Congressional Research Service Reports - 41,115 Matching Results

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Federal Assistance for Wildfire Response and Recovery
This report briefly discusses the options for federal support and assistance for areas affected by wildfire disasters, including the period during wildfires, in the aftermath, and subsequently for preventing a recurrence.
Mexico: Organized Crime and Drug Trafficking Organizations
This report provides background on drug trafficking and organized crime inside Mexico. It identifies the major drug trafficking organizations (DTOs) and examines how the organized crime "landscape" has been significantly altered by fragmentation.
Venezuela: Background and U.S. Relations
This report report provides an overview of the overlapping political, economic, and social crises in Venezuela, followed by an overview of U.S. policy toward Venezuela.
Fiscal Year 2018 Military Construction Authorizations and Appropriations
This report explains the Trump Administration's military construction budget, breaking down the budget authorizations and appropriations by military department.
Debates over Exchange Rates: Overview and Issues for Congress
This report provides information on current debates over exchange rates in the global economy. It offers an overview of how exchange rates work; analyzes specific disagreements and debates; and examines existing frameworks for potentially addressing currency disputes. It also lays out some policy options available to Congress.
Intelligence Community Spending: Trends and Issues
This report examines Intelligence Community (IC) funding over the past several decades, with an emphasis on the period from 2007-2019--the period in which total National Intelligence Program (NIP) and Military Intelligence Program (MIP) spending dollars have been publicly disclosed on an annual basis. Intelligence-related spending (such as the Homeland Security Intelligence Program) that does not fall within the NIP and MIP is outside the scope of this report.
Legislative Actions to Modify the Affordable Care Act in the 111th-115th Congresses
This report summarizes legislative actions taken during the 111th-115th Congresses to modify the health care-related provisions of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) and the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act (HCERA). Since enactment of the ACA and HCERA, lawmakers have repeatedly debated the laws' implementation and considered bills to repeal, defund, or otherwise amend them.
The Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States (CFIUS)
This report discusses the Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States (CFIUS) which is a presidential advisory body consisting of nine cabinet members, two ex officio members, and other members appointed by the President to oversee direct investments by foreign countries in the United States. It discusses the basics of the committee's operations and laws governing their conduct and power, presidential blocks of investment, previous reforms to the original law governing the committee and its actions and current propositions in Congress to further amend the laws regarding the committe.
U.S. Circuit and District Court Nominations During President Trump's First Year in Office: Comparative Analysis with Recent Presidents
This report provides statistics related to the nomination and confirmation of U.S. circuit and district court nominees during the first year of the Trump presidency, as well as during the first year of each of his three immediate predecessors: Presidents Barack Obama, George W. Bush, and Bill Clinton.
Mongolia
This report provides an overview of U.S.-Mongolia relations and the politics and economy of Mongolia.
High Intensity Drug Trafficking Areas (HIDTA) Program
This report provides an overview of the High Intensity Drug Trafficking Areas (HIDTA) program, including how areas are designated as part of a HIDTA, and program coordination and funding. It also examines issues that policymakers may consider as they debate the future of the program: whether the county is still an appropriate unit of inclusion, whether the criteria remain adequate, whether the program is effective, whether its tangential effects can be measured, whether the current bounds on funds are still appropriate, and which federal entity may be best suited to administer the program.
Permitting for Pesticide Discharges into Navigable Waters: Issues and Legislation in the 115th Congress
This report discusses the pesticide general permit (PGP), which is required for discharges of biological pesticides and chemical pesticides that leave a residue in navigable waters. Possible actions from the 115th Congress are also discussed.
Canada-U.S. Relations
This report presents an overview of Canada's political situation, foreign and security policy, and economic and trade policy, focusing particularly on issues that may be relevant to U.S. policymakers.
Supreme Court Appointment Process: President's Selection of a Nominee
This report discusses the process for appointing Supreme Court Justices. Each appointment to the nine-member Court is of consequence because of the enormous judicial power that the Court exercises, separate from, and independent of, the executive and legislative branches.
Navy Ford (CVN-78) Class Aircraft Carrier Program: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and potential oversight issues for Congress on the Gerald R. Ford (CVN-78) class aircraft carrier program. The Navy's proposed FY2019 budget requests a total of $1,598.2 million in procurement funding for the program. Congress's decisions on the CVN-78 program could substantially affect Navy capabilities and funding requirements and the shipbuilding industrial base.
The Purple Heart: Background and Issues for Congress
This report examines the history of the Purple Heart award for military service members and changes in eligibility over time. It also discusses current issues facing Congress -- such as whether traumatic brain injuries or PTSD diagnoses should be grounds for receiving the award, and whether those injured or killed assisting others during terror attacks outside their military duties should be eligible.
National Flood Insurance Program: Selected Issues and Legislation in the 115th Congress
This report discusses legislation and debates regarding the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) during the 115th Congress.
FEMA and SBA Disaster Assistance for Individuals and Households: Application Process, Determinations, and Appeals
This report provides an overview of the Federal Emergency Management Agency's (FEMA's) Individual Assistance (IA) program and the Small Business Administration's (SBA's) Disaster Loan Program. It includes discussions about how declarations put the programs into effect, the application process for both programs, the criteria used by FEMA and the SBA to determine assistance, and the FEMA and SBA appeal processes. The report concludes with policy observations and considerations for Congress.
Egypt: Background and U.S. Relations
This report provides an overview of the key issues for Congress related to Egypt and U.S. foreign aid to Egypt. Topics include the Egyptian government and economy, terrorist groups operating in Egypt's Sinai Peninsula, human rights concerns, and relations with the U.S, including U.S. aid payments.
Navy Columbia (SSBN-826) Class Ballistic Missile Submarine Program: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and potential oversight issues for Congress on the Columbia-class program, a program to design and build a new class of 12 ballistic missile submarines (SSBNs) to replace the Navy's current force of 14 Ohio-class SSBNs.
Efforts to Preserve Economic Benefits of the Iran Nuclear Deal
This report discusses the response of the non-U.S. parties to the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) to the Trump Administration's decision to cease implementing U.S. commitments under the agreement. The other parties, which include the United Kingdom, France, Germany, Russia, China, the European Union (EU) and Iran, opposed the U.S. move and have undertaken intensive negotiations to try to preserve the accord.
Defense Primer: Understanding the Process for Auditing the Department of Defense
This report explains why the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) receives annual audits, how the audits are conducted, limitations of audits, and considerations for Congress.
Trade Deficits and U.S. Trade Policy
This report examines the components of the U.S. trade deficit in terms of the merchandise trade account and the broader current account. It also assesses the relationship between the trade deficit and U.S. free trade agreements, perceived unfair treatment in trading relationships, the trade deficit and U.S. rates of unemployment, and the impact of tariffs on the U.S. trade deficit, as well as raises issues for potential congressional consideration.
Navy Force Structure and Shipbuilding Plans: Background and Issues for Congress
This report presents background information and issues for Congress concerning the Navy's force structure and shipbuilding plans. The current and planned size and composition of the Navy, the rate of Navy ship procurement, and the prospective affordability of the Navy's shipbuilding plans have been oversight matters for the congressional defense committees for many years. The issue for Congress is whether to approve, reject, or modify the Navy's proposed FY2019 shipbuilding program and the Navy's longer-term shipbuilding plans.
The Opioid Epidemic and the Food and Drug Administration: Legal Authorities and Recent Agency Action
This report focuses on the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as a key player in federal efforts to curb the opioid epidemic. It provides an overview of FDA's role in approving new prescription drugs, including challenges of approval and regulation of opioid products; addresses FDA's multifaceted approach in responding, including recent agency action; and concludes with a discussion of selected opioid-related legislation in the 115th Congress.
Ebola: Democratic Republic of Congo
This report discusses an Ebola outbreak in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), first reported to the World Health Organization (WHO) on May 8, 2018. As of June 10, 2018, WHO reported a total of 55 cases, including 28 deaths.
Navy Virginia (SSN-774) Class Attack Submarine Procurement: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on the Virginia-class nuclear-powered attack submarine (SSN) program. Decisions that Congress makes on procurement of Virginia-class boats could substantially affect U.S. Navy capabilities and funding requirements, and the U.S. shipbuilding industrial base.
Cuba: U.S. Policy Overview
This report discusses U.S. policy towards Cuba, including issues of government-to-government engagement, travel and commerce, change in U.S. immigration policy, continued human rights concerns, injuries of U.S. Embassy personnel in Havana, and Congressional action.
The Congressional Review Act: Determining Which "Rules" Must Be Submitted to Congress
This report describes what types of agency actions can be overturned using the Congressional Review Act (CRA) by providing a close examination and discussion of the statutory definition of "rule." It also explains how Members can use the CRA to overturn agency rules that have not been submitted to Congress.
President's Selection of a Nominee for a Supreme Court Vacancy: Overview
This report provides an overview of several issues related to the selection of a Supreme Court nominee by a President for a vacancy on the Court.
Department of State, Foreign Operations and Related Programs: FY2019 Budget and Appropriations
This report outlines the 2019 fiscal year budget request for the U.S. State Department, foreign operations, and related programs such as foreign aid. It discusses information about funding levels requested, major projects for the year, and Congressional actions.
China-U.S. Trade Issues
This report provides background and analysis of U.S.-China commercial ties, including history, trends, issues, and outlook.
Enforcing U.S. Trade Laws: Section 301 and China
This report discusses the Trump Administration's decision to proceed with a Section 301 case against China's intellectual property rights (IPR) policies and their intent to impose 25% ad valorem tariffs on $50 billion worth of Chinese products. It also looks at past use of Section 301 against China.
U.S. Special Operations Forces (SOF): Background and Issues for Congress
This report discusses Special Operations Forces (SOF), which play a significant role in U.S. military operations and, in recent years, have been given greater responsibility for planning and conducting worldwide counterterrorism operations.
Navy DDG-51 and DDG-1000 Destroyer Programs: Background and Issues for Congress
This report presents background information and potential oversight issues for Congress on the Navy's Arleigh Burke (DDG-51) and Zumwalt (DDG-1000) class destroyer programs. The Navy procured DDG-51s from FY1985 through FY2005, and resumed procuring them in FY2010. The three DDG-51s requested for procurement in FY2019 are to be the 80th, 81st, and 82nd ships in the class. The Navy procured three DDG-1000s in FY2007-FY2009 and plans no further procurement of DDG-1000s.
North Korea: Legislative Basis for U.S. Economic Sanctions
This report discusses the economic sanctions the United States imposes on North Korea for activities related to weapons proliferation, destabilizing the region, anti-terrorism, and undemocratic governance.
Violence Against Journalists in Mexico: In Brief
This report discusses Mexico's problem of violence committed against journalists. Topics include press freedom in Mexico compared to other Latin American countries, crimes against journalists, Mexican government efforts to address these crimes, and U.S. policy on the issue.
Oil and Gas Activities Within the National Wildlife Refuge System
This report contains sections on recent developments related to oil and gas wells in the National Wildlife Refuge System (NWRS) and related issues for Congress. The report presents information on the number and location of oil and gas wells, compatibility of oil and gas activities with NWRS purposes, and regulatory mechanisms for the administration of oil and gas activities.
TRICARE Modernization: Eligibility for the Federal Employee Dental and Vision Insurance Program
This report discusses the Federal Employees Dental and Vision Insurance Program (FEDVIP) and the upcoming expansion of eligibility to certain TRICARE beneficiaries. TRICARE is the health care program for uniformed service members, retirees, and their families.
Mexico's 2018 Elections
This report discusses issues surrounding Mexico's 2018 elections -- particularly the presidential election -- including Mexico's political climate, electoral process, presidential candidates, and predicted outcome.
An Overview of U.S. Immigration Laws Regulating the Admission and Exclusion of Aliens at the Border
This report discusses U.S. immigration law as it relates to the Trump Administration's zero tolerance policy to criminally prosecute migrants who unlawfully enter the United States at the southern border; a policy which has led to the separation of children from parents awaiting prosecution for unlawful entry.
The Trump Administration's Reform Plan and Reorganization Recommendations
This report discusses the Trump Administration's "Delivering Government Solutions in the 21st Century: Reform Plan and Reorganization Recommendations" (the Reform Plan). The stated goal of the Reform Plan is to "improve the efficiency, effectiveness, and accountability of agencies."
Private Flood Insurance and the National Flood Insurance Program
This report describes the current role of private insurers in U.S. flood insurance, and discusses barriers to expanding private sector involvement. The report considers potential effects of increased private sector involvement in the U.S. flood market -- both for the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) and for consumers -- and outlines the provisions relevant to private flood insurance in the House and Senate NFIP reauthorization bills.
Iran Sanctions
This report discusses U.S. sanctions against Iran and the 2016 Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) nuclear agreement which led to the lifting of sanctions based on nuclear proliferation in Iran. The bulk of the report outlines the various sanctions against Iran and their current implementation status, international efforts to bring about compliance, and their effects. Recent discussions regarding President's Trump announcement that the U.S. was decertifying the nuclear agreement and the possibility of reinstating certain sanctions are also discussed.
Renewable Energy R&D Funding History: A Comparison with Funding for Nuclear Energy, Fossil Energy, Energy Efficiency, and Electric Systems R&D
This report provides a cumulative history of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funding for renewable energy compared with funding for the other energy technologies--nuclear energy, fossil energy, energy efficiency, and electric systems.
Defense Acquisitions: How and Where DOD Spends Its Contracting Dollars
This report examines how much money the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) obligates on contracts, what DOD is buying, and where that money is being spent. This report also examines the extent to which these data are sufficiently reliable to use as a factor when developing policy or analyzing government operations.
The G-7 Summit in Charlevoix, Canada: Changing U.S. Leadership in Global Forums
This report covers the 44th annual Group of 7 (G-7) summit on June 8-9. Seven of the world's largest advanced economies meet annually to discuss and coordinate economic and foreign policies, with the 2018 agenda focusing on economic growth, gender equality, jobs, and the environment.
Recent Trends in Active-Duty Military Deaths
This report analyzes the circumstances of death for the 15,851 active-duty personnel and mobilized reservists who have died while serving in the U.S. armed forces since 2006.
The Rise and Decline of the Alien Tort Statute
This report explains the original purpose of the Alien Tort Statute (ATS), restrictions placed on the ATS by the Supreme Court, the effect of the recent case Jesner v. Arab Bank, PLC, and the response from Congress.
Iran: U.S. Economic Sanctions and the Authority to Lift Restrictions
This report identifies the legislative bases for sanctions imposed on Iran, and the nature of the authority to waive or lift those restrictions. It includes two tables that present legislation and executive orders that are specific to Iran and its objectionable activities in the areas of terrorism, human rights, and weapons proliferation.