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Critical Infrastructure Information Disclosure and Homeland Security

Description: This report discusses the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) that was passed to ensure by statute citizen access to government information. Nine categories of information may be exempted from disclosure. Three of the nine exemptions provide possible protection against the release of critical infrastructure information: exemption 1 (national security information); exemption 3 (information exempted by statute); and exemption 4 (confidential business information). Congress has considered several proposals to exempt critical infrastructure information from the FOIA.
Date: January 29, 2003
Creator: Moteff, John D. & Stevens, Gina Marie
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Critical Infrastructures: What Makes an Infrastructure Critical?

Description: A fluid definition of what constitutes a critical infrastructure could complicate policymaking and actions. At the very least, a growing list of infrastructures in need of protection will require the federal government to prioritize its efforts. Essentially the federal government will have to try to minimize the impact on the nation’s critical infrastructure of any future terrorist attack, taking into account what those impacts might be and the likelihood of their occurring.
Date: January 29, 2003
Creator: Moteff, John D.; Copeland, Claudia & Fischer, John W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Economic and Revenue Effects of Permanent and Temporary Capital Gains Tax Cuts

Description: Recent proposals have been made to enact either a temporary or a permanent capital gains tax cut. The former would probably gain revenue in the first 2 years but lose that revenue and more, most likely within the following 3 years. H.R. 3090, passed by the House, would lower the top tax rate from 20% to 18% for assets held at least a year. The Senate Finance Committee version of H.R. 3090, does not reduce capital gains taxes. A capital gains tax cut appears the least likely of any permanent tax cut to stimulate the economy in the short run; a temporary capital gains tax cut is unlikely to provide any stimulus. Permanently lower capital gains taxes can contribute to economic efficiency in some ways and detract from it in others. Capital gains tax cuts would favor high income individuals, with about 80% of the benefit going to the top 2% of taxpayers.
Date: January 29, 2003
Creator: Gravelle, Jane G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Economic Issues Surrounding the Estate and Gift Tax: A Brief Summary

Description: Supporters of the estate and gift tax argue that it provides progressivity in the federal tax system, provides a backstop to the individual income tax and appropriately targets assets that are bestowed on heirs rather than assets earned through their hard work and effort. However, progressivity can be obtained through the income tax and the estate and gift tax is an imperfect backstop to the income tax. Critics argue that the tax discourages savings, harms small businesses and farms, taxes resources already subject to income taxes, and adds to the complexity of the tax system.
Date: January 29, 2003
Creator: Gravelle, Jane G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Enron and Stock Analyst Objectivity

Description: Stock analysts provide research on companies and make recommendations on their stocks. When analysts are employed by brokerage firms and provide information for the firms’ retail and institutional clients, they are called sell-side analysts. Analysts who work specifically for institutional investors like mutual and pension funds are known as buy-side analysts. Because of their widespread presence in the national media, sell-side analysts’ recommendations have become part of the public domain and they can have significant influence on stock prices. This report examines the performance of the stock analysts in the Enron case.
Date: January 29, 2003
Creator: Shorter, Gary
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Federal Estate, Gift, and Generation-Skipping Taxes: A Description of Current Law

Description: This report contains an explanation of the major provisions of the Federal estate, gift, and generation-skipping transfer taxes. The discussion divides the Federal estate tax into three components: the gross estate, deductions from the gross estate, and computation of the tax, including allowable tax credits.
Date: January 29, 2003
Creator: Luckey, John R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Federal Estate, Gift, and Generation-skipping Taxes: A Description of Current Law

Description: This report contains an explanation of the major provisions of the Federal estate, gift, and generation-skipping transfer taxes. The discussion divides the Federal estate tax into three components: the gross estate, deductions from the gross estate, and computation of the tax, including allowable tax credits.
Date: January 29, 2003
Creator: Luckey, John R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Value-Added Tax Contrasted with a National Sales Tax

Description: Proposals to replace all or part of the income tax, proposals for national health care, and a proposal to finance America’s war effort have sparked congressional interest in the possibility of a broad-based consumption tax as a new source of revenue. A value-added tax (VAT) or a national sales tax (NST) have been frequently discussed as possible new tax sources. Both the VAT and the NST are taxes on the consumption of goods and services and are conceptually similar. Yet, these taxes also have significant differences. This issue brief discusses some of the potential policy implications associated with these differences.
Date: January 29, 2003
Creator: Bickley, James M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Appropriations for FY2003: Commerce, Justice, and State, the Judiciary, and Related Agencies

Description: Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement information provided by the House and Senate Commerce, Justice, State Appropriations Subcommittees.
Date: April 29, 2003
Creator: Epstein, Susan B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Compensatory Time vs. Cash Wages: Amending the Fair Labor Standards Act?

Description: In the 108th Congress, two work hours flexibility bills have been introduced: S. 317 by Senator Gregg and H.R. 1119 by Representative Biggert. Both bills deal with a compensatory time off option (comp time) — though the Gregg proposal is somewhat broader, projecting other changes in the overtime provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) as well. This report is limited to consideration of the issue of comp time.
Date: April 29, 2003
Creator: Whittaker, William G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Environmental Protection Agency's FY2003 Budget

Description: In the 107th Congress, S. 2797 (S.Rept. 107-222) would have provided $8.30 billion for EPA in FY2003. H.R. 5605 (H.Rept. 107- 740) would have provide $8.20 billion. Both bills would restore much of the water infrastructure funding but there was no final action by the end of Congress. Continuing resolutions funded at the same level as in FY2002. In the 108th Congress, P.L. 108-7 (H.J.Res. 2) provides EPA with $8.08 billion for FY2003.
Date: April 29, 2003
Creator: Lee, Martin R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department