenance, or through the Internet. This report will specifically discuss the potential for access to industrial control systems through the Internet.
Computer Attack and Cyberterrorism: Vulnerabilities and Policy Issues for Congress
This report provides background information for three types of attacks against computers (cyber-attack, physical attack, and electromagnetic attack), and discusses related vulnerabilities for each type of attack. The report also describes the possible effects of a coordinated cyberattack, or computer network attack (CNA), against U.S. infrastructure computers, along with possible technical capabilities of international terrorists.
Terrorism and Security Issues Facing the Water Infrastructure Sector
No Description Available.
Terrorism and Security Issues Facing the Water Infrastructure Sector
No Description Available.
Terminal Operators and Their Role in U.S. Port and Maritime Security
No Description Available.
The Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States (CFIUS)
The Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States (CFIUS) is an interagency committee that serves the President in overseeing the national security implications of foreign investment in the economy. Since it was established by an Executive Order of President Ford in 1975, the committee has operated in relative obscurity.1 According to a Treasury Department memorandum, the Committee originally was established in order to placate Congress, which had grown concerned over the rapid increase in Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) investments in American portfolio assets (Treasury securities, corporate stocks and bonds), and to respond to concerns of some that much of the OPEC investments were being driven by political, rather than by economic, motives.
Water Resources Development Act (WRDA): Army Corps of Engineers Authorization Issues in the 109th Congress
No Description Available.
Water Resources Development Act (WRDA): Army Corps of Engineers Authorization Issues in the 109th Congress
No Description Available.
Legislative Options for Financing Water Infrastructure
This report addresses several options being considered by Congress to address the financing needs of local communities for wastewater and drinking water infrastructure projects and to decrease or close the gap between available funds and projected needs. Six options that are reflected in current or recent legislative proposals, including budgetary implications, are discussed.
Rural Water Supply and Sewer Systems: Background Information
This report discusses the Safe Drinking Water Act and the Clean Water Act, which impose requirements regarding drinking water quality and wastewater treatment in rural areas. Approximately 27% of the U.S. population lives in areas defined by the Census Bureau as rural. Many rural communities need to complete water and waste disposal projects to improve the public health and environmental conditions of their citizens.
EPA Policies Concerning Integrated Planning and Affordability of Water Infrastructure
This report examines recent initiatives by EPA, an integrated planning policy, and a framework policy for assessing a community's financial capability to meet objectives and requirements of the Clean Water Act (CWA).
Cybersecurity: Critical Infrastructure Authoritative Reports and Resources
This report provides resources for congressional staff researching cybersecurity issues and critical infrastructure.The annotated descriptions of these sources are listed in reverse chronological order with an emphasis on material published in the past several years.The report includes resources and studies from government agencies (federal, state, local, and international), think tanks, academic institutions, news organizations, and other sources. Table 1 contains overview reports and resources, Table 2 lists energy industry resources, Table 3 lists financial industry resources, Table 4 contains healthcare industry resources, Table 5 contains telecommunications and communication industry resources, and Table 6 contains transportation industry resources.
Water Infrastructure Financing: The Water Infrastructure Finance and Innovation Act (WIFIA) Program
This report discusses the Water Infrastructure Finance and Innovation Act which is planning to provide subsidized loans and credit assistance to water infrastructure projects through the EPA.
The Smart Grid: Status and Outlook
This report discusses the effort to build a "smart" electricity grid across the the U.S. which can be run with digital technologies that control most of the major functions of a power plant. The current state of the movement and concerns regarding cyber-security are also discussed.