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Enforcement of the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act: Select Legal Issues
This report discusses the enforcement of the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and various penalties available for violations.
Where Can Corporations Be Sued for Patent Infringement? Part 1
This report is part one of two and discusses patent venue jurisprudence, including the "TC Heartland" opinion, and the impact of the decision on the patent litigation system generally.
What Happens When Five Supreme Court Justices Can't Agree?
This report discusses the Supreme Court case of "Hughes v. United States" where all five justices agreed on the party that should win but they could not agree on why that party should win. The report discusses what justice's opinion, if any should enter future law through case law precedent, similar past cases, and the background of the "Hughes" case.
Iran's Foreign and Defense Policies
This report discusses Iran's foreign and defense policy and various factors influencing its development and goals.
Potential Options for Electric Power Resiliency in the U.S. Virgin Islands
This report explores several alternative electric power system structures for meeting the electricity services and needs of the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI).
Broadband Loan and Grant Programs in the USDA's Rural Utilities Service
This report discusses the U.S. Department of Agruculture's (USDA) broadband loan and grant program in rural utilities areas.
Congressional Membership and Appointment Authority to Advisory Commissions, Boards, and Groups
This report contains a compilation of existing commissions and boards that demonstrates the range of alternative membership-appointment structures. It includes any statutorily created advisory entity (boards, advisory panels, etc.) whose membership scheme mandates the participation of Members of Congress either as potential members or as participants in the process of appointing the membership. For each entity, information on the purpose, duration, appointment structure, and term of appointment is provided. Finally, information on the involvement of Members of Congress in the appointment process is presented in a series of tables.
Work Authorization for H-4 Spouses of H-1B Temporary Workers: Frequently Asked Questions
This report provides answers to frequently asked questions about work authorization for H-4 visa holders (visas for spouses and unmarried children under 21 of H-1B visa holders).
Women in Congress, 1917-2018: Service Dates and Committee Assignments by Member, and Lists by State and Congress
This report provides data on women who have served in Congress from 1917-2018. It includes committee assignments, dates of service, district information, and listings by Congress and state, and (for Representatives) congressional districts of the 327 women who have been elected or appointed to Congress.
Coast Guard Cutter Procurement: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and potential oversight issues for Congress on the Coast Guard's programs for procuring 8 National Security Cutters (NSCs), 25 Offshore Patrol Cutters (OPCs), and 58 Fast Response Cutters (FRCs).
Update of "All Eyes on Allergan: Drug Company's Unprecedented Move Raises Questions for Patent and Drug Law (Part 1)"
This report is an update of a previous report discussing the case of "Allergan Inc. v. Teva Pharmaceuticals USA Inc." which deals with patent law and the rights of brand-name pharmaceutical companies and generic pharmaceutical companies as well as Native American tribes sovereign rights because the St. Regis Mohawk Tribe is a co-plaintiff in the case. The case is currently in the appeals process.
China Naval Modernization: Implications for U.S. Navy Capabilities: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on China's naval modernization effort and its implications for U.S. Navy capabilities. For an overview of the strategic and budgetary context in which China's naval modernization effort and its implications for U.S. Navy capabilities may be considered, see Appendix A.
How Hard Should it Be to Bring a Class Action?
This report discusses the process of bringing a class action suit and the requirements plaintiffs are required to prove before one may be brought.
Oman: Reform, Security, and U.S. Policy
This report discusses Oman's political and governmental structure, economy, foreign policy, and human rights concerns as well as U.S. security assistance and cooperation.
Federal Research and Development (R&D) Funding: Fiscal Year 2019
This report discusses President Trump's budget request for federal research and development funding for FY2019, recent trends in funding levels, and different departments research funding levels.
Coast Guard Polar Icebreaker Program: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on the Coast Guard's program for acquiring new polar icebreakers.
Use of the Capitol Rotunda, Capitol Grounds, and Emancipation Hall: Concurrent Resolutions, 101st to 115th Congress.
This report provides information on the use of the Capitol Rotunda, the Capital Grounds, and Emancipation Hall which require a concurrent resolution from the House and Senate for use at events. Statistics regarding the number and types of uses of these spaces are provided for the 101st Congress through the 115th Congress.
Registered Apprenticeship: Federal Role and Recent Federal Efforts
This report discusses apprenticeship programs and the federal certification process for official apprenticeships as well as recent government activity related to apprenticeship guidelines and funding.
Is Impossibility Preemption Impossible? Federal Drug Law and Preemption of State Tort Claims
This report discusses the potential Supreme Court case of "Merck v. Albrecht". The report concludes with an overview of the "Merck" petition, analyzing the key issues of interest for Congress that the petition raises.
Armed Conflict in Syria: Overview and U.S. Response
This report discusses the ongoing conflict in Syria and U.S. policy regarding the conflict and potential resolutions. It includes information on the recent U.S., French, and British joint missile strike in response to the the use of chemical weapons in Douma, Syria by Syrian government forces.
Rwanda: In Brief
This report describes Rwanda's political and governmental structure, economy, regional security policies, relations with the U.S., and human rights concerns.
D.C. Circuit Court Upholds as Constitutional the Structure of the CFPB: Part 2
This report discusses the decision of the D.C. Circuit Appeals Court which upheld the structural design of the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB). This report is Part II of a two part series and will address some of the separate opinions issued in the case and then highlight certain implications for Congress.
U.S. Farm Commodity Support: An Overview of Selected Programs
This report provides an overview of federal farm commodity support programs administered by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and possible issues for Congress to consider regarding them.
U.S. Trade in Services: Trends and Policy Issues
This report provides background information and analysis on U.S. international trade in services, including the types and volumes of traded services. It analyzes policy issues before the United States, especially relating to negotiating international disciplines on trade in services and the complexities in measuring trade in services. The report also examines emerging issues and current and potential trade agreements, including renegotiation of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), the Trade in Services Agreement (TiSA), and the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (T-TIP).
Net Neutrality: Will the FTC Have Authority Over Broadband Service Providers
This report discusses the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit decision in "FTC v. AT&T Mobility". The implications of this decision on net neutrality are also discussed.
Small Business Mentor-Protégé Programs
This report provides an overview of the various small business mentor-protégé programs of the federal government. As is discussed below, while all these programs are intended to assist small businesses in performing as contractors, subcontractors, or suppliers on federal or federally funded contracts, the programs differ significantly in their scope and operations. Table A-1 in the Appendix provides an overview of key differences among the programs.
The Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) Block Grant: A Primer on TANF Financing and Federal Requirements
This report the Temporary Assistance for Needy Children (TANF) block grant. It provides an overview of TANF financing and rules for state programs, describing federal TANF grants and state funds under a "maintenance-of-effort" (MOE) requirement; how federal TANF and state MOE funds may be used to help achieve the purpose and goals of the TANF block grant; rules that apply when TANF or MOE funds are used to provide "assistance" to needy families with children; rules that apply when TANF or MOE funds are used for benefits and services other than assistance; certain accountability requirements, including requirements that states submit plans and report data to the federal government; and provisions of TANF law not directly related to grants to states, such as competitive grants for promoting healthy marriage and responsible fatherhood, and tribal TANF provisions.
The Peace Corps: Current Issues
This report discuses the Peace Corps functions and funding as well as current issues such as the available funding for Peace Corps expansion, whether volunteers are able to function in a safe and secure environment, and volunteer access to abortion.
Agricultural Conservation: A Guide to Programs
This report provides a listing of federal agricultural conservation assistance programs. Each listing includes a brief description of the program, information on major amendments in the Agricultural Act of 2014 (P.L. 113-79, 2014 farm bill), national scope and availability, states with the greatest participation, the backlog of applications or other measures of continuing interest, program funding authority, FY2018 funding, FY2019 Administration budget request, statutory authority, the authorization expiration date, and a link to the program's website.
Clean Water Rule Challenge Must Begin in Federal District Courts, Supreme Court Holds
This report discusses the Supreme Court's ruling in the case of "National Association of Manufacturers (NAM) v. Department of Defense". The background of the case and implications of the ruling are discussed.
China-U.S. Trade Issues
This report provides background and analysis of U.S.-China commercial ties, including history, trends, issues, and outlook.
Abortion and Family Planning-Related Provisions in U.S. Foreign Assistance Law and Policy
This report details legislation and policies that restrict or place requirements on U.S. funding of abortion or family planning activities abroad. The level and extent of federal funding for these activities is an ongoing and controversial issue in U.S. foreign assistance and has continued to be a point of contention during the 115th Congress.
Health Insurance Premium Tax Credits and Cost-Sharing Subsidies
This report discusses health insurance premium tax credits and cost-sharing subsidies which assist low-income individuals and families in buying health insurance.
Federal Employees' Retirement System: Summary of Recent Trends
This report describes recent trends in the characteristics of annuitants and current employees covered by the Civil Service Retirement System (CSRS) and the Federal Employees' Retirement System (FERS) as well as the financial status of the Civil Service Retirement and Disability Fund (CSRDF).
Cameroon's Anglophone Crisis: Recent Developments and Issues for Congress
This report discusses recent unrest in Cameroon between the French-speaking majority and the English-speaking minority who were historically divided between French and British rule. The Anglophone activists have reported numerous human rights abuses and many of them have been arrested on terrorism charges. Options for Congress to consider concerning foreign aid and diplomatic measures to help bring about an agreement between the two sides are also discussed.
Small Business Administration and Job Creation
This report discusses the Small Business Administration's programs and their impact on job creation. It examines the economic research on net job creation to identify the types of businesses that appear to create the most jobs, examines the possible implications this research might have for Congress and the SBA, and examines the arguments for providing federal assistance to small businesses.
Women in Congress, 1917-2018: Service Dates and Committee Assignments by Member, and Lists by State and Congress
This report provides an overview of all women who have served in Congress and includes committee assignments, dates of service, district information, and listings by Congress and state, and (for Representatives) congressional districts of the 327 women who have been elected or appointed to Congress.
Israel: Background and U.S. Relations in Brief
This report discusses Israel's relations with the U.S. and its neighbors, the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, and the domestic political scene amid allegations of corruption against the Prime Minister.
The Child Tax Credit: Legislative History
This report discusses the legislative history of the child tax credit and the most recent changes to it.
The Joint Select Committee on Budget and Appropriations Process Reform
This report discusses the structure, powers, and funding of the Joint Select Committee on Budget and Appropriations Process Reform and provides an overview of the parliamentary procedures the chambers may use to consider its recommendations.
Trespassing: The Leading Cause of Rail-Related Fatalities
This report discusses trespassing on railroad property and tracks and how it is the leading cause of train accident fatalities. Statistics on rail related fatalities and prevention strategies are discussed.
Artificial Intelligence and National Security
This report discuses research and development of artificial intelligence (AI) applications for the military, their potential uses, and the programs of competing nations such as China and Russia.
Joint Select Committee on Solvency of Multi-employer Pensions Plans: Structure, Procedures, and CRS Experts
This report discusses the structure, powers, and funding of the Joint Select Committee on Solvency of Multiemployer Pension Plans and provides an overview of the parliamentary procedures the chambers may use to consider its work product. The report includes contact information for CRS policy analysts who work on issues related to the structure and policy work of the panel.
Defense Primer: Future Years Defense Program (FYDP)
This report discusses the Future Years Defense Program (FYDP) and its purpose and organization.
Northern Ireland: Current Issues and Ongoing Challenges in the Peace Process
This report discusses the history of the implementation of the 1998 "Good Friday" Peace Agreement in Northern Ireland, ongoing challenges in the peace process, initiatives to further peace, and current issues surrounding the collapse of the devolved government and the refusal to form a coalition by either major party and the Brexit negotiations.
Addressing Sexual Harassment by Modifying the Congressional Accountability Act of 1995: A Look at Key Provisions in H.R. 4822.
This report discusses the Congressional Accountability Act of 1995 (CAA) and proposed reforms to how it handles harassment claims through the bill H.R. 4822. The report highlights and considers some of the major differences between the current process provided under the CAA and the process that would exist if H.R. 4822 were enacted, as well as other changes proposed by the bill that could affect both legislative branch employees and Members of Congress.
Campus-Based Student Financial Aid Programs Under the Higher Education Act
This report describes the Federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant (FSEOG), Federal Work-Study (FWS), and Federal Perkins Loan programs. It also presents historical information on appropriations provided for the programs and the federal student aid that has been made available to students through the programs.
The Veterans Health Administration and Medical Education: In Brief
This report discusses the Veterans Health Administration (VA) program for medical training and its funding.
Should Federal Law Restrict Where a Company May File Bankruptcy?
This report discusses laws and regulations regarding where a company may file for bankruptcy and a recently proposed bill which would restrict the locations where companies could file for bankruptcy.
Abortion: Judicial History and Legislative Response
This report discusses the history of abortion related judicial decisions and legislation and current legislation related to abortion.