Congressional Research Service Reports - 279 Matching Results

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After Brexit: A Diminished or Enhanced EU?
This report briefly discusses the United Kingdom's (UK's) "Brexit" vote and what it means for the future of the European Union.
Agricultural Biotechnology: The U.S.-EU Dispute
In May 2003, the United States, Canada, and Argentina initiated a formal challenge before the World Trade Organization (WTO) of the European Union’s (EU’s) de facto moratorium on approving new agricultural biotechnology products, in place since 1998. Although the EU effectively lifted the moratorium in May 2004 by approving a genetically engineered (GE) corn variety, the three countries are pursuing the case, in part because a number of EU member states continue to block approved biotech products. Because of delays, the WTO is expected to decide the case by December 2005. The moratorium reportedly cost U.S. corn growers some $300 million in exports to the EU annually. The EU moratorium, U.S. officials contend, threatened other agricultural exports not only to the EU, but also to other parts of the world where the EU approach to regulating agricultural biotechnology is taking hold.
Agricultural Biotechnology: The U.S.-EU Dispute
In May 2003, the United States, Canada, and Argentina initiated a formal challenge before the World Trade Organization (WTO) of the European Union’s (EU’s) de facto moratorium on approving new agricultural biotechnology products, in place since 1998. Although the EU effectively lifted the moratorium in May 2004 by approving a genetically engineered (GE) corn variety, the three countries are pursuing the case, in part because a number of EU member states continue to block approved biotech products. Because of delays, the WTO is expected to decide the case by December 2005. The moratorium reportedly cost U.S. corn growers some $300 million in exports to the EU annually. The EU moratorium, U.S. officials contend, threatened other agricultural exports not only to the EU, but also to other parts of the world where the EU approach to regulating agricultural biotechnology is taking hold.
Agriculture Support Mechanisms in the European Union: A Comparison with the United States
The European Union (EU), comprised of 15 member states (countries), is one of the United States’ chief agricultural trading partners and also a major competitor in world markets. Both heavily support their agricultural sectors, with a large share of such support concentrated on wheat, feed grains, cotton, oilseeds, sugar, dairy, and tobacco. However, the EU provides more extensive support to a broader range of farm and food products. According to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), the EU and United States in 2001 together accounted for nearly two-thirds of all government support to agriculture among the major developed economies. However, EU agricultural spending generally is much higher than in the United States. Information comparing how the U.S. and EU governments support their producers is expected to be of interest to policymakers while negotiations are underway among world trading partners to further reform agricultural trade.
Albania: Country Background Report
This report discusses the economic and political status of Albania in the year 2000, notably focusing on certain important events throughout the 1990s, such as the Kosovo Crisis and the rise to power of the Socialist Party in 1997.
Albania: Current Issues and U.S. Policy
Some two months after Albania held parliamentary elections, a new government was sworn in on September 11, 2005. Democratic Party leader Sali Berisha, whose controversial term as President of Albania ended in 1997 amidst violent civil unrest, returned to power as the new Prime Minister and leads a center-right coalition government. Along with other states in the western Balkan region, Albania seeks membership in NATO and the European Union, but its accession prospects are not certain.
Anti-Terrorism Authority Under the Laws of the United Kingdom and the United States
This report is a comparison of the laws of the United Kingdom and of the United States that govern criminal and intelligence investigations of terrorist activities. Both systems rely upon a series of statutory authorizations: in the case of the United States primarily the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act and the Electronic Communications Privacy Act; in the case of the United Kingdom, the Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act, the Police Act, the Intelligence Services Act. Among other differences, the U.S. procedures rely more heavily upon judicial involvement and supervision, while those of the UK employ other safeguards. The UK procedures afford greater latitude to arrest, detain and supervise suspected terrorists than those available in the United States.
Aviation and the European Union's Emission Trading Scheme
This report looks at how the European Union Emission Trading Scheme's coverage of carbon emission from commercial flights affects air carriers from the United States and other countries.
Aviation and the European Union's Emission Trading Scheme
This report looks at how the European Union Emission Trading Scheme's coverage of carbon emission from commercial flights affects air carriers from the United States and other countries.
Aviation and the European Union's Emission Trading Scheme
This report looks at how the European Union Emission Trading Scheme's coverage of carbon emission from commercial flights affects air carriers from the United States and other countries.
Balkan Cooperation on War Crimes Issues
Full cooperation with ICTY has long been a key prerequisite to advancing the shared goal of closer association with and eventual membership in the European Union and NATO for the western Balkan countries. This policy of conditionality has affected Serbia the most, but also other western Balkan countries to varying degrees.
Balkan Cooperation on War Crimes Issues
Balkan cooperation with the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) in The Hague remains an issues of ongoing U.S. and international concern. Full cooperation with ICTY has long been a key prerequisite to advancing the shared goal of closer association with and eventual membership in the European Union and NATO for the western Balkan countries. This policy of conditionality has affected Serbia the most, but also other western Balkan countries to varying degrees.
The Balkans and Russia
This report discusses relations between Russia and the Balkan countries of southeast Europe. Efforts by Russia to gain influence and hinder the Balkan countries in their relations with the EU through "soft power" and intelligence activities are discussed.
The Baltic States: U.S. Policy Concerns
This report provides background and analysis on the political and economic situations on Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia (commonly collectively referred to as the Baltic states), their foreign policies, and U.S. policy toward them.
Belarus: Background and U.S. Policy Concerns
This report provides an overview of the history of U.S. - Belarus relations. Current issues include U.S. and international attempts to influence Aleksandr Lukashenko, the Belarusian President, toward making the Belarusian government more democratic and open.
Belarus: Background and U.S. Policy Concerns
This report discusses the Belarus: Background and U.S. Policy Concerns.
Belarus: Background and U.S. Policy Concerns
This report provides an overview of the history of U.S.-Belarus relations. Current issues include U.S. and international attempts to influence Aleksandr Lukashenko -- the Belarusian President -- toward making the Belarusian government more democratic and open.
Belarus: Background and U.S. Policy Concerns
This report provides an overview of the history of U.S.A - Belarus relations. The report discusses the political and economic situation in Belarus, the relations with Russia, European Union and NATO.
Belarus: Background and U.S. Policy Concerns
An overview of the history of U.S.A - Belarus relations. Current issues include U.S.A. and international attempts to influence Aleksandr Lukashenko, the Belarusian President, towards making the Belarusian government more democratic and open.
Brexit at a Pivotal Moment
This report discusses the draft withdrawal agreement in the the United Kingdom's (UK's) expected withdrawal from the European Union (EU), known as Brexit. It also summarizes issues for the U.S. Congress to consider in regard to Brexit.
Chemical Regulation in the European Union: Registration, Evaluation, and Authorization of Chemicals
This report discusses a new law, Registration, Evaluation, Authorization, and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH), that the European Union (EU) began to implement On June 1, 2007.
Climate Change and the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS): Looking to 2020
This report looks at new European Union (EU) emissions standards in trade.
Climate Change and the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS): Looking to 2020
This report discusses emissions standards in trade in European Union (EU).
Climate Change: The European Union's Emissions Trading System (EU-ETS)
The European Union’s (EU’s) Emissions Trading System (ETS) is a cornerstone of the EU’s efforts to meet its obligation under the Kyoto Protocol. It covers more than 11,500 energy intensive facilities across the 25 EU member countries, including oil refineries, power plants over 20 megawatts (MW) in capacity, coke ovens, and iron and steel plants, along with cement, glass, lime, brick, ceramics, and pulp and paper installations. Covered entities emit about 45% of the EU’s carbon dioxide emissions. The trading program does not cover emissions of non-CO2 greenhouse gases, which account for about 20% of the EU’s total greenhouse gas emissions. A final consideration for the ETS is its suitability for directing long-term investment toward a low-carbon future — the ultimate goal of any climate change program.
Crisis in Greece: Political Implications
This report briefly discusses the political crisis resulting from what began as a debt crisis in Greece in late 2009. Many analysts believe that this political crisis could represent the most significant setback in over 60 years of European integration.
Crisis in Greece: Political Implications
This report discusses political and economic conditions in Greece. What began as a debt crisis in Greece in late 2009 has evolved into a political crisis that many analysts believe could represent the most significant setback in over 60 years of European integration.
Economic Crisis in Greece
This report briefly discusses the current economic situation in Greece. Questions about whether Greece will stay in the Eurozone have resurfaced, as the government's stalemate with the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and Eurozone creditors has reached a critical point.
Economic Implications of a United Kingdom Exit from the European Union
This report provides an analysis of the possible economic implications for the United States and the global economy of an exit from the European Union (EU) by the United Kingdom (UK), commonly referred to as Brexit. It offers background information on possible implications of the vote to leave the EU, an overview of U.S.-UK trade and investment relations, and various estimates of Brexit's financial implications for the U.S. and global economies.
Efforts to Preserve Economic Benefits of the Iran Nuclear Deal
This report discusses the response of the non-U.S. parties to the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) to the Trump Administration's decision to cease implementing U.S. commitments under the agreement. The other parties, which include the United Kingdom, France, Germany, Russia, China, the European Union (EU) and Iran, opposed the U.S. move and have undertaken intensive negotiations to try to preserve the accord.
Efforts to Preserve Economic Benefits of the Iran Nuclear Deal
This report discusses efforts by the non-U.S. parties to the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA)--the United Kingdom, France, Germany, Russia, China, the European Union (EU) and Iran--to preserve the accord after the United States announced they would cease implementation.
Election in Germany
This report gives a brief overview of the 2017 chancellorship election campaign in Germany where Chancellor Angela Merkel is running for her 4th term in office. The major political parties and issues in the campaign are discussed as well as possible effects on U.S. relations with Germany.
Election in Greece
This report discusses issues leading up to Greece's snap legislative election on September 20, only eight months after the country's last election. Greece continues to struggle with the negative repercussions of a sovereign debt and financial crisis that began in 2009.
Election in Italy
This report discusses the results of the Italian Parliamentary election on March 4, 2018 which ended with no party gaining a majority making a coalition necessary. Populist parties gained a significant number of seats and implications of their rise to power for Italy, the EU, NATO, and the U.S. are discussed.
Enlargement Issues at NATO's Bucharest Summit
This report reviews the process by which candidate states are selected, including a sketch of the responsibilities of Congress and allied governments in final approval or disapproval of Albania and Croatia. The report reviews general political factors for qualification, as well as external issues such as the views of Russia and regional geopolitical considerations. Then follows an analysis of current conditions in the two states nominated to join, as well as in Macedonia. In addition, there is a brief analysis of the debate over the qualifications of Georgia and Ukraine for NATO's Membership Action Plan (MAP), a set of guidelines laid out by the alliance for governments that wish to take the next step of becoming actual candidates. An appendix examines key legislation on enlargement during the past fifteen years. (p. CRS-2).
Estonia: Current Issues and U.S. Policy
This report provides background information on the political and economical situation in Estonia. The report discusses the U.S. - Estonia relations, and Estonia's foreign policy.
The EU-South Korea Free Trade Agreement and Its Implications for the United States
This report is designed to shed some light on the KOREU FTA for Congress.4 It briefly reviews EU-South Korean economic ties and the respective EU and South Korean objectives regarding the KOREU FTA. It then discusses the KOREU FTA in general and examines some of its major provisions in more detail, with special focus on autos and some other manufacturing sectors, agriculture, services, and labor-areas of particular interest to U.S. policymakers and the U.S. business community. The report does not attempt to determine if one FTA is better than the other. Finally, the report analyzes the prospects for the KOREU FTA and the agreement's potential implications for the United States.
The EU-South Korea Free Trade Agreement and Its Implications for the United States
This report discusses the free trade agreement (FTA) between South Korea and the European Union (EU). It looks at various aspects of the South Korea-EU FTA (KOREU FTA) including economic ties, trade strategies, and an overview of the key provisions of the agreement focusing on manufactured goods, agriculture, services, and various other provisions of particular interest to U.S. policymakers and the U.S. business community. The report also gives an analysis of the potential economic imact of the KOREU FTA and potential implications of the agreement for the United States.
EU-U.S. Economic Ties: Framework, Scope, and Magnitude
This report provides background information and analysis of the U.S.-EU economic relationship for members of the 112th Congress as they contemplate the costs and benefits of closer U.S. economic ties with the EU. It examines the economic and political framework of the relationship and the scope and magnitude of the ties based on data from various sources. In addition, the report analyzes the implications these factors have for U.S. economic policy toward the EU.
The European Parliament
The European Parliament (EP) is one of the three key institutions of the European Union (EU), and the only EU institution whose members are directly elected. This report discusses the construction and history of the EP, its role in functions of the EU as well as internationally, various international supports and criticisms of the EP, and the EP's ties with the U.S. Congress.
The European Parliament
The 785-member, directly elected European Parliament (EP) is a key institution of the 27-member European Union (EU). Once limited to being a consultative assembly, the EP has accumulated more power over time. Currently, it plays a role in the EU's legislative and budgeting processes, and exercises general supervision over other EU bodies. Ties between the EP and the U.S. Congress are long-standing, and EPCongressional exchanges are expected to continue in the second session of the 110th Congress.
The European Parliament
Report that discusses the construction and history of the European Parliament (EP), its role in functions of the EU as well as internationally, various international supports and criticisms of the EP, and the EP's ties with the U.S. Congress.
The European Parliament
The European Parliament (EP) is one of the three key institutions of the European Union (EU), and the only EU institution whose members are directly elected. This report discusses the construction and history of the EP, its role in functions of the EU as well as internationally, various international supports and criticisms of the EP, and the EP's ties with the U.S. Congress.
European Security, Islamist Terrorism, and Returning Fighters
This report discusses European security after the terrorist attacks in Paris. French President François Hollande attributed the attacks to the Islamic State terrorist organization (which subsequently claimed responsibility), and asserted that France's response would be "merciless."
The European Union: Current Challenges and Future Prospects
This report provides a brief history of the European Union (EU) and the major challenges currently confronting the EU as an institution. It also discusses the potential implications both for the EU itself and for U.S.-EU relations.
European Union Englargement
The European Union (EU) views the enlargement process as a historic opportunity to promote stability and prosperity in Europe. Although the EU maintains that the enlargement door remains open, "enlargement fatigue" has become a serious issue in Europe and some experts believe that EU enlargement may be reaching its limits. The status of EU enlargement is one of many transatlantic issues likely to be of interest to the second session of the 110th Congress. This report lists the various nations admitted to the European Union within the past several years and analyzes the enlargement issue in general.
European Union Enlargement
This report discusses the status of European Union (EU) enlargement and its implications for both the EU itself and U.S.-EU relations. It includes a history of the European Union, the process of enlargement, overviews of current EU candidates, prospects for future enlargements, and U.S. perspectives.
European Union Enlargement
The European Union (EU) has long viewed the enlargement process as an extraordinary opportunity to promote political stability and economic prosperity in Europe. U.S. Administrations and many Members of Congress have long backed EU enlargement, believing that it serves U.S. interests by advancing democracy and economic prosperity throughout the European continent. Some U.S. officials are concerned that "enlargement fatigue" as well as the EU's ongoing financial crisis could hinder EU expansion. The status of EU enlargement and its implications for both the EU itself and U.S.-EU relations may be of interest to the second session of the 112th Congress.
European Union Enlargement: A Status Report on Turkey's Accession Negotiations
This report provides a brief overview of the European Union's (EU) accession process; Turkey's path to EU membership; the impact of the Cyprus problem; and a review of the United States' interest in Turkey's future in the European Union.
European Union Enlargement: A Status Report on Turkey's Accession Negotiations
This report provides a brief overview of the European Union's (EU) accession process; Turkey's path to EU membership; the impact of the Cyprus problem; and a review of the United States' interest in Turkey's future in the European Union.
European Union Enlargement: A Status Report on Turkey's Accession Negotiations
This report provides a brief overview of the European Union's (EU) accession process, Turkey's path to EU membership, and the impact of the Cyprus problem.