Congressional Research Service Reports - 3,317 Matching Results

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Afghanistan: Narcotics and U.S. Policy

Description: This report provides current statistical information, profiles the Afghanistan narcotics trade's participants, explores linkages between narcotics, insecurity, and corruption, and reviews U.S. and international policy responses since late 2001. The report also considers ongoing policy debates regarding the counternarcotics role of coalition military forces, poppy eradication, alternative livelihoods, and funding issues for Congress.
Date: December 10, 2006
Creator: Blanchard, Christopher M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cuba: Issues for the 109th Congress

Description: This report discusses U.S.-Cuba relations since the early 1960s. There are several schools of thought on how to achieve the objective of bringing democracy and respect for human rights to Cuba: some advocate maximum pressure on Cuba until reforms are enacted; others argue for lifting some U.S. sanctions judged to be hurting the Cuban people; and still others call for a swift normalization of U.S.-Cuban relations.
Date: June 23, 2006
Creator: Sullivan, Mark P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Effects on U.S. Farm Workers of an Agricultural Guest Worker Program

Description: This report discusses the debate concerning an agricultural guest worker program and the impact an agricultural guest worker program might have on U.S. workers. Guest worker programs are meant to assure employers (e.g., fruit, vegetable, and horticultural specialty growers) of an adequate supply of labor when and where it is needed while not adding permanent residents to the U.S. population. They include mechanisms, such as the H-2A program's labor certification process, intended to avoid adversely affecting the wages and working conditions of similarly employed U.S. workers.
Date: March 9, 2006
Creator: Levine, Linda
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Congressional Appropriations Process: An Introduction

Description: This report discusses the following aspects of the congressional appropriations process: the annual appropriations cycle; types of appropriations measures; spending ceilings for appropriations associated with the annual budget resolution; and the relationship between authorization and appropriation measures.
Date: September 8, 2006
Creator: Streeter, Sandy
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Open Ocean Aquaculture

Description: This report discusses open ocean aquaculture, which is defined as the rearing of marine organisms under controlled conditions in exposed, high-energy ocean environments beyond significant coastal influence, is one possible option for meeting increasing consumer demand for marine products and offering new and alternative employment opportunities.
Date: March 28, 2006
Creator: Borgatti, Rachel & Buck, Eugene H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Critical Infrastructures: Background, Policy, and Implementation

Description: This report discusses in detail the evolution of a national critical infrastructure policy and the institutional structures established to implement it. The report highlights three issues of Congressional concern: allocating resources based on risk; information sharing; and, regulation.
Date: April 18, 2006
Creator: Moteff, John D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cuba: Issues for the 109th Congress

Description: This report discusses U.S.-Cuba relations since the early 1960s. There are several schools of thought on how to achieve the objective of bringing democracy and respect for human rights to Cuba: some advocate maximum pressure on Cuba until reforms are enacted; others argue for lifting some U.S. sanctions judged to be hurting the Cuban people; and still others call for a swift normalization of U.S.-Cuban relations.
Date: December 19, 2006
Creator: Sullivan, Mark P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Clean Water Act Section 401: Background and Issues

Description: Section 401 of the Clean Water Act requires that an applicant for a federal license or permit provide a certification that any discharges from the facility will comply with the Act, including water quality standard requirements. Disputes have arisen over the states' exercise of authority under Section 401. Until recently, much of the debate over the Section 401 certification issue has been between states and hydropower interests. A 1994 Supreme Court decision which upheld the states' authority in this area dismayed development and hydroelectric power interest groups. The Court revisited these issues in a 2006 ruling that unanimously upheld the states' authority to condition hydropower licenses. The dispute between states and industry groups about Section 401 authority has been a legislative issue on several occasions, but Congress has not responded by modifying the provision's scope. In addition, there has been interest in clarifying whether Section 401 certification applies to nonpoint source discharges, such as rainfall runoff, as well as point source discharges from pipes or ditches.
Date: October 5, 2006
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Clean Air Act Issues in the 109th Congress

Description: The courts and the executive branch face major decisions on clean air issues in 2006, with Congress more likely playing an oversight role. One focus is EPA's Jan. 17 2006 proposal to strengthen air quality standards for fine particles, which are estimated to cause tens of thousands of premature deaths annually. Whether the proposal is supported by the available science and what impact its implementation would have likely issues of concern. Other issues of continuing interest are EPA's 2005 decisions limiting interstate transport of air pollution and establishing cap-and-trade systems for emissions from coal-fired power plants, and the agency's proposed changes to New Source Review.
Date: June 15, 2006
Creator: McCarthy, James E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Clean Air Act Issues in the 109th Congress

Description: The courts and the executive branch face major decisions on clean air issues in 2006, with Congress more likely playing an oversight role. One focus is EPA's Jan. 17 2006 proposal to strengthen air quality standards for fine particles, which are estimated to cause tens of thousands of premature deaths annually. Whether the proposal is supported by the available science and what impact its implementation would have likely issues of concern. Other issues of continuing interest are EPA's 2005 decisions limiting interstate transport of air pollution and establishing cap-and-trade systems for emissions from coal-fired power plants, and the agency's proposed changes to New Source Review.
Date: May 3, 2006
Creator: McCarthy, James E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

National Emergency Powers

Description: This report the National Emergencies Act (50 U.S.C. 1601-1651) that eliminated or modified some statutory grants of emergency authority, required the President to declare formally the existence of a national emergency and to specify what statutory authority, activated by the declaration, would be used, and provided Congress a means to countermand the President's declaration and the activated authority being sought.
Date: May 1, 2006
Creator: Relyea, Harold C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Defense Authorization and Appropriation Bills: FY1970-FY2006

Description: This report is a research aid, which lists the DOD authorization bills (Table 1) and appropriations bills (Table 2). This report includes all the pertinent information on the passage of these bills through the legislative process: bill numbers, report numbers, dates reported and passed, recorded vote numbers and vote tallies, dates of passage of the conference reports with their numbers and votes, vetoes, substitutions, dates of final passage, and public law numbers. Table 3 shows real growth or decline in national defense funding for FY1940-FY2009. Table 4 gives a more detailed picture of both regular and supplemental defense appropriations from the 103rd Congress to the present (FY1993-FY2005). Table 5 shows the President’s DOD appropriations budget requests for FY1950-FY2005 vs. final amount enacted.
Date: April 21, 2006
Creator: Coipuram, Thomas, Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia: Political Developments and Implications for U.S. Interests

Description: The United States recognized the independence of all the former Soviet republics by the end of 1991, including the South Caucasus states of Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia. The United States has fostered these states' ties with the West in part to end the dependence of these states on Russia for trade, security, and other relations. The FREEDOM Support Act of 1992 provides authorization for assistance to the Eurasian states for humanitarian needs, democratization, and other purposes. In the aftermath of the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on the United States, the Administration appealed for a national security waiver of the prohibition on aid to Azerbaijan, in consideration of Azerbaijan's assistance to the international coalition to combat terrorism. Azerbaijani and Georgian troops participate in stabilization efforts in Afghanistan and Iraq, and Armenian personnel serve in Iraq.
Date: May 9, 2006
Creator: Nichol, Jim
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department